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1.  Innervated Myotendinous Cylinders Alterations in Human Extraocular Muscles in Patients With Strabismus 
To analyze innervated myotendinous cylinders (IMCs) in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) of normal subjects and strabismic patients.
The rectus muscles of 37 subjects were analyzed. Distal myotendinous specimens were obtained from 3 normal subjects, 20 patients with acquired strabismus, 11 with infantile strabismus, and from 3 with congenital nystagmus, and were studied by using light microscopy. Some specimens (6 rectus muscles) were also examined by transmission electron microscopy.
IMCs were found in the distal myotendinous regions of EOMs. The IMCs of patients with acquired strabismus showed no significant morphological alterations. However, significant IMCs alterations were observed at the distal myotendinous junction of patients with congenital strabismus and congenital nystagmus.
This study supports the notion that IMCs in human EOMs function mainly as proprioceptors, along with effector properties, and a disturbance of ocular proprioceptors plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oculomotor disorder. We suggest that a proprioceptive feedback system should be stimulated and calibrated early in life for the development of binocular vision.
PMCID: PMC2694299  PMID: 19568357
Extraocular muscles; Innervated myotendinous cylinders; Proprioceptors; Nystagmus; Strabismus
2.  Muscle Union Procedure in Patients with Paralytic Strabismus 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0129035.
To present the surgical outcomes of a muscle union procedure in patients with paralytic strabismus, this retrospective study included 27 patients with paralytic strabismus who underwent a muscle union procedure. In this procedure, the two vertical rectus muscles are united with the paralytic horizontal muscle without splitting the muscles. Postoperative ocular deviations, complications, surgical success rates, and reoperation rates were obtained by examining the medical records of the patients. Seventeen patients had a sixth cranial nerve palsy, seven patients had a third cranial nerve palsy, and three patients had a medial rectus muscle palsy after endoscopic sinus surgery. The mean preoperative angle of horizontal deviation in the primary position was 56 ± 21 prism diopters. The mean follow-up period was 12 ± 9 months. The mean final postoperative ocular deviation was 8 ± 13 prism diopters. The success rate was 74%, and the reoperation rate was 0%. No significant complications, including anterior ischemia, occurred in any of the patients. One patient exhibited an increase in intraocular pressure in the immediate postoperative period, but this resolved spontaneously within 1 week. Our muscle union procedure was effective in patients with paralytic strabismus, especially in patients with a large angle of deviation. This muscle union procedure is potentially a suitable option for muscle transposition in patients with paralytic strabismus who have large-angle deviation or a significant residual angle after conventional surgery.
PMCID: PMC4466506  PMID: 26070148
3.  The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in ocular surface disease pathogenesis after chemical burn in the murine eye 
Molecular Vision  2010;16:2402-2411.
To evaluate the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the wound healing process following severe chemical burns to the ocular surface.
Chemical burning of the ocular surface was induced in mice (C57BL/6) via the application of 0.1 M NaOH. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression in the ocular surface and lacrimal gland was evaluated via real-time reverse transcription PCR on days 2, 7, and 30 after induction of the chemical burn. The expression of MIF protein in the ocular surface and lacrimal gland was evaluated via western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to detect MIF and vasculoendothelial growth factor in the cornea during the wound healing process. The angiogenic role of MIF was further evaluated using an 8–0 polyglactin suture technique to induce corneal neovascularization.
MIF, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNA expression were elevated significantly in the ocular surface up to day 30 after chemical burn induction. TNF-α alone was elevated in the lacrimal gland. MIF protein elevation was confirmed via western blot analysis, and the spatial similarity of MIF and VEGF expression in the cornea was noted during the wound healing process. 8–0 polyglactin sutures soaked in MIF induced significantly higher numbers of new vessels on the mouse cornea after 7 days (p=0.003, Mann–Whitney test).
These findings indicate that MIF performs a crucial role in wound healing on the ocular surface after the induction of chemical burns.
PMCID: PMC2994759  PMID: 21152395
4.  Chemoreduction followed by local therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced intraocular retinoblastoma: a pilot study in a single center. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(6):817-822.
Intraocular (IO) retinoblastoma (RB) has traditionally been treated with enucleation (ENU) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Recently, clinical trials are in progress to cure RB without ENU or EBRT in order to salvage the globe and to avoid unacceptable side effects of EBRT. We performed a pilot study to treat patients with advanced Reese-Ellsworth (RE) stage IO RB with initial chemotherapy (CRx) followed by local therapy (LT) and adjuvant CRx. Ten eyes (8 RE group V, 2 RE group IV) from 9 patients were enrolled from March 2001 to November 2001. All tumors responded to CRx. In 5 of 10 eyes, the RB was enough to be treated with LT after chemoreduction. One patient who underwent LT is waiting for ENU due to post-cryotherapy complication. For a median follow-up of 13 months (8-16 mo), 4 eyes that received LT and adjuvant CRx were relapse-free. A patient with bilateral RB who failed to be a candidate for LT was rescued with high-dose CRx and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Consequently, by treating patients according to our strategy, we were able to salvage 6 out of 10 eyes without ENU or EBRT. These results suggest that chemoreduction followed by LT and adjuvant CRx might offer the opportunity to salvage the globe and vision even in patients with advanced stage IO RB.
PMCID: PMC3054962  PMID: 12483008

Results 1-4 (4)