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1.  Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization in 190 Korean Patients with Developmental Delay and/or Intellectual Disability: A Single Tertiary Care University Center Study 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(6):1463-1470.
Purpose
This study analyzed and evaluated the demographic, clinical, and cytogenetic data [G-banded karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH)] of patients with unexplained developmental delay or intellectual disability at a single Korean institution.
Materials and Methods
We collected clinical and cytogenetic data based on retrospective charts at Ajou University Medical Center, Suwon, Korea from April 2008 to March 2012.
Results
A total of 190 patients were identified. Mean age was 5.1±1.87 years. Array CGH yielded abnormal results in 26 of 190 patients (13.7%). Copy number losses were about two-fold more frequent than gains. A total of 61.5% of all patients had copy number losses. The most common deletion disorders included 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 15q11.2q12 deletion and 18q deletion syndrome. Copy number gains were identified in 34.6% of patients, and common diseases among these included Potocki-Lupski syndrome, 15q11-13 duplication syndrome and duplication 22q. Abnormal karyotype with normal array CGH results was exhibited in 2.6% of patients; theses included balanced translocation (n=2), inversion (n=2) and low-level mosaicism (n=1). Facial abnormalities (p<0.001) and failure to thrive were (p<0.001) also more frequent in the group of patients with abnormal CGH findings.
Conclusion
Array CGH is a useful diagnostic tool in clinical settings in patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability combined with facial abnormalities or failure to thrive.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.6.1463
PMCID: PMC3809862  PMID: 24142652
Array CGH; copy number variations; developmental delay; intellectual disability
2.  Reciprocal Deletion and Duplication of 17p11.2-11.2: Korean Patients with Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(12):1586-1590.
Deletion and duplication of the -3.7-Mb region in 17p11.2 result in two reciprocal syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Smith-Magenis syndrome is a well-known developmental disorder. Potocki-Lupski syndrome has recently been recognized as a microduplication syndrome that is a reciprocal disease of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this paper, we report on the clinical and cytogenetic features of two Korean patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Patient 1 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) was a 2.9-yr-old boy who showed mild dysmorphic features, aggressive behavioral problems, and developmental delay. Patient 2 (Potocki-Lupski syndrome), a 17-yr-old boy, had only intellectual disabilities and language developmental delay. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and found a 2.6 Mb-sized deletion and a reciprocal 2.1 Mb-sized duplication involving the 17p11.2. These regions overlapped in a 2.1 Mb size containing 11 common genes, including RAI1 and SREBF.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.12.1586
PMCID: PMC3524443  PMID: 23255863
Array-CGH; 17p11.2; Deletion; Duplication; Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS); Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS)
3.  The First Korean Patient with Potocki-Shaffer Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Multiple Exostoses 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2015;30(2):214-217.
Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS, OMIM #601224) is a rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of genes located on the 11p11.2p12. Affected individuals have a number of characteristic features including multiple exostoses, biparietal foramina, abnormalities of genitourinary system, hypotonia, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. We report here on the first Korean case of an 8-yr-old boy with PSS diagnosed by high resolution microarray. Initial evaluation was done at age 6 months because of a history of developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic face. Coronal craniosynostosis and enlarged parietal foramina were found on skull radiographs. At age 6 yr, he had severe global developmental delay. Multiple exostoses of long bones were detected during a radiological check-up. Based on the clinical and radiological features, PSS was highly suspected. Subsequently, chromosomal microarray analysis identified an 8.6 Mb deletion at 11p11.2 [arr 11p12p11.2 (Chr11:39,204,770-47,791,278)×1]. The patient continued rehabilitation therapy for profound developmental delay. The progression of multiple exostosis has being monitored. This case confirms and extends data on the genetic basis of PSS. In clinical and radiologic aspect, a patient with multiple exostoses accompanying with syndromic features, including craniofacial abnormalities and mental retardation, the diagnosis of PSS should be considered.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.2.214
PMCID: PMC4310950  PMID: 25653495
Potocki-Shaffer Syndrome; Chromosomal Microarray; Multiple Exostosis; Parietal Foramina
4.  TAGLN expression is upregulated in NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors by hypomethylation in its promoter and subpromoter regions 
Oncology Reports  2014;32(4):1347-1354.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) caused by NF1 gene mutation is a commonly inherited autosomal dominant disorder. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), a type of aggressive sarcoma, are a major cause of mortality in NF1 patients. The malignant transformation of benign plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) to MPNSTs is a marked peculiarity in NF1 patients, yet the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We found that an actin-associated protein transgelin (SM22) was highly expressed in NF1-deficient MPNST tissues compared to NF1-deficient PN tissues using immunohistological staining and primary cultured MPNST cells in western blot analysis. We further found that this transgelin upregulation was caused by increased transcriptional expression of the TAGLN gene encoding transgelin. Comparison of DNA methylation values in the promoter and subpromoter regions of the TAGLN gene in three types of NF1-deficient primary-cultured cells, derived from an NF1 patient’s normal phenotype, a benign PN and MPNST tissues, revealed that the TAGLN gene was hypomethylated in the MPNST cells. Next, to determine the functional role of transgelin in MPNST pathogenesis, we manipulated the TAGLN gene expression and investigated the alteration of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the normal-phenotypic and malignant tumor cells. The downregulation of TAGLN expression in NF1-deficient MPNST tumor cells through the treatment of the small interfering RNA resulted in a decrease in the RAS activation (GTP-RAS) and the downstream ERK1/2 activation (phosphorylated ERK1/2), while the overexpression of TAGLN in normal-phenotypic NF1-deficient cells caused an increase in RAS and ERK1/2 activation. These results indicate that upregulation of transgelin caused by hypomethylation of the TAGLN gene is closely involved in tumor progression in NF1.
doi:10.3892/or.2014.3379
PMCID: PMC4148385  PMID: 25109740
neurofibromatosis type 1; malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; transgelin; TAGLN gene; epigenetics; DNA methylation
5.  An overview of Korean patients with mucopolysaccharidosis and collaboration through the Asia Pacific MPS Network 
Summary
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a constellation of disorders characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in tissues and organs. This accumulation results in the deterioration and degeneration of multiple organs. This paper describes the general distribution of types of MPS in patients, their clinical characteristics and genotypes, the development of animal studies and preclinical studies, enzyme replacement therapy in South Korea, and the development of idursulfase beta and clinical trials on idursulfase beta in South Korea. In addition, this paper discusses academic collaboration among specialists in MPS care in the Asia-Pacific region, which includes Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and South Korea, through an organization called the Asia-Pacific MPS Network (APMN). The Asia-Pacific MPS Registry, an electronic remote data entry system, has been developed by key doctors in the APMN. Rare diseases require international cooperation and collaboration to elucidate their mechanisms and carry out clinical trials; therefore, an organization such as the APMN is required. Furthermore, international collaboration among Asian countries and countries around the world will be of utmost importance in the future.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2014.01013
PMCID: PMC4214241  PMID: 25364648
Mucopolysaccharidosis; Hunter syndrome; enzyme replacement therapy
6.  Impact of Enzyme Replacement Therapy on Linear Growth in Korean Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (Hunter Syndrome) 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(2):254-260.
Hunter syndrome (or mucopolysaccharidosis type II [MPS II]) arises because of a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Short stature is a prominent and consistent feature in MPS II. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase®) or idursulfase beta (Hunterase®) have been developed for these patients. The effect of ERT on the growth of Korean patients with Hunter syndrome was evaluated at a single center. This study comprised 32 patients, who had received ERT for at least 2 yr; they were divided into three groups according to their ages at the start of ERT: group 1 (<6 yr, n=14), group 2 (6-10 yr, n=11), and group 3 (10-20 yr, n=7). The patients showed marked growth retardation as they got older. ERT may have less effect on the growth of patients with the severe form of Hunter syndrome. The height z-scores in groups 2 and 3 revealed a significant change (the estimated slopes before and after the treatment were -0.047 and -0.007, respectively: difference in the slope, 0.04; P<0.001). Growth in response to ERT could be an important treatment outcome or an endpoint for future studies.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.2.254
PMCID: PMC3924006  PMID: 24550654
Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter Syndrome; Enzyme Replacement Therapy; Growth; Elaprase; Hunterase
7.  An Unusual Presentation of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Familial Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(11):1682-1686.
A 21-year-old man with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) displayed short and clubbed fingers and marked eyebrow, which are typical of Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome (HCS). Laboratory findings confirmed type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). After conservative care with hydration and insulin supply, metabolic impairment was improved. Examinations of bone and metabolism revealed osteoporosis and craniofacial abnormalities. The mutation (c.6443T>G) of the NOTCH2 gene was found. The patient was diagnosed with HCS and DM. There may be a relationship between HCS and DM, with development of pancreatic symptoms related to the NOTCH2 gene mutation.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.11.1682
PMCID: PMC3835515  PMID: 24265536
Diabetic Ketoacidosis; Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome
10.  A novel MLL2 gene mutation in a Korean patient with Kabuki syndrome 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2013;56(8):355-358.
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disease with a distinctive dysmorphic face, intellectual disability, and multiple congenital abnormalities. KS is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. As the primary cause of KS, MLL2 mutations have been identified in 56-76% of affected individuals who have been tested, suggesting that there may be additional genes associated with KS. Recently, a few KS individuals have been found to have de novo partial or complete deletions of an X chromosome gene, KDM6A, which encodes a histone demethylase that interacts with MLL2. Nevertheless, mutations in MLL2 are the major cause of KS. Although there are a few reports of KS patients in Korea, none of these had been confirmed by genetic analysis. Here, we report a case of a Korean patient with clinical features of KS. Using direct sequencing, we identified a frameshift heterozygous mutation for MLL2: (c.5256_5257delGA;p.Lys1753Alafs*34). Clinically, the patient presented with typical facial features, and diagnosis of KS was based on the diagnostic criteria. While KS is a rare disease, other malformations that overlap with those found in individuals with KS are common. Hence, the diagnosis of KS by mutational analysis can be a valuable method for patients with KS-like syndromes. Furthermore, in the near future, other genes could be identified in patients with KS without a detectable MLL2 mutation.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.8.355
PMCID: PMC3764261  PMID: 24019847
Kabuki syndrome; MLL2 mutation; KDM6; KS-associated genes
11.  Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type VI with Severe Bony Deformities Caused by Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SERPINF1 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(7):1107-1110.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by bone fragility, frequent fractures, and low bone mass. Dominantly inherited COL1A1 or COL1A2 mutations appear to be causative in the majority of OI types, but rare recessively inherited genes have also been reported. Recently, SERPINF1 has been reported as another causative gene in OI type VI. To date, only eight SERPINF1 mutations have been reported and all are homozygous. Our patient showed no abnormalities at birth, frequent fractures, osteopenia, and poor response on pamidronate therapy. At the time of her most recent evaluation, she was 8 yr old, and could not walk independently due to frequent lower-extremity fractures, resulting in severe deformity. No clinical signs were seen of hearing impairment, blue sclera, or dentinogenesis imperfecta. In this study, we describe the clinical and radiological findings of one Korean patient with novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.77dupC and c.421dupC) of SERPINF1.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.7.1107
PMCID: PMC3708087  PMID: 23853499
Osteogenesis Imperfecta; Osteogenesis Imperfect Type VI; SERPINF1; Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor
12.  A Case of CATCH22 Syndrome Diagnosed in Postmenopausal Woman 
Journal of Bone Metabolism  2013;20(1):57-60.
CATCH 22 Syndrome is caused by chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion, characterized by developmental abnormalities of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches. It has a prevalence estimated at 1:3,000-1:9,000. Most deletions occurs sporadic, but autosomal dominant inheritance observed in 6-10% of cases. CATCH22 often diagnosed due to hypocalcemia during neonatal period or decreased immunity or facial defect, so it is very rare being diagnosed CATCH22 in adulthood. We report a 57 year old female who referred to mental change due to hypocalcemia and is diagnosed CATCH22. She was presented with hypoparathyroidism, single kidney due to renal agenesis, and mild facial defect. Our patient responded well to calcium and vitamin D treatment and she is on follow-up in outpatient clinic.
doi:10.11005/jbm.2013.20.1.57
PMCID: PMC3780829  PMID: 24524058
Hypocalcemia; Hypoparathyroidism; DiGeorge Syndrome
13.  Phase I/II clinical trial of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase beta in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter Syndrome) 
Background
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). In affected patients, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulates in the lysosomes of many organs and tissues contributing to the pathology associated with MPS II. The objective of this phase I/II clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human iduronate-2-sulfatase (idursulfase beta, Hunterase®) in the treatment of MPS II.
Methods
Thirty-one MPS II patients between 6 and 35 years of age were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, active comparator-controlled phase I/II trial for 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to active comparator infusions (N=11), 0.5 mg/kg idursulfase beta infusions (N=10), or 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase beta infusions (N=10). The primary efficacy variable was the level of urinary GAG excretion. The secondary variables were changes in the distance walked in 6 minutes (6-minute walk test, 6MWT), echocardiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and joint mobility.
Results
Patients in all three groups exhibited reduction in urine GAG and this reduced GAG level was maintained for 24 weeks. Urine GAG was also significantly reduced in the 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase beta groups when compared to the active comparator group (P = 0.043, 0.002, respectively). Changes in 6MWT were significantly greater in the 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase groups than in the active comparator group (p= 0.003, 0.015, respectively). Both idursulfase beta infusions were generally safe and well tolerated, and elicited no serious adverse drug reactions. The most frequent adverse events were urticaria and skin rash, which were easily controlled with administration of antihistamines.
Conclusions
This study indicates that idursulfase beta generates clinically significant reduction of urinary GAG, improvements in endurance as measured by 6MWT, and it has an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of MPS II.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01301898
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-8-42
PMCID: PMC3614543  PMID: 23497636
Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter syndrome; ERT; Recombinant iduornate-2-sulfatase; Idursulfase beta
15.  Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(12):481-486.
Purpose
Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups.
Methods
The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP), pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS), weight standard deviation score (WSDS), and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS) of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic.
Results
The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%), premature thelarche (17%), true PP (15%), and pseudo PP (1%). Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion
The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.12.481
PMCID: PMC3534162  PMID: 23300504
Precocious puberty; Puberty; Premature thelarche; Body mass index; Sexual maturation
16.  Clinical, radiologic, and genetic features of Korean patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(11):430-437.
Purpose
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) deficiency. Only a few MPS IVA cases have been reported in the Korean literature; there is a paucity of research about clinical or radiologic findings for this disorder. Therefore, we studied clinical findings, radiological features, and genetic data of Korean MPS IVA patients for determining factors that may allow early diagnosis and that may thus improve the patients' quality of life.
Method
MPS IVA was confirmed via assay for enzymatic activity of leukocytes in 10 patients. The GALNS gene was analyzed. Patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed for obtaining clinical features and evaluated for radiological skeletal surveys, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and ophthalmologic test results.
Result
Nine patients had severe clinical phenotype, and 1 had an intermediate phenotype, on the basis of clinical phenotype criteria. Radiologic findings indicated skeletal abnormalities in all patients, especially in the hips and extremities. Eight patients had an odontoid hypoplasia, and 1 showed mild atlantoaxial subluxation and cord myelopathy. Genetic analysis indicated 10 different GALNS mutations. Two mutations, c.451C>A and c.1000C>T, account for 37.5% (6/16) and 25% (4/16) of all mutations in this samples, respectively.
Conclusion
An understanding of the clinical and radiological features involved in MPS IVA may allow early diagnosis of MPS IVA. Adequate evaluations and therapy in the early stages may improve the quality of life of patients suffering from skeletal abnormalities and may reduce life-threatening effects of atlantoaxial subluxation.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.11.430
PMCID: PMC3510273  PMID: 23227063
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA; GALNS; Atlantoaxial subluxation; Morquio A syndrome
17.  LIN28B polymorphisms are associated with central precocious puberty and early puberty in girls 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(10):388-392.
Purpose
Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within LIN28B have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP) or early puberty (EP). This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP.
Methods
Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77 and 109 girls that fulfilled the criteria for PP and EP, respectively. The controls in this study were 144 healthy volunteers between 20 and 30 years of age. The haplotypes were reconstructed using 11 SNPs of LIN28B, and haplotype association analysis was performed. The haplotype frequencies were compared. Differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the haplotype dosage.
Results
Eleven SNPs in LIN28B were all located in a block that was in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype could be reconstructed using 2 representative SNPs, rs4946651 and rs369065. The AC haplotype was less frequently observed in the PP group than in the controls (0.069 vs. 0.144, P=0.010). The trend that girls with non-AC haplotypes tended to have earlier puberty onset (P=0.037) was illustrated even in the EP+PP patient group by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Conclusion
The results of the present study showed that non-AC haplotypes of LIN28B had a significant association with PP in girls.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.10.388
PMCID: PMC3488615  PMID: 23133486
Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Human LIN28 homolog B; Precocious puberty
18.  Continuous renal replacement therapy in neonates weighing less than 3 kg 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(8):286-292.
Purpose
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is becoming the treatment of choice for supporting critically ill pediatric patients. However, a few studies present have reported CRRT use and outcome in neonates weighing less than 3 kg. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical application, outcome, and complications of CRRT in small neonates.
Methods
A retrospective review was performed in 8 neonatal patients who underwent at least 24 hours of pumped venovenous CRRT at the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, between March 2007 and July 2010. Data, including demographic characteristics, diagnosis, vital signs, medications, laboratory, and CRRT parameters were recorded.
Results
The data of 8 patients were analyzed. At the initiation of CRRT, the median age was 5 days (corrected age, 38+2 weeks to 23 days), and the median body weight was 2.73 kg (range, 2.60 to 2.98 kg). Sixty-two patient-days of therapy were reviewed; the median time for CRRT in each patient was 7.8 days (range, 1 to 37 days). Adverse events included electrolyte disturbances, catheter-related complications, and CRRT-related hypotension. The mean circuit functional survival was 13.9±8.6 hours. Overall, 4 patients (50%) survived; the other 4 patients, who developed multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, died.
Conclusion
The complications of CRRT in newborns are relatively high. However, the results of this study suggest that venovenous CRRT is feasible and effective in neonates weighing less than 3 kg under elaborate supportive care. Furthermore, for using potential benefit of CRRT in neonates, efforts are required for prolonging filter survival.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.8.286
PMCID: PMC3433565  PMID: 22977441
Critical illness; Infant; Renal replacement therapy; Treatment outcome
19.  Two Novel Insulin Receptor Gene Mutations in a Patient with Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome: The First Korean Case Confirmed by Biochemical, and Molecular Evidence 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(5):565-568.
Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS) is a rare syndrome manifested by extreme insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, acanthosis nigricans, tooth dysplasia and growth retardation. Our patient was first noted at the age of 8 months due to pigmentations on skin-folded areas. Initial laboratory tests showed normal fasting glucose (69 mg/dL). Fasting insulin level was severely elevated, up to 554.6 µIU/mL, and c-peptide level was increased, up to 13.81 ng/mL. However, hemoglobin A1c was within normal range (4.8%). He is now 11 yr old. His growth development followed the 5-10th percentile and oral hypoglycemic agents are being administered. The last laboratory results showed insulin 364.1 µIU/mL, C-peptide 4.30 ng/mL, and hemoglobin A1c 7.6%. The boy was a compound heterozygote for the c.90C > A and c.712G > A mutations of the insulin receptor gene, INSR, which are nonsense and missense mutations. In summary, we report the first Korean case of RMS, which was confirmed by two novel mutations of the INSR.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.5.565
PMCID: PMC3342552  PMID: 22563226
Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome; Insulin Resistance; Receptor, Insulin; INSR
20.  A study of the relationship between clinical phenotypes and plasma iduronate-2-sulfatase enzyme activities in Hunter syndrome patients 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(3):88-92.
Purpose
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) deficiency. MPS II causes a wide phenotypic spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild to severe. IDS activity, which is measured in leukocyte pellets or fibroblasts, was reported to be related to clinical phenotype by Sukegawa-Hayasaka et al. Measurement of residual plasma IDS activity using a fluorometric assay is simpler than conventional measurements using skin fibroblasts or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This is the first study to describe the relationship between plasma IDS activity and clinical phenotype of MPS II.
Methods
We hypothesized that residual plasma IDS activity is related to clinical phenotype. We classified 43 Hunter syndrome patients as having attenuated or severe disease types based on clinical characteristics, especially intellectual and cognitive status. There were 27 patients with the severe type and 16 with the attenuated type. Plasma IDS activity was measured by a fluorometric enzyme assay using 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-iduronate 2-sulphate.
Results
Plasma IDS activity in patients with the severe type was significantly lower than that in patients with the attenuated type (P=0.006). The optimal cut-off value of plasma IDS activity for distinguishing the severe type from the attenuated type was 0.63 nmol·4 hr-1·mL-1. This value had 88.2% sensitivity, 65.4% specificity, and an area under receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve of 0.768 (ROC curve analysis; P=0.003).
Conclusion
These results show that the mild phenotype may be related to residual lysosomal enzyme activity.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.3.88
PMCID: PMC3315624  PMID: 22474463
Hunter syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Iduronate sulfatase; Genotype phenotype
21.  The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(6):253-259.
Purpose
Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea.
Methods
We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed.
Results
A total of 19 (19.4%) patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively). Sixty-one (62.2%) patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=-0.26, P=0.03).
Conclusion
Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.6.253
PMCID: PMC3174361  PMID: 21949520
Cancer survivor; Metabolic syndrome; Body composition; Fat percentage
22.  Delayed Response of Amylin Levels after an Oral Glucose Challenge in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(2):257-262.
Purpose
Amylin secretion is increased parallel to insulin in obese subjects. Despite their marked obesity, a state of relative hypoinsulinemia occurs in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Based on the hypothesis that amylin levels may be relatively low in PWS children, contributing to their excessive appetite, we studied amylin levels after oral glucose loading in children with PWS and overweight controls.
Materials and Methods
Plasma levels of amylin, glucagon, insulin, and glucose were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after a glucose challenge in children with PWS (n = 18) and overweight controls (n = 25); the relationships among the variables were investigated in these two groups.
Results
Amylin levels were significantly correlated with insulin during fasting and during the oral glucose tolerance test in both groups. Amylin levels between 0 and 60 min after glucose loading were statistically different between the two groups. They were lower in children with PWS than in the controls between 0 and 30 min after glucose loading.
Conclusion
The relatively low levels of amylin, compared to those in overweight controls, during the early phase of glucose loading in patients with PWS, may contribute, in part, to the excessive appetite of PWS patients as compared to the overweight controls.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2011.52.2.257
PMCID: PMC3051207  PMID: 21319343
Prader-Willi syndrome; amylin; child; oral glucose challenge
23.  Outcome Following Surgical Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very Low Birth Weight Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(2):265-271.
Purpose
The aims of this study were to determine the factors affecting the outcome of patent ductus arteriosus ligation in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and demonstrate the safety of PDA ligation in VLBWI performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Materials and Methods
From October 1994 to July 2006, medical records of 94 VLBWI weighing < 1,500 g who underwent PDA ligation in the NICU of Samsung Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively. Factors affecting the final outcome of PDA ligation were evaluated by dividing the infants into 3 groups according to mortality and major morbidities as follows: mortality group (Mo), major morbidity group (Mb), and no major morbidity group (NM).
Results
In the Mo group, birth weight was significantly lower and the preoperative mean FiO2 and mean dopamine dose were significantly higher than those in the other 2 groups. There was no significant difference in gestational age, incidence of RDS, number of courses of indomethacin, surgery-related factors, including weight and age at surgery, perioperative vital signs, and complications after surgery between the 3 groups. During surgery in the NICU, there were no significant hemodynamic instability or serious acute complications.
Conclusion
The factors affecting the outcome of surgery in VLBWI are not the factors related to surgery but the preoperative conditions related to the underlying prematurity. PDA ligation of VLBWI performed in the NICU is safe without serious complications.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2008.49.2.265
PMCID: PMC2615315  PMID: 18452264
Patent ductus arteriosus; ligation; neonatal intensive care unit; very low birth weight infants

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