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1.  Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Associated with Moyamoya Disease 
The coexistence of moyamoya disease (MMD) with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is exceedingly rare. We report two cases of AVM associated with MMD. The first case was an incidental AVM diagnosed simultaneously with MMD. This AVM was managed expectantly after encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) as the main feeders stemmed from the internal carotid artery, which we believed would be obliterated with the progression of MMD. However, the AVM persisted with replacement of the internal carotid artery feeders by new external carotid artery feeders from the EDAS site. The AVM was eventually treated with gamma knife radiosurgery considering an increasing steal effect. The second case was a de novo AVM case. The patient was initially diagnosed with MMD, and acquired an AVM eight years later that was slowly fed by the reconstituted anterior cerebral artery. Because the patient remained asymptomatic, the AVM is currently being closely followed for more than 2 years without further surgical intervention. Possible differences in the pathogenesis and the radiologic presentation of these AVMs are discussed with a literature review. No solid consensus exists on the optimal treatment of MMD-associated AVMs. Gamma knife radiosurgery appears to be an effective treatment option for an incidental AVM. However, a de novo AVM may be managed expectantly considering the possible risks of damaging established collaterals, low flow characteristics, and probably low risks of rupture.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.4.356
PMCID: PMC4219197  PMID: 25371789
Moyamoya disease; Arteriovenous malformation; Pediatric; Children
2.  Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome of Chordoid Meningiomas in a Single Institute 
Objective
Meningioma is the second most common primary central nervous system neoplasm. In contrast, chordoid meningioma is rare; due to the paucity of cases, little is known about its clinical features or treatment outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with chordoid meningioma.
Methods
In total, 16 patients, with newly diagnosed chordoid meningioma who underwent surgical excision between 1999 and 2012 were included. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records, radiological findings, and pathological findings. The median follow-up period was 56.5 (range, 3-170) months. The MIB-1 labeling index ranged from 1 to 26.60% (median, 5.04).
Results
Simpson grade I, II, and III resections were performed in four, nine, and three patients, respectively. The overall recurrence rate was 37.5%. Overall progression-free survival (PFS) after resection was 94.7 months (95% CI=62.9-126.6). Of the 4 patients with Simpson grade I resection, recurrence occurred in one patient. Among the Simpson grade II and III resection groups, eight patients underwent adjuvant radiation therapy and they showed significantly longer PFS (121 months, 95% CI=82.1-159.9) than the patients who underwent surgery alone (40.5 months, 95% CI=9.6-71.3) by the log-rank test (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Chordoid meningiomas are difficult to manage and have a high rate of recurrence. Complete resection of the tumor is a key determinant of better outcomes. Adjuvant radiation therapy is recommended, eparticulary when Simpson grade I resection was not achieved.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.3.194
PMCID: PMC4217054  PMID: 25368760
Chordoid meningioma; MIB-1 labeling index; Adjuvant radiation therapy
3.  Microsurgical Treatment and Outcome of Pediatric Supratentorial Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of pediatric cavernous malformation (CM) in the central nervous system.
Methods
Twenty-nine pediatric patients with supratentorial CM underwent microsurgical excision. In selected cases, transparent tubular retractor system (TTRS) was used to reduce retraction injury and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) was held to preserve functioning cortex. Patients' demographics and symptoms were reviewed and surgical outcomes were discussed.
Results
The main initial clinical manifestations included the following : seizures (n=13, 45%), headache (n=7, 24%), focal neurological deficits (n=3, 10%), and an incidental finding (n=6, 21%). Overt hemorrhage was detected in 7 patients (24%). There were 19 children (66%) with a single CM and 10 (34%) children with multiple CMs. In 7 cases with deep-seated CM, we used a TTRS to minimize retraction. In 9 cases which location of CM was at eloquent area, IONM was taken during surgery. There was no major morbidity or mortality after surgery. In the 29 operated children, the overall long-term results were satisfactory : 25 (86%) patients had no signs or symptoms associated with CMs, 3 had controllable seizures, and 1 had mild weakness.
Conclusion
With the assistance of neuronavigation systems, intraoperative neuromonitoring, and TTRS, CMs could be targeted more accurately and excised more safely. Based on the satisfactory seizure outcome achieved, complete microsurgical excision in children is recommended for CMs presenting with seizures but removal of hemosiderin-stained areas seems to be unnecessary.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.3.237
PMCID: PMC4217061  PMID: 25368767
Cavernous malformation; Hemosiderin deposit; Neuronavigation; Transparent tubular retractor
4.  Endoscopic Decompression for Optic Neuropathy in McCune-Albright Syndrome 
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by a triad of poly/monostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait macules and hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies including human growth hormone excess. Acromegaly as a manifestation of endocrine hyperfunction with MAS is uncommon. Surgical excision may be challenging due to the associated severe fibrous dysplasia of the skull base. Through the endoscopic procedures, we treated a case of MAS presenting with compressive optic neuropathy due to fibrous dysplasia and acromegaly caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma. We reviewed the literature on GH excess in MAS to highlight its surgical and medical challenges.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.3.281
PMCID: PMC4217071  PMID: 25368777
Fibrous dysplasia; McCune-Albright syndrome; Acromegaly
5.  Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk medulloblastoma 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;15(3):352-359.
Background
We assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of reduced-dose craniospinal (CS) radiotherapy (RT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) in reducing late adverse effects without jeopardizing survival among children with high-risk medulloblastoma (MB).
Methods
From October 2005 through September 2010, twenty consecutive children aged >3 years with high-risk MB (presence of metastasis and/or postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm2) were assigned to receive 2 cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy, CSRT (23.4 or 30.6 Gy) combined with local RT to the primary site (total 54.0 Gy), and 4 cycles of post-RT chemotherapy followed by tandem HDCT/autoSCT. Carboplatin-thiotepa-etoposide and cyclophosphamide-melphalan regimens were used for the first and second HDCT, respectively.
Results
Of 20 patients with high-risk MB, 17 had metastatic disease and 3 had a postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm2 without metastasis. The tumor relapsed/progressed in 4 patients, and 2 patients died of toxicities during the second HDCT/autoSCT. Therefore, 14 patients remained event-free at a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 23−82) from diagnosis. The probability of 5-year event-free survival was 70.0% ± 10.3% for all patients and 70.6% ± 11.1% for patients with metastases. Late adverse effects evaluated at a median of 36 months (range, 12−68) after tandem HDCT/autoSCT were acceptable.
Conclusions
In children with high-risk MB, CSRT dose might be reduced when accompanied by tandem HDCT/autoSCT without jeopardizing survival. However, longer follow-up is needed to evaluate whether the benefits of reduced-dose CSRT outweigh the long-term risks of tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos304
PMCID: PMC3578484  PMID: 23258845
autologous stem cell transplantation; high-dose chemotherapy; late effect; medulloblastoma; radiotherapy
6.  Bromocriptine Therapy for the Treatment of Invasive Prolactinoma: The Single Institute Experience 
Objective
The objective of this study was to describe and characterize the clinical course of treatment for invasive prolactinoma patients using bromocriptine.
Methods
The study group included 23 patients who were treated with bromocriptine for their invasive prolactinomas. Clinical histories, serum prolactin level and pituitary hormone assessments, tumor diameter and signal intensity on sella magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual field exams and the dosage of medications were reviewed for each patient.
Results
During 30 months (median, range 6-99) of follow-up period, 19 patients treated with bromocriptine alone achieved biochemical remission. Four patients changed the medication to cabergoline due to the adverse effects or observed resistance of bromocriptine treatment. All of five patients who had visual symptoms improved after the course of medication. Four surgically treated patients were not able to discontinue medication because they could not maintain biochemical remission state without medication. Multivariate analysis showed that decreased enhancement on the initial followed MRI after medication and longer follow-up periods were associated with higher radiologic response.
Conclusion
We reassure that the dopamine agonist is safe and effective for the treatment of invasive pituitary adenomas. Meanwhile, surgery has a limited role on biochemical remission. Decreased enhancement on the initial follow-up MRI after medication may reflect the treatment response. Further study is required to validate the role of MRI or other factors on the actual prognosis.
doi:10.14791/btrt.2013.1.2.71
PMCID: PMC4027106  PMID: 24904895
Invasive prolactinoma; Bromocriptine; Pituitary adenoma; Cabergoline; Dopamine agonist
7.  Upward Migration of a Peritoneal Catheter Following Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt 
We present an unusual case of peritoneal catheter migration following a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. A 7-month-old infant, who had suffered from intraventricular hemorrhage at birth, was shunted for progressive hydrocephalus. The peritoneal catheter, connected to an 'ultra small, low pressure valve system' (Strata®; PS Medical,Gola, CA, USA) at the subgaleal space, was placed into the peritoneal cavity about 30 cm in length. The patient returned to our hospital due to scalp swelling 21 days after the surgery. Simple X-ray images revealed total upward migration and coiling of the peritoneal catheter around the valve. Possible mechanisms leading to proximal upward migration of a peritoneal catheter are discussed.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.53.6.383
PMCID: PMC3756136  PMID: 24003378
Ventriculoperitoneal shunt; Migration; Distal catheter; Windlass effect
8.  Treatment Outcomes of Pediatric Craniopharyngioma : A 15-Year Retrospective Review of 35 Cases 
Objective
The aim of this study was to describe a single center's experience in the management of craniopharyngiomas in children over a 15-year period.
Methods
The clinical records of pediatric patients treated for craniopharyngiomas between December 1995 and February 2011 were reviewed. Thirty-five pediatric patients diagnosed with craniopharyngioma were treated, and their medical records and imaging data were analyzed retrospectively.
Results
The mean follow-up duration was 76 months (range, 10-195). Overall survival and local control rates at 10 years were 94.7±5.1% and 37.1±11.9%, respectively. The female-to-male ratio was 16 : 19, and the mean age was 8.6 years (range, 1-17). Initially, gross total resection (GTR) was performed in 30 patients; subtotal resection (STR) followed by radiotherapy was performed in 5 patients. Of the 14 cases that showed recurrence after GTR, 5 patients were treated with GTR, 1 with radiation therapy (RT), 4 with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and 4 with subtotal resection followed by RT. No patients who underwent RT or GKRS had recurrences. Two cases with recurrence after STR followed by RT were treated with GTR. One patient died of hormonal insufficiency 64 months after the first surgery. The overall median time progression was 51.2 months (range, 3-182) : 49.7 months in the patients who underwent GTR and 60.2 months in the patients who underwent STR followed by RT.
Conclusion
If safe resection is possible, GTR at the initial treatment should be attempted to reduce the tumor recurrence. However, if the tumor recurs after the first surgery, RT or GKRS with/without reoperation may be an effective salvage treatment for recurrent craniopharyngioma.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.1.37
PMCID: PMC3440501  PMID: 22993676
Craniopharyngioma; Microsurgery; Radiotherapy
9.  Moyamoya Syndrome Precipitated by Cranial Irradiation for Craniopharyngioma in Children 
Recently, combination of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) has been recommended in the treatment of craniopharyngioma. RT could be associated with late complications, including vasculopathy. We report two cases of the moyamoya syndrome seen in children with craniopharyngioma who received RT after surgical resection. Thirty-five patients in pediatric age with craniopharyngioma were surgically treated. Fifteen out of 35 patients underwent surgical resection followed by RT or gamma knife surgery. Two of the 15 were found to have symptoms of transient ischemic attack and were diagnosed as moyamoya syndrome through the cerebral angiography. Age at RT was 4 and 13 years, respectively. The latent period for development of the moyamoya syndrome was 27 months and 3 years, respectively, after RT. The RT dose of both patients was 54 Gy. These two patients received bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis procedures. We report here these two cases of radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome in pediatric craniopharyngioma. Pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma who received RT should be reminded, during follow-up, about the risk of development of the moyamoya syndrome.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.535
PMCID: PMC3272518  PMID: 22323944
Moyamoya syndrome; Craniopharyngioma; Radiation; Vasculopathy
10.  Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Patients with Shunt Malfunction 
Objective
This paper presents data from a retrospective study of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in patients with shunt malfunction and proposes a simple and reasonable post-operative protocol that can detect ETV failure.
Methods
We enrolled 19 consecutive hydrocephalus patients (11 male and 8 female) who were treated with ETV between April 2001 and July 2010 after failure of previously placed shunts. We evaluated for correlations between the success rate of ETV and the following parameters : age at the time of surgery, etiology of hydrocephalus, number of shunt revisions, interval between the initial diagnosis of hydrocephalus or the last shunt placement and ETV, and the indwelling time of external ventricular drainage.
Results
At the time of ETV after shunt failure, 14 of the 19 patients were in the pediatric age group and 5 were adults, with ages ranging from 14 months to 42 years (median age, 12 years). The patients had initially been diagnosed with hydrocephalus between the ages of 1 month 24 days and 32 years (median age, 6 years 3 months). The etiology of hydrocephalus was neoplasm in 7 patients; infection in 5; malformation, such as aqueductal stenosis or megacisterna magna in 3; trauma in 1; and unknown in 3. The overall success rate during the median follow-up duration of 1.4 years (9 days to 8.7 years) after secondary ETV was 68.4%. None of the possible contributing factors for successful ETV, including age (p=0.97) and the etiology of hydrocephalus (p=0.79), were statistically correlated with outcomes in our series.
Conclusion
The use of ETV in patients with shunt malfunction resulted in shunt independence in 68.4% of cases. Age, etiology of hydrocephalus, and other contributing factors were not statistically correlated with ETV success. External ventricular drainage management during the immediate post-ETV period is a good means of detecting ETV failure.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.4.217
PMCID: PMC3098424  PMID: 21607179
Shunt failure; Secondary endoscopic third ventriculostomy; Hydrocephalus
11.  Transventricular Biopsy of Brain Tumor without Hydrocephalus Using Neuroendoscopy with Navigation 
Objective
It is usually difficult to perform the neuroendoscopic procedure in patients without hydrocephalus due to difficulties with ventricular cannulation. The purpose of this study was to find out the value of navigation guided neuroendoscopic biopsy in patients with peri- or intraventricular tumors without hydrocephalus.
Methods
Six patients with brain tumors without hydrocephalus underwent navigation-guided neuroendoscopic biopsy. The procedure was indicated for verification of the histological diagnosis of the neoplasm, which was planned to be treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy as the first line treatment, or establishment of the pathological diagnosis for further choice of the most appropriate treatment strategy.
Results
Under the guidance of navigation, targeted lesion was successfully approached in all patients. Navigational tracking was especially helpful in entering small ventricles and in approaching the third ventricle through narrow foramen Monro. The histopathologic diagnosis was established in all of 6 patients : 2 germinomas, 2 astrocytomas, 1 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and 1 pineocytoma. The tumor biopsy sites were pineal gland (n = 2), suprasellar area (n = 2), subcallosal area (n = 1) and thalamus (n = 1). There were no operative complications related to the endoscopic procedure.
Conclusion
Endoscopic biopsy or resection of peri- or intraventricular tumors in patients without hydrocephalus is feasible. Image-guided neuroendoscopic procedure improved the accuracy of the endoscopic approach and minimized brain trauma. The absence of ventriculomegaly in patients with brain tumor may not be served as a contraindication to endoscopic tumor biopsy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.6.415
PMCID: PMC2899026  PMID: 20617084
Neuroendoscopy; Navigation; Without hydrocephalus
12.  Improved Outcome of Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors: Implications for the Role of Risk-adapted Intensive Chemotherapy 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):458-465.
To determine the impact of treatment protocols on the outcome of central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS-GCTs), we reviewed the medical records of 53 patients who received front-line chemotherapy from September 1997 to September 2006. Pure germinoma, normal alpha-fetoprotein level and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level <50 mIU/mL were regarded as low-risk features and the others as high-risk. Patients from different time periods were divided into 3 groups according to the chemotherapy protocols. Group 1 (n=19) received 4 cycles of chemotherapy comprising cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin. Group 2 (n=16) and group 3 (n=18) received 4 cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and vincristine in the former and with carboplatin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and bleomycin in the latter. In group 2 and group 3, high-risk patients received double doses of cisplatin, carboplatin and cyclophosphamide. Radiotherapy was given after chemotherapy according to the clinical requirements. The event-free survivals of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 67.0%, 93.8%, and 100%, respectively (group 1 vs. 2, P=0.06; group 2 vs. 3, P=0.29; group 1 vs. 3, P=0.02). Our data suggest that risk-adapted intensive chemotherapy may improve the outcome of patients with malignant CNS-GCTs.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.3.458
PMCID: PMC2826748  PMID: 20191048
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal; Central Nervous System; Drug Therapy; Survival
13.  Fractionated Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Benign Perioptic Tumors: Outcomes of 38 Patients in a Single Institute 
Background
This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for perioptic lesions.
Methods
Thirty-eight patients with perioptic tumors were treated at our institute from May 2004 to December 2008. All patients had a lesion in close contact with the optic apparatus. Twenty-four of these patients had undergone surgical resection before fractionated GKRS. Radiation was delivered in four sessions with 12 hours intervals between sessions. The mean target volume was 3,851 mm3 and the median cumulative marginal dose was 20 Gy. The median follow-up was 38.2 months. Visual acuity and visual fields were analyzed according to visual impairment score using the German Ophthalmological Society guidelines.
Results
Tumor control was achieved in 35 (94.6%) of the 37 patients with available follow-up images. Progressive tumor growth was observed in two craniopharyngioma patients (5.4%). Favorable visual outcomes in the postoperative period were achieved in 94.7% of cases (36/38). Sixteen patients showed visual function after fractionated GKRS, twenty cases were stationary, and two patients showed visual function deterioration after GKRS.
Conclusion
GKRS is a safe and effective alternative to either surgery or fractionated radiotherapy for selected benign lesions that are adjacent to the optic apparatus.
doi:10.14791/btrt.2014.2.2.56
PMCID: PMC4231616  PMID: 25408926
Gamma Knife radiosurgery; Fractionated radiosurgery; Stereotactic radiosurgery; Tumor control; Visual outcome
14.  Chordoid Meningioma in a Pediatric Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(4):302-306.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.4.302
PMCID: PMC4160594  PMID: 25214863
15.  The Frequency of Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema after Trocar and Hemostat Assisted Thoracostomy in Patients with Spontaneous Pneumothorax 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;54(1):166-171.
Purpose
Several risk factors for development of reexpansion pulmonary edema (REPE) after drainage of pneumothoraces have been reported, but the association between the method of thoracostomy and the development of REPE is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of REPE after treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax with trocar or hemostat assisted closed thoracostomy.
Materials and Methods
We performed a prospective, observational study including 173 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax who visited the emergency department from January 2007 to December 2008. In 2007, patients were treated with hemostat-assisted drainage, whereas patients in 2008 were treated with trocar-assisted drainage. The main outcome was the development of REPE, determined by computed tomography of the chest 8 hours after closed thoracostomy. Outcomes in both groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results
Ninety-two patients were included, 48 (42 males) of which underwent hemostat-assisted drainage and 44 (41 males) underwent trocar-assisted drainage. The groups were similar in mean age (24±10 vs. 26±14 respectively). The frequencies of REPE after hemostat- and trocar-assisted drainage were 63% (30 patients) and 86% (38 patients) respectively (p=0.009). In multivariate analysis, trocar-assisted drainage was the major contributing factor for developing REPE (odds ratio=5.7, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-21). Age, gender, size of pneumothorax, symptom duration and laboratory results were similar between the groups.
Conclusion
Closed thoracostomy using a trocar is associated with an increased risk of REPE compared with hemostat-assisted drainage in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.1.166
PMCID: PMC3521265  PMID: 23225814
Pneumothorax; thoracostomy; pulmonary edema
16.  Efficacy of High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Relapsed Medulloblastoma: A Report on The Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO)-S-053 Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(8):1160-1166.
The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3±12.2% and 26.7% ±11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates ±95% CI was 40.0±15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.8.1160
PMCID: PMC2908784  PMID: 20676326
Recurrence; Medulloblastoma; Transplantation, Autologous; Tandem; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
17.  Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for children with newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(2):120-126.
Background
In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in children with a newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
Methods
Between March 2005 and April 2007, patients older than 3 years with a newly diagnosed high-risk MB or sPNET were enrolled. The patients received two cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (cycle A), and carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and ifosphamide (cycle B), followed by CSRT with 23.4 Gy and local RT with 30.6 Gy. After four cycles of post-RT chemotherapy (cycles A, B, A, and B), tandem double HDCT with ASCR was performed.
Results
A total of 13 patients (MB=11, sPNET=2) were enrolled. Of these, one patient progressed, one patient died of septic shock after the second cycle of B, and one patient relapsed after the third cycle of B. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of the patients intended for HDCT was 76.9%, whereas the 3-year EFS rate of the patients who received HDCT was 100%. No treatment-related mortality occurred during HDCT.
Conclusion
Although the follow-up period was short and the patient cohort was small in size, the results of this study are encouraging. The limited toxicity and favorable EFS rate observed in children treated with reduced-dose CSRT followed by HDCT and ASCR warrant further exploration in a larger study population.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.2.120
PMCID: PMC2983022  PMID: 21120191
Radiotherapy; High-dose chemotherapy; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Medulloblastoma; Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor; Children
18.  Brain abscess in Korean children: A 15-year single center study 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2010;53(5):648-652.
Purpose
A brain abscess is a serious disease of the central nerve system. We conducted this study to summarize the clinical manifestations and outcomes of brain abscesses.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients diagnosed with brain abscesses from November 1994 to June 2009 was performed at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Results
Twenty-five patients were included in this study. On average, 1.67 cases per year were identified and the median age was 4.3 years. The common presenting clinical manifestations were fever (18/25, 72%), seizure (12/25, 48%), altered mental status (11/25, 44%), and signs of increased intracranial pressure (9/25, 36%). A total of 14 (56%) patients had underlying illnesses, with congenital heart disease (8/25, 32%) as the most common cause. Predisposing factors were identified in 15 patients (60%). The common predisposing factors were otogenic infection (3/25, 12%) and penetrating head trauma (3/25, 12%). Causative organisms were identified in 64% of patients (16/25). The causative agents were S. intermedius (n=3), S. aureus (n=3), S. pneumoniae (n=1), Group B streptococcus (n=2), E. coli (n=1), P. aeruginosa (n=1), and suspected fungal infection (n=5). Seven patients received medical treatment only while the other 18 patients also required surgical intervention. The overall fatality rate was 16% and 20% of patients had neurologic sequelae. There was no statistical association between outcomes and the factors studied.
Conclusion
Although uncommon, a brain abscess is a serious disease. A high level of suspicion is very important for early diagnosis and to prevent serious consequences.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2010.53.5.648
PMCID: PMC2994128  PMID: 21189932
Brain; Abscess; Child; Korea
19.  Congenital Cerebellar Mixed Germ Cell Tumor Presenting with Hemorrhage in a Newborn 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2008;9(Suppl):S26-S29.
We report here on a neonate with congenital cerebellar mixed germ cell tumor, and this initially presented as cerebellar hemorrhage. Postnatal cranial ultrasonography revealed an echogenic cerebellar mass that exhibited the signal characteristics of hemorrhage rather than tumor on MR images. The short-term follow-up images also suggested a resolving cerebellar hemorrhage. One month later, the neonate developed vomiting. A second set of MR images demonstrated an enlarged mass that exhibited changed signal intensity at the same site, which suggested a neoplasm. Histological examination after the surgical resection revealed a mixed germ cell tumor.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2008.9.s.s26
PMCID: PMC2627202  PMID: 18607121
Congenital cerebellar tumor; Mixed germ cell tumor; Posterior fossa tumor; Neonatal cerebellar hemorrhage
20.  Retrospective Analysis on 76 Cases of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations Treated by Gamma Knife Radiosurgery 
Objective
Outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) in the consecutive 100 cases with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) was analyzed.
Methods
Data from initial 100 patients treated with GKS in the authors' institute were reviewed retrospectively. Spetzler-Martin grade at diagnosis were I in 18 patients, II in 27, III in 36, IV in 11, and V in 8. Thirty-five patients had experienced previous bleeding, 27 patients presented with seizure, and 31 patients presented with headache. The mean volume of the lesion was 4.3 cm3 (0.1-29.3 cm3). The median radiation dose delivered to the margin was 20.0 Gy (13-32 Gy). Mean follow-up period was 37.5 months (5-63 months).
Results
Angiographic follow-up was performed in 48 patients at least 2 years after GKS. Sixteen patients were lost in follow up following 2 years from GKS. Twenty-eight of 48 patients (58%) showed complete obliteration and 20 patients (42%) showed partial obliteration. Seven patients presented with post-GKS hemorrhage. Adverse radiation effect (ARE) was observed at follow-up MRI in 25 of 76 patients, and it was symptomatic in 5 patients. Complete obliteration was confirmed in 24 of 31 (77%) patients with volume less than 4 cm3, meanwhile only 4 of 17 (24%) patients with volume of 4 cm3 or more showed complete obliteration. Complete obliteration rate was 67% with 20 Gy or higher marginal dose, 63% with 15-20 Gy, and 17% with less than 15 Gy.
Conclusion
GKS can provide high rates of obliteration with acceptable risk of morbidity in a subgroup of small AVMs. However, overall outcome in whole spectrum of AVMs, in which large proportion of cases have unfavorable characteristics for radiosurgery, is much worse. More effective therapeutic strategy needs to be developed for large AVMs that are difficult to be managed with current available treatment modalities.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.6.265
PMCID: PMC2588252  PMID: 19096630
Gamma knife radiosurgery; Arteriovenous malformation; Outcome
21.  Trilateral retinoblastoma: a case report. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(1):137-140.
Trilateral retinoblastoma is a rare, but well recognized syndrome. These tumors usually occur in the pineal, parasellar, or suprasellar regions several years after successful management of ocular retinoblastomas without evidence of direct extension or distant metastasis. Here we report a case of trilateral retinoblastoma presenting initially with a sellar tumor and with concurrent unilateral retinoblastoma. The patient was a 5-month-old baby girl showing poor eye contact and nystagmus for several days. She had no family history of retinoblastoma. Brain MRI revealed a midline suprasellar tumor without evidence of cerebrospinal fluid seeding or extracranial metastasis. A pathologic diagnosis of retinoblastoma was made for her brain tumor, and a small, intraocular retinoblastoma was detected in the left eye by thorough examination of the fundus. If a retinoblastoma occurs in the midline of the brain, including the pineal and sellar regions, a careful screening to detect any additional retinal tumors should be performed. Moreover, since these tumors are often hereditary and harbor a worse prognosis, the diagnosis has implications for genetic counseling. This is the first report on a case of trilateral retinoblastoma in Korea presented with a sellar mass.
PMCID: PMC3054828  PMID: 11850605

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