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1.  Increased risk of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children with atopic sensitization and asthma 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2014;57(6):271-277.
Purpose
A nationwide outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) refractory to macrolide antibiotics occurred in Korea during 2011. Steroid therapy has been reported to be both efficacious and well tolerated in pediatric patients with refractory MP. We compared clinical features and laboratory characteristics between children with refractory MP requiring steroid treatment and those with macrolide-responsive MP and evaluated the risk factors associated with refractory MP.
Methods
We investigated 203 children who were admitted to our institution with MP from June to November 2011. Refractory MP was defined by persistent fever over 38.3℃ with progressive pulmonary consolidation or pleural effusion despite administration of appropriate macrolide antibiotics for 5 days or longer after admission. Steroid therapy was initiated on the fifth day after admission for refractory cases.
Results
There were 26 patients with refractory MP requiring steroid therapy. The mean duration of steroid therapy was 5.4 days and most of the patients were afebrile within 24 hours after initiation of steroid therapy. The prevalence of refractory MP was higher in patients with pleural effusion, lobar pneumonia affecting more than 2 lobes, higher levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, increased oxygen requirements, and longer duration of hospitalization. Atopic sensitization and history of asthma were also associated with refractory MP after adjusting for age and gender.
Conclusion
Children with refractory MP had more severe pneumonia. Atopic sensitization and history of asthma may be risk factors for refractory MP requiring steroid therapy in Korean children.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2014.57.6.271
PMCID: PMC4115068  PMID: 25076972
Asthma; Atopy; Child; Pneumonia; Mycoplasma
2.  Association of wheezing phenotypes with fractional exhaled nitric oxide in children 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2014;57(5):211-216.
Asthma comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Airway inflammation, which induces AHR and recurrence of asthma, is the main pathophysiology of asthma. The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level is a noninvasive, reproducible measurement of eosinophilic airway inflammation that is easy to perform in young children. As airway inflammation precedes asthma attacks and airway obstruction, elevated FeNO levels may be useful as predictive markers for risk of recurrence of asthma. This review discusses FeNO measurements among early-childhood wheezing phenotypes that have been identified in large-scale longitudinal studies. These wheezing phenotypes are classified into three to six categories based on the onset and persistence of wheezing from birth to later childhood. Each phenotype has characteristic findings for atopic sensitization, lung function, AHR, or FeNO. For example, in one birth cohort study, children with asthma and persistent wheezing at 7 years had higher FeNO levels at 4 years compared to children without wheezing, which suggested that FeNO could be a predictive marker for later development of asthma. Preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing and stringent asthma predictive indices also had higher FeNO levels in the first 4 years of life compared to children with wheezing and loose indices or children with no wheeze, suggesting that FeNO measurements may provide an additional parameter for predicting persistent wheezing in preschool children. Additional large-scale longitudinal studies are required to establish cutoff levels for FeNO as a risk factor for persistent asthma.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2014.57.5.211
PMCID: PMC4102682  PMID: 25045362
Nitric oxide; Lung function test; Phenotype; Preschool child; Wheezing
3.  Prevalence of respiratory viral infection in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract diseases, and association of rhinovirus and influenza virus with asthma exacerbations 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2014;57(1):29-34.
Purpose
In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of year-round respiratory viral infection in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and the relationship between respiratory viral infection and allergen sensitization in exacerbating asthma.
Methods
We investigated the sources for acute LRTIs in children admitted to our hospital from May 2010 to April 2011. The 6 most common respiratory viruses were isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirate using multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 309 children; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (AV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), influenza virus (IFV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus (RV). Atopic sensitization was defined if more than 1 serum specific Immunoglobulin E level measured using UniCAP (Pharmacia) was over 0.35 IU/mL.
Results
RSV was the most common pathogen of bronchiolitis in hospitalized children through the year. RV or IFV infection was more prevalent in asthma exacerbations compared to other LRTIs. AV and hMPV were more likely to cause pneumonia. RV and IFV were associated with asthma exacerbations in children with atopic sensitization, but not in nonatopic children.
Conclusion
RV and IFV are associated with hospitalization for asthma exacerbation in children with atopic sensitization.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2014.57.1.29
PMCID: PMC3935110  PMID: 24578714
Asthma; Allergens; Child; Orthomyxoviridae; Rhinovirus
4.  Effects of Diet-Induced Mild Obesity on Airway Hyperreactivity and Lung Inflammation in Mice 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(6):1430-1437.
Purpose
Obesity has been suggested to be linked to asthma. However, it is not yet known whether obesity directly leads to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) or obesity-induced airway inflammation associated with asthma. We investigated obesity-related changes in adipokines, AHR, and lung inflammation in a murine model of asthma and obesity.
Materials and Methods
We developed mouse models of chronic asthma via ovalbumin (OVA)-challenge and of obesity by feeding a high-fat diet, and then performed the methacholine bronchial provocation test, and real-time PCR for leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, adiponectin receptor (adipor1 and 2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF) β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α in lung tissue. We also measured cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
Results
Both obese and lean mice chronically exposed to OVA developed eosinophilic lung inflammation and AHR to methacholine. However, obese mice without OVA challenge did not develop AHR or eosinophilic inflammation in lung tissue. In obese mice, lung mRNA expressions of leptin, leptin receptor, VEGF, TGF, and TNF were enhanced, and adipor1 and 2 expressions were decreased compared to mice in the control group. On the other hand, there were no differences between obese mice with or without OVA challenge.
Conclusion
Diet-induced mild obesity may not augment AHR or eosinophilic lung inflammation in asthma.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.6.1430
PMCID: PMC3809850  PMID: 24142648
Adipokine; asthma; high fat; vascular endothelial growth factor; transforming growth factor beta; tumor necrosis factor alpha; obesity; airway hyperresponsiveness
5.  Increased Prevalence of H1N1-Induced Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases in Children With Atopic Sensitization 
Purpose
Viral infection is the most common aggravating factor for childhood asthma. Asthma may be a risk factor for severe respiratory symptoms in children with lower respiratory tract infections of viral etiology. Influenza A infection enhances Th2-polarization to house dust mites during the acute phase and leads to lung dysfunction in a mouse model. However, there are no data on the relationship between atopic sensitization and H1N1 (Influenza A) infection in humans. To investigate whether atopic sensitization is associated with the severity of H1N1 pneumonia, we compared clinical features and the atopic sensitization rate between children with and without H1N1 infection.
Methods
Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions, we investigated H1N1 virus infection in 214 children who were hospitalized with high fever and respiratory symptoms from September 2009 to February 2010. We also performed immunoassays for total and specific IgEs to six common aeroallergens. Atopy was defined as positivity for more than one specific IgE. The clinical severity of pneumonia was evaluated based on intensive care unit admission, oxygen therapy, steroid therapy, and atelectasis.
Results
There were 70 H1N1-positive children, 42.9% of whom had pneumonia. Children with H1N1 infection were older and had a higher prevalence of atopic sensitization and pneumonia compared with H1N1-negative children. The rate of atelectasis was higher in children with H1N1 pneumonia than in children with non-H1N1 pneumonia. Among children with H1N1 viral infection, those with atopic sensitization had a higher prevalence of intensive care unit admission and oxygen therapy, and a longer duration of hospitalization than non-atopic children. There were no differences between atopic and non-atopic children without H1N1 viral infection.
Conclusions
The prevalence of H1N1-induced severe lower respiratory tract diseases is higher in children with atopic sensitization.
doi:10.4168/aair.2012.4.5.277
PMCID: PMC3423601  PMID: 22950033
H1N1 virus; atopy; pneumonia; severity; children
6.  Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Expression in the Lung Tissue of Obese Rats 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(3):495-501.
Purpose
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma and type II diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ has been suggested to regulate inflammatory responses in diabetes and asthma. We investigated whether PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2), leptin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are expressed in rat lung tissues and whether the expression differs between obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and lean Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats.
Materials and Methods
Obese and lean rats were given with a high fat diet or a 30% restricted diet for 32 weeks, and their blood glucose levels and weights were monitored. After 32 weeks, mRNA levels of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, and TNF-α in lung tissues were measured using real time PCR.
Results
PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, and TNF-α were expressed in both obese and lean rat lung tissues. Increased serum glucose levels on intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing and a higher weight gain at 32 weeks were observed in OLETF control rats compared to OLETF diet restricted rats. PPAR-γ expression was markedly elevated in obese control and diet restricted rats compared to lean rats, although PPAR-γ expression in obese rats was not affected by diet restriction. Leptin was highly expressed in OLETF rats compared to LETO rats. TNF-α expression was enhanced in OLETF control rats compared LETO diet restricted rats, and decreased by diet restriction. PPAR-α, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 expression were not significantly different between obese and lean rats.
Conclusion
PPAR-γ was highly expressed in the lung tissues of obese rats and may be a novel treatment target for regulating lung inflammation associated with obesity.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2011.52.3.495
PMCID: PMC3101042  PMID: 21488194
Obesity; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor; adiponectin receptor; lung; leptin; TNF-alpha
7.  The Expression of Adiponectin Receptors and the Effects of Adiponectin and Leptin on Airway Smooth Muscle Cells 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(5):804-810.
Purpose
Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma and it influences airway smooth muscle function and responsiveness. Adiponectin is inversely associated with obesity and its action is mediated through at least 2 cell membrane receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Leptin is positively associated with obesity. We investigated whether human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells express adiponectin receptors and whether adiponectin and leptin regulate human ASM cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release.
Materials and Methods
Human ASM cells were growth-arrested in serum-deprived medium for 48 hours and then stimulated with PDGF, adiponectin and leptin. After 48 hours of stimulation, proliferation was determined using a cell proliferation ELISA kit. Human AdipoR1 and -R2 mRNA expressions were determined by RT-PCR using human-specific AdipoR1 and -R2 primers. Concentrations of VEGF, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α in cell culture supernatant were determined by ELISA.
Results
Both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA were expressed in the cultured human ASM cells. However, adiponectin did not suppress PDGF-enhanced ASM cell proliferation, nor did leptin promote ASM cell proliferation. Leptin promoted VEGF release by human ASM cells, while adiponectin did not influence VEGF release. Neither leptin nor adiponectin influenced MCP-1 secretion from human ASM cells. Adiponectin and MIP-1α were not secreted by human ASM cells.
Conclusion
Human ASM cells expressed adiponectin receptors. However, adiponectin did not regulate human ASM cell proliferation or VEGF release, while leptin stimulated VEGF release by human ASM cells.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2008.49.5.804
PMCID: PMC2615381  PMID: 18972601
Smooth muscle cells; cell proliferation; vascular endothelial growth factor; leptin; adiponectin; receptors
8.  The Effect of Interleukin-4 and Amphiregulin on the Proliferation of Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells and Cytokine Release 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(5):857-863.
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperplasia and angiogenesis are important features associated with airway remodeling. We investigated the effect of IL-4 and amphiregulin, an epidermal growth factor family member, on the proliferation of human ASM cells and on the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 from human ASM cells. Human ASM cells were growth-arrested for 48 hr and incubated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, interleukin (IL)-4, amphiregulin, and VEGF to evaluate cell proliferation. The cells were treated with PDGF, IL-4 and amphiregulin to evaluate the release of VEGF, MCP-1. IL-4 suppressed unstimulated and PDGF-stimulated ASM cell proliferation. Amphiregulin stimulated ASM cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. VEGF did not have any influence on ASM cell proliferation. IL-4 stimulated VEGF secretion by the ASM cells in a dose-dependent manner and showed added stimulatory effects when co-incubated with PDGF. Amphiregulin did not promote VEGF secretion. IL-4 and amphiregulin showed no stimulatory effects on MCP-1 secretion. The results of this study showed that IL-4 had bifunctional effects on airway remodeling, one was the suppression of the proliferation of the ASM cells and the other was the promotion of VEGF release by the ASM cells, and amphiregulin can promote human ASM cell proliferation.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.5.857
PMCID: PMC2580012  PMID: 18955794
Interleukin-4; Remodeling; Humans, Bronchi; Myocytes, Smooth Muscle; Cell Proliferation; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; Amphiregulin
9.  Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Pediatric Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Pleural Effusion 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(4):608-613.
This study investigated the serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in children with community-acquired pneumonia. Serum VEGF levels were measured in patients with pneumonia (n=29) and in control subjects (n=27) by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pneumonia group was classified into bronchopneumonia with pleural effusion (n=1), bronchopneumonia without pleural effusion (n=15), lobar pneumonia with pleural effusion (n=4), and lobar pneumonia without pleural effusion (n=9) groups based on the findings of chest radiographs. We also measured serum IL-6 levels and the other acute inflammatory parameters. Serum levels of VEGF in children with pneumonia were significantly higher than those in control subjects (p<0.01). Children with lobar pneumonia with or without effusion showed significantly higher levels of serum VEGF than children with bronchopneumonia. For lobar pneumonia, children with pleural effusion showed higher levels of VEGF than those without pleural effusion. Children with a positive urinary S. pneumonia antigen test also showed higher levels of VEGF than those with a negative result. Serum IL-6 levels did not show significant differences between children with pneumonia and control subjects. Serum levels of VEGF showed a positive correlation with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the children with pneumonia. In conclusion, VEGF may be one of the key mediators that lead to lobar pneumonia and parapneumonic effusion.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.4.608
PMCID: PMC2729879  PMID: 16891801
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; Interleukin-6; Pleural Effusion; Community-Acquired Infections; Pneumonia
10.  Clinical Application of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Measurements in a Korean Population 
Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologic mediator of various physiologic functions. Recent evidence suggests the clinical utility of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) as a biomarker for assessing asthma and other respiratory diseases. FeNO methodologies have been recently standardized by international research groups and subsequently validated in several Korean population studies. Normal ranges for FeNO have been reported for various ethnic groups, and the clinical utility has been widely evaluated in asthma and various respiratory diseases. Based on current evidence including most of Korean population data, this position paper aims to introduce the methodological considerations, and provide the guidance for the proper clinical application of FeNO measurements in Korean populations.
doi:10.4168/aair.2015.7.1.3
PMCID: PMC4274466  PMID: 25553257
Exhaled nitric oxide; reference value; guideline; position paper; asthma
11.  Additive Effect between IL-13 Polymorphism and Cesarean Section Delivery/Prenatal Antibiotics Use on Atopic Dermatitis: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA) 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96603.
Background
Although cesarean delivery and prenatal exposure to antibiotics are likely to affect the gut microbiome in infancy, their effect on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy is unclear. The influence of individual genotypes on these relationships is also unclear. To evaluate with a prospective birth cohort study whether cesarean section, prenatal exposure to antibiotics, and susceptible genotypes act additively to promote the development of AD in infancy.
Methods
The Cohort for Childhood of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) was selected from the general Korean population. A pediatric allergist assessed 412 infants for the presence of AD at 1 year of age. Their cord blood DNA was subjected to interleukin (IL)-13 (rs20541) and cluster-of-differentiation (CD)14 (rs2569190) genotype analysis.
Results
The combination of cesarean delivery and prenatal exposure to antibiotics associated significantly and positively with AD (adjusted odds ratio, 5.70; 95% CI, 1.19–27.3). The association between cesarean delivery and AD was significantly modified by parental history of allergic diseases or risk-associated IL-13 (rs20541) and CD14 (rs2569190) genotypes. There was a trend of interaction between IL-13 (rs20541) and delivery mode with respect to the subsequent risk of AD. (P for interaction = 0.039) Infants who were exposed prenatally to antibiotics and were born by cesarean delivery had a lower total microbiota diversity in stool samples at 6 months of age than the control group. As the number of these risk factors increased, the AD risk rose (trend p<0.05).
Conclusion
Cesarean delivery and prenatal antibiotic exposure may affect the gut microbiota, which may in turn influence the risk of AD in infants. These relationships may be shaped by the genetic predisposition.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096603
PMCID: PMC4029558  PMID: 24848505
12.  Reference Values and Determinants of Fractional Concentration of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Healthy Children 
Purpose
Measurement of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive, simple, safe method of assessing airway inflammation. While FeNO measurement has been standardized, reference values for elementary school children are scarce. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for FeNO in children.
Methods
FeNO was measured in elementary school children at 6-12 years of age in Seoul, Korea, following American Thoracic Society guidelines and using a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden). A total of 1,252 children completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire; FeNO was measured in 1,063 children according to the protocol and in 808 children defined as healthy controls.
Results
Mean FeNO were 10.32 ppb, 16.58 ppb, and 12.36 ppb in non-atopic, atopic, and all 808 healthy controls, respectively. FeNO was not associated with age and gender. The FeNO reference equations were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account the variables of age, height, weight, total IgE, eosinophil percent, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (methacholine PC20). FeNO=0.776+0.003×total IgE+0.340×eosinophil percent; coefficient of determination (R2)=0.084 in the 501 healthy non-atopic controls. FeNO=-18.365+1.536×eosinophil percent, R2=0.183 in the 307 healthy atopic controls; and FeNO=-7.888+0.130×Height+0.004×total IgE+1.233×eosinophil percent, R2=0.209 in the 808 all healthy controls. Eosinophil percent was correlated with FeNO in all healthy controls. FeNO was not associated with BMI.
Conclusion
This study provides reference values for FeNO that can be used to evaluate airway inflammation in elementary school children. Determinants that could most accurately predict FeNO in healthy school-age children were assessed.
doi:10.4168/aair.2014.6.2.169
PMCID: PMC3936047  PMID: 24587955
FeNO; reference value; determinants; healthy; children
13.  Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA) 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2013;56(10):439-445.
Purpose
Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort.
Methods
The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia.
Results
The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004).
Conclusion
The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.10.439
PMCID: PMC3827492  PMID: 24244212
Cohort studies; Infant; Respiratory tract infections; Umbilical cord blood; Vitamin D
14.  Allergic Diseases in Preschoolers Are Associated With Psychological and Behavioural Problems 
Purpose
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between three major allergic diseases, asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic dermatitis (AD), and psychological and behavioural problems in preschoolers based on a community survey.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire to determine the prevalence of symptoms and diagnosed allergic diseases, and a Korean version of the Child Behaviour Checklist to assess internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems among 780 preschoolers. Five-hundred and seventy-five preschoolers with valid data were included in this study.
Results
The prevalence of lifetime diagnosis and treatment in the past 12 months was 8.7% and 4.4% for asthma, 24.4% and 19.2% for AR, and 35.1% and 16.6% for AD, respectively. Scores for internalizing and sleep problems were significantly higher in those diagnosed with AR. Preschoolers who had been treated for AD in the past 12 months had higher attention problem and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder scores. Sleep problems were more severe in moderate to severe AD compared to control and mild AD groups, categorised according to SCOring index of AD. The severity of sleep problems correlated positively with the percentage of eosinophils in peripheral blood.
Conclusions
Psychological and behavioural problems differed among the three major allergic diseases, weaker association for asthma and stronger association for AR and AD. The results of this study may lead to the identification of potential underlying shared mechanisms common to allergic diseases and psychological and behavioural problems.
doi:10.4168/aair.2013.5.5.315
PMCID: PMC3756179  PMID: 24003389
Preschool child; psychometrics; asthma; allergic rhinitis; atopic dermatitis
15.  Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess in an immunocompetent child 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2013;56(9):407-410.
Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as a leading pathogen that causes pyogenic liver abscesses (PLAs) in Korea. K. pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is potentially life threatening, and the diagnosis is difficult. In developed countries, PLA is rarely observed in children and is frequently associated with disorders of granulocyte function and previous abdominal infection. We observed a case of KLA in a healthy 12-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of KLA in an immunocompetent child without an underlying disease in Korea. The patient was treated with percutaneous catheter drainage and antibiotics. The catheter was placed in the intrahepatic abscess for 3 weeks and parenteral antibiotics (ceftriaxone and amikacin) were administered for 4 weeks, followed by oral antibiotics (cefixime) for 2 weeks. We reported this case to raise awareness of KLA in immunocompetent children among physicians, and to review the diagnosis, risk factors, potential complications, and appropriate treatment of KLA.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.9.407
PMCID: PMC3819678  PMID: 24223603
Klebsiella pneumoniae; Liver Abscess; Immunity; Child
16.  Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA) 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(4):580-585.
Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.4.580
PMCID: PMC3617312  PMID: 23579316
Cohort Studies; Birth Weight; Infant, Newborn; Mothers; Family Characteristic; Body Mass Index; Allergy and Immunology
17.  Association of Antioxidants With Allergic Rhinitis in Children From Seoul 
Purpose
The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen over the last few decades. Many factors, including environmental factors such as those related to diet, have been considered. Among dietary factors, intake of antioxidant-related nutrients has been associated with the risk of allergic disease. We investigated the association of antioxidant nutritional status with allergic rhinitis (AR) in Korean schoolchildren aged 6-12 years.
Methods
Subjects were 4,554 children in Seoul, Korea. The risk of allergic disease was measured using the Korean version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, and dietary intake was measured by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Intake of vitamins A (including retinol and β-carotene), C, and E was used in the analysis.
Results
Vitamin C intake was negatively associated with an increased risk of current symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, 0.886; 95% confidence interval, 0.806-0.973). There was no association between AR and intake of vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, or vitamin E. Total serum IgE level and sensitization to allergen did not differ according to nutrient intake.
Conclusions
The group of children with increased vitamin C consumption had fewer AR symptoms, despite the lack of a difference in total serum IgE level or allergen sensitization. These findings suggest that nutrient intake, especially that of vitamin C, influences AR symptoms.
doi:10.4168/aair.2013.5.2.81
PMCID: PMC3579096  PMID: 23450181
Allergic rhinitis; antioxidant; vitamin C
18.  Successful and safe treatment of hemangioma with oral propranolol in a single institution 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(5):164-170.
Purpose
Dramatic improvement of hemangioma to propranolol has been recently reported; however, details on dose and duration of treatment, potential risks, and monitoring have not been determined. The objective of this study is to describe and analyze the use of propranolol as a first-line treatment or as a single therapy in management of complicated hemangioma.
Methods
A retrospective chart review of eight patients diagnosed with hemangioma and treated with propranolol in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from February 2010 to April 2011 was performed.
Results
Eight patients with hemangioma with functional impairment, cosmetic disfigurement, or rapid growth were treated with propranolol. Five patients had solitary facial hemangioma. The mean age of symptoms at onset was 5 weeks. The median age for starting propranolol treatment was 5.5 months. Propranolol at 2 mg/kg/day was finally administered in divided doses with a gradual increase. Significant regression was observed in seven patients, and shrinkage in size, softening in consistency, and decrease in redness were evident within 4 weeks. Among them, six patients were still taking propranolol, and one patient had stopped after 12 months. Other one patient did not show significant improvement with satisfactory result after 3 months of propranolol use. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth was observed in any of the patients.
Conclusion
We observed that use of propranolol was very effective in treatment of hemangioma without obvious adverse effects or relapse.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.5.164
PMCID: PMC3362730  PMID: 22670151
Hemangioma; Propranolol; Treatment

Results 1-18 (18)