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1.  Role of HLA in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation 
Bone Marrow Research  2012;2012:680841.
The selection of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) donors includes a rigorous assessment of the availability and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match status of donors. HLA plays a critical role in HSCT, but its involvement in HSCT is constantly in flux because of changing technologies and variations in clinical transplantation results. The increased availability of HSCT through the use of HLA-mismatched related and unrelated donors is feasible with a more complete understanding of permissible HLA mismatches and the role of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes in HSCT. The influence of nongenetic factors on the tolerability of HLA mismatching has recently become evident, demonstrating a need for the integration of both genetic and nongenetic variables in donor selection.
doi:10.1155/2012/680841
PMCID: PMC3467756  PMID: 23082252
2.  Clinical implications of chimerism after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with non-malignant diseases 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2011;46(4):258-264.
Background
The effects of chimerism on outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are unclear and may differ between diseases. We retrospectively evaluated the association between chimerism and transplant outcomes in children with nonmalignant diseases.
Methods
Chimerism was evaluated using short-tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction (STR-PCR) in 48 patients, with mixed chimerism (MC) defined as greater than 1% recipient cells.
Results
The only variable exerting a significant influence on patients' chimerism status was the number of infused CD34+ cells. MC was detected in 23 transplants (9 showing transient MC; 10 with sustained low levels [≤30%] of autologous cells; and 4 with high-level MC [>30%]). The degree of STR-PCR at 28 days after HSCT was significantly higher in patients with high-level MC than those with transient or low-level MC. All patients with transient or low-level MC successfully maintained engraftment and showed a clinical response to HSCT, whereas 2 of the 4 patients with high-level MC experienced graft failure. The incidences of grades II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were significantly higher in patients with complete donor chimerism (CC) than MC. We observed no significant survival differences between CC and MC groups. However, the survival rate was lower in patients with high MC than those with low-level or transient MC (P=0.03).
Conclusion
In non-malignant diseases, MC may indicate a tolerant state with a decreased incidence of GVHD. However, high-level MC may signify an increased risk of graft failure and a lower survival rate.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.4.258
PMCID: PMC3259518  PMID: 22259632
Non-malignant disease; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Chimerism
3.  Lineage Switch at Relapse of Childhood Acute Leukemia: A Report of Four Cases 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(6):829-831.
Lineage switch in acute leukemia is an uncommon event at relapse, and therefore rarely reported in the literature. Here, we have described the clinical laboratory features of four cases in which the cell lineage switched from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). One patient was initially diagnosed with B-ALL, switched to T-ALL at the first relapse, and eventually, AML at the second relapse. A lineage switch represented either relapse of the original clone with heterogeneity at the morphologic level or emergence of a new leukemic clone. Further sequential phenotypic and cytogenetic studies may yield valuable insights into the mechanisms of leukemic recurrence, with possible implications for treatment selection.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.6.829
PMCID: PMC3102880  PMID: 21655072
Lineage Switch; Acute Leukemia
4.  Clinical features of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(6):260-266.
Purpose
Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHHE) is the most common type of hepatic vascular tumor in infancy. We conducted this study to review our clinical experience of patients with IHHE and to suggest management strategies.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 23 IHHE patients (10 males, 13 females) treated at the Asan Medical Center between 1996 and 2009.
Results
Median age at diagnosis was 38 days (range, 1 to 381 days). Seven patients (30%) were diagnosed with IHHE based on sonographically detected fetal liver masses, 5 (22%) were diagnosed incidentally in the absence of symptoms, 5 (22%) had congestive heart failure, 3 (13%) had skin hemangiomas, 2 (9%) had abnormal liver function tests, and 1 (4%) had hepatomegaly. All diagnoses were based on imaging results, and were confirmed in three patients by histopathology analysis. Six patients were observed without receiving any treatment, whereas 12 received corticosteroids and/or interferon-alpha. One patient with congestive heart failure and a resectable unilobar tumor underwent surgical resection. Three patients with congestive heart failure and unresectable tumors were managed by hepatic artery embolization with/without medical treatment. At a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 1 to 156 months), 21 (91%) patients showed complete tumor disappearance or >50% decrease in tumor size. One patient died due to tumor-related causes.
Conclusion
IHHE generally has a benign clinical course with low morbidity and mortality rates. Clinical course and treatment outcome did not differ significantly between medically treated and non-treated groups. Surgically unresectable patients with significant symptoms may be treated medically or with hepatic artery embolization.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.6.260
PMCID: PMC3174362  PMID: 21949521
Infant; Liver; Hemangioendothelioma; Corticosteroid; Interferon-alpha; Therapeutic embolization
5.  The impact of HLA matching on unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Korean children 
Background
The impact of HLA matching on outcomes of unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) varies in different racial or ethnic groups. Since little is known about the impact of such matching on URD HSCT in Korean children, we analyzed this issue.
Methods
We analyzed the outcomes of 142 patients who underwent URD HSCT at 4 Korean medical centers. All patient donor pairs were fully typed for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR alleles.
Results
At a median follow-up of 22 months, 3-year survival rates for patients with 8, 7, and ≤6 matched alleles were 88.4%, 70.7%, and 53.6%, respectively. A single mismatch (Mm) at HLA-B or -C was associated with lower survival compared with that associated with 8 matched alleles. No significant differences were observed between single-allele and single-antigen Mms with respect to survival rate or acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) incidence rates. HLA disparity had a greater impact on the survival of patients with high-risk malignancy than of those with low-risk malignancy. Among pairs with a single Mm, only locus A showed a significant association and higher risk of grade III-IV aGVHD compared to those in patients with 8 matched alleles.
Conclusion
Disparity in HLA class I, regardless of antigen or allele Mm, adversely affected both survival and grade III-IV aGVHD development. An increased number of HLA Mms was associated with a higher risk of post-transplantation complications. Further investigations using larger cohorts are required to confirm the effects of HLA mismatching on URD HSCT patient outcomes.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.1.11
PMCID: PMC3065620  PMID: 21461298
URD HSCT; HLA; Korean children
6.  Prognostic significance of minimal residual disease detected by a simplified flow cytometric assay during remission induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2010;53(11):957-964.
Purpose
Our study attempted to determine the prognostic significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) detected by a simplified flow cytometric assay during induction chemotherapy in children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).
Methods
A total of 98 patients were newly diagnosed with precursor B-ALL from June 2004 to December 2008 at the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). Of those, 37 were eligible for flow cytometric MRD study analysis on day 14 of their induction treatment. The flow cytometric MRD assay was based on the expression intensity of CD19/CD10/CD34 or aberrant expression of myeloid antigens by bone marrow nucleated cells.
Results
Thirty-five patients (94.6%) had CD19-positive leukemic cells that also expressed CD10 and/or CD34, and 18 (48.6%) had leukemic cells with aberrant expression of myeloid antigens. Seven patients with ≥1% leukemic cells on day 14 had a significantly lower relapse-free survival (RFS) compared to the 30 patients with lower levels (42.9% [18.7%] vs. 92.0% [5.4%], P=0.004). Stratification into 3 MRD groups (≥1%, 0.1-1%, and <0.1%) also showed a statistically significant difference in RFS (42.9% [18.7%] vs. 86.9% [8.7%] vs. 100%, P=0.013). However, the MRD status had no significant influence on overall survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the MRD level on day 14 was an independent prognostic factor with borderline significance.
Conclusion
An MRD assay using simplified flow cytometry during induction chemotherapy may help to identify patients with B-ALL who have an excellent outcome and patients who are at higher risk for relapse.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2010.53.11.957
PMCID: PMC3012276  PMID: 21218018
Lymphoblastic leukemia; Acute; Childhood; Minimal residual disease; Flow cytometry
7.  Early central nervous system complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(3):164-170.
Background
Central nervous system (CNS) complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have not been well characterized in the pediatric population.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed data of 202 consecutive children who underwent allogeneic HSCT (60 from matched related donors, 9 from mismatched related donors, and 133 from unrelated donors) at Asan Medical Center between 1998 and 2009.
Results
Twenty-seven children (13.5%) developed CNS complications within 6 months after HSCT. Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-associated neurotoxicity was the most common CNS complication (n=16), followed by CNS infection (n=2), cerebrovascular events (n=2), thrombotic microangiopathy-associated events (n=2), metabolic encephalopathy (n=2), irradiation/chemotherapy injury (n=1), and encephalopathy/myelopathy of unknown causes (n=2). Univariate analysis showed that a transplant from an alternative donor and the occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (>grade 2) were associated with a significantly increased risk of CNS complications. In the multivariate analysis, acute GVHD >grade 2 was identified as an independent risk factor for early CNS complications. The 5-year overall survival rate was significantly lower in patients with CNS complications (52.1% vs. 64.9%, P=0.014), whereas CNI-associated neurotoxicity did not affect the survival outcome.
Conclusion
CNS complications are frequent among children undergoing HSCT, contributing to early death after transplant. More attention should be paid to the development of CNS complications for recipients of alternative donor transplants and patients with severe acute GVHD who are at increased risk for CNS complications.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.3.164
PMCID: PMC2983044  PMID: 21120204
Allogeneic; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Neurological complication; Cyclosporine; Children

Results 1-7 (7)