The immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) criteria were newly standardized by the International Working Group. Thus, we analyzed the natural course of childhood chronic ITP to predict the prognosis based on the revised criteria.
The medical records of children with chronic ITP from May 2000 to February 2013 in our institute were reviewed.
Forty-seven children with chronic ITP who were not undergoing corticosteroid therapy were included. Their initial platelet count was 23±25×109/L, and age at diagnosis was 6.3±4.1 years. The follow-up period was 5.4±3.7 years. Among them, 44.7% (21/47) showed spontaneous remission and maintained a platelet count ≥100×109/L. And 66.0% (31/47) maintained a platelet count ≥50×109/L until the last follow-up date. The time periods required for the platelet count to be maintained ≥50×109/L and ≥100 ×109/L were 3.1±2.7 and 3.6±2.7 years. Age at diagnosis in the ≥50×109/L group (5.7±4.4 years) was significantly lower than the age at diagnosis in the <50×109/L group (7.4±3.3 years) (P=0.040). And follow-up period was the factor influencing prognosis between the ≥100×109/L group and <50×109/L group (P=0.022).
Approximately 45% of children with chronic ITP recovered spontaneously about 3-4 years after the diagnosis and 2/3 of patients maintained a platelet count ≥50×109/L, relatively safe state. Age at diagnosis of ITP and follow-up period were the factors influencing prognosis in this study.
Chronic immune thrombocytopenia; Prognosis; Children
Severe congenital neutropenia is a heterozygous group of bone marrow failure syndromes that cause lifelong infections. Mutation of the ELANE gene encoding human neutrophil elastase is the most common genetic alteration. A Korean female pediatric patient was admitted because of recurrent cervical lymphadenitis without abscess formation. She had a past history of omphalitis and isolated neutropenia at birth. The peripheral blood showed a markedly decreased absolute neutrophil count, and the bone marrow findings revealed maturation arrest of myeloid precursors at the promyelocyte to myelocyte stage. Her direct DNA sequencing analysis demonstrated an ELANE gene mutation (c.607G > C; p.Gly203Arg), but her parents were negative for it. She showed only transient response after subcutaneous 15 µg/kg/day of granulocyte colony stimulating factor administration for six consecutive days. During the follow-up observation period, she suffered from subsequent seven febrile illnesses including urinary tract infection, septicemia, and cellulitis.
Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Neutrophil Elastase
The efficacy of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was investigated in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Patients over 1 yr of age who were newly diagnosed with stage 4 neuroblastoma from January 2000 to December 2005 were enrolled in The Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology registry. All patients who were assigned to receive HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the efficacy of single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Seventy and 71 patients were assigned to receive single or tandem HDCT/ASCR at diagnosis. Fifty-seven and 59 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR as scheduled. Twenty-four and 38 patients in the single or tandem HDCT group remained event free with a median follow-up of 56 (24-88) months. When the survival rate was analyzed according to intent-to-treat at diagnosis, the probability of the 5-yr event-free survival±95% confidence intervals was higher in the tandem HDCT group than in the single HDCT group (51.2±12.4% vs. 31.3±11.5%, P=0.030). The results of the present study demonstrate that the tandem HDCT/ASCR strategy is significantly better than the single HDCT/ASCR strategy for improved survival in the treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma patients.
Neuroblastoma; High-dose Chemotherapy; Transplantation, Autologous
Continuous infusion of factor VIII (FVIII) is a more cost-effective method for treating hemophilia A than intermittent bolus injection. However, there is currently no specific data in Korea about the progress of in vitro FVIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) after reconstitution from its lyophilized form.
Three commercial FVIII concentrate products (two recombinant FVIII and one plasma-derived) were used. In vitro FVIII:C was measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours following reconstitution in both the indoor light-exposed and light-shielded groups.
For the three drugs, in vitro FVIII:C decreased over the 8 hours following reconstitution (P<0.001). The decline of FVIII:C was linear (P<0.001). In vitro FVIII:C for the indoor light-exposed groups was 95.3±1.9% and 90.6±2.5% after 4 and 8 hours following reconstitution, respectively, compared to baseline activity. In the light-shielded group, FVIII:C was 95.4±1.1% and 90.9±1.7% of the baseline activity after 4 and 8 hours, respectively. There was no statistical difference between FVIII:C in the indoor light-exposed and light-shielded groups (P=0.849).
In vitro FVIII:C decreased after reconstitution, but activity was maintained at over 90% of the baseline value during 8 hours. Exposure to indoor light did not accelerate the loss of FVIII:C over the experimental time. This result indicates that CI with FVIII is available in 8-hour intervals, with no indoor light-exposure precautions needed.
Hemophilia A; Continuous infusion; Factor VIII
We report a case of cervicomedullary compression by an anomalous vertebral artery treated using microsurgical decompression with intraoperative monitoring. A 68-year-old woman presented with posterior neck pain and gait disturbance. MRI revealed multiple abnormalities, including an anomalous vertebral artery that compressed the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction. Suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy was performed. The spinal cord was found to be compressed by the vertebral arteries, which were retracted dorsolaterally. At that time, the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) changed. After release of the vertebral artery, the SSEP signal normalized instantly. The vertebral artery was then lifted gently and anchored to the dura. There was no other procedural complication. The patient's symptoms improved. This case demonstrates that intraoperative monitoring may be useful for preventing procedural complications during spinal cord microsurgical decompression.
Vertebral artery; Microvascular decompression; Cervicomedullary junction; Intraoperative monitoring
Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality, may be associated with various neurologic complications such as moyamoya syndrome, cervical spinal cord compression due to atlantoaxial subluxation, and basal ganglia damage, as well as epileptic seizures and stroke. Many cases of Down syndrome accompanied by isolated neurologic manifestations have been reported in children; however, Down syndrome with multiple neurologic conditions is rare. Here, we have reported a case of Down syndrome in a 10-year-old girl who presented with asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation with spinal cord compression, and basal ganglia calcification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Down syndrome, in a child, which was accompanied by these 3 neurologic complications simultaneously. As seen in this case, patients with Down syndrome may have neurologic conditions without any obvious neurologic symptoms; hence, patients with Down syndrome should be carefully examined for the presence of neurologic conditions.
Down syndrome; Moyamoya disease; Atlantoaxial instability; Basal ganglia calcification
45,XY,t(13;14)(q10;q10) karyotype can suggest infertility associated with more or less severe oligospermia in male adults. In addition, 45,XX,t(13;14)(q10;q10) karyotype carries reproductive risks such as miscarriage or infertility in female adults. However, reports on the phenotype of this karyotype in children are very rare. This study was done to observe various phenotypes of this karyotype in children.
Between January 2007 and December 2012, children diagnosed with 45,XY,t(13;14)(q10;q10) or 45,XX,t(13;14)(q10;q10) karyotype by chromosome analysis were analyzed retrospectively.
Eight children (5 boys and 3 girls) were diagnosed with 45,XY,t(13;14)(q10;q10) or 45,XX,t(13;14)(q10;q10) karyotype. They ranged in age from 5 years and 6 months to 12 years and 4 months. The phenotypes of the study patients consisted of 1 hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, 1 precocious puberty, 3 early puberty, 2 growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (partial) and 1 idiopathic short stature. As shown here t(13;14)(q10;q10) Robertsonian translocation shows a wide range of phenotypes.
It can be said that t(13;14)(q10;q10) Robertsonian translocation shows various phenotypes from GHD to precocious puberty in children. Further large-scale studies are necessary.
Genetic translocation; Endocrine system diseases; Child
The aim of this study is to introduce a microvascular training model based on use of materials that can be easily obtained from the daily surroundings.
Simple microinstruments and a medical school laboratory microscope were used for anastomosis training. Chicken blood vessels were used as a material for this study. A long segment of blood vessel from the proximal brachial artery to the distal radial artery was used for training. End-to-side anastomosis was practiced first, and the training continued with end-to-end anastomosis of the appropriate segments.
The instruments used for setting up this model were simple and easy to use; therefore, the time required for preparation of the materials and dissection of the chicken wings was only approximately five to ten minutes. The characteristics of 20 chicken wings were analyzed. The length of the brachial artery to the radial artery was 8 - 10 cm. The average diameter of the brachial artery was 1.3 mm ± 0.2 mm and that of the radial artery was 1.0 mm ± 0.2 mm. Taking advantage of these characteristics, the proximal brachial artery was grafted to the radial artery for practice of end-to-side anastomosis.
This study suggests an effective and feasible method for microvascular anastomosis training using chicken wing arteries and simple microinstruments. This model may simulate the conditions of a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis surgery.
Chickens; Surgical anastomosis; Brachial artery; Training
This study represents the first epidemiological study based on the national registry of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Korea. Patient data were collected from 23 major hospitals. A total of 152 patients with PID (under 19 yr of age), who were observed from 2001 to 2005, have been entered in this registry. The period prevalence of PID in Korea in 2005 is 11.25 per million children. The following frequencies were found: antibody deficiencies, 53.3% (n = 81), phagocytic disorders, 28.9% (n = 44); combined immunodeficiencies, 13.2% (n = 20); and T cell deficiencies, 4.6% (n = 7). Congenital agammaglobulinemia (n = 21) and selective IgA deficiency (n = 21) were the most frequently reported antibody deficiency. Other reported deficiencies were common variable immunodeficiencies (n = 16), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 15), IgG subclass deficiency (n = 4). Phagocytic disorder was mostly chronic granulomatous disease. A small number of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency were also registered. Overall, the most common first manifestation was pneumonia. This study provides data that permit a more accurate estimation PID patients in Korea.
Primary Immunodeficiencies; Registry; Korea
Natural history and consequences of the novel 2009 influenza A H1N1 (2009 H1N1) infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the clinical features and outcomes of the 2009 H1N1 infection in pediatric patients with hematological and oncological diseases.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 528 patients who had hematological and oncological diseases and who were treated at 7 referral centers located in the Yeungnam region. Among the 528 patients, 27 with definite diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 infection were the subjects of this study. All patients were divided into the following 3 groups: patients who were receiving chemotherapy (group 1), patients who were immunosuppressed due to a non-malignant hematological disease (group 2), and patients who were off chemotherapy and had undergone their last chemotherapy course within 2 years from the influenza A pandemic (group 3).
All 28 episodes of 2009 H1N1 infection were treated with the antiviral agent oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), and 20 episodes were treated after hospitalization. Group 1 patients had higher frequencies of lower respiratory tract infection and longer durations of fever and hospitalization as compared to those in group 2. Ultimately, all episodes resolved completely with no complications.
These results suggest that early antiviral therapy did not influence the morbidity or mortality of pediatric patients with hematological and oncological diseases in the Yeungnam region of Korea after the 2009 H1N1 infection. However, no definite conclusions can be drawn because of the small sample size.
Influenza A Virus; H1N1 Subtype; Immunocompromised Patients; Hematologic Diseases; Oseltamivir; Child
Microscopic and endoscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA) are major surgical techniques in the treatment of pituitary adenoma. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETSA) has been increasingly used for pituitary adenomas, however, its surgical outcome particularly in functioning pituitary adenoma has been debated. Here, we investigated the endocrine outcome of the patients with growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma treated by EETSA.
We treated 80 patients with pituitary adenoma by EETSA since 2004, of which 12 patients were affected by functioning pituitary adenomas (9 GH, 3 ACTH, 0 PRL; 9 macro, 3 micro). Surgical outcome of those patients treated by EETSA was compared with that of the 11 functioning pituitary adenoma patients (8 GH, 3 ACTH; 8 macro, 3 micro) who underwent sublabial microscopic TSA between 1997 and 2003.
Imaging remission based on postoperative MRI was achieved in 8 (73%) and hormonal remission in 5 (45%) of 11 patients treated by sublabial microscopic TSA. Imaging remission was observed in 10 (83%, p=0.640) and hormonal remission in 10 (83%, p=0.081) of 12 patients by EETSA. CSF leakage was noticed in 2 (17%) of EETSA group and in 2 (18%) of sublabial microscopic TSA group. Panhypopituitarism was observed in 1 (9%) of EETSA group and in 3 (27%) of sublabial microscopic TSA group.
EETSA appears to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of functioning pituitary adenomas.
ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; Endoscopy; Transsphenoidal approach
Biliary atresia is a progressive obliterative cholangiopathy, but the etiology of this disorder remains uncertain. Identifying genes specifically expressed in biliary atresia and analyzing the pattern of expression may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis. Liver tissues were taken from a recipient with biliary atresia and a normal donor during liver transplantation. Total RNA was extracted from each sample and reversely transcribed to cDNA. Then radiolabeled cDNA probe pools were made by random primed DNA labeling method and used for screening of differentially expressed genes by hybridizing with expressed sequence tags (EST) dot blot panel. Northern blot hybridization was done to confirm that these genes are also differentially expressed in other liver tissues. Among 1730 EST clones, 26 cDNA clones were significantly overexpressed in biliary cirrhosis, while 2 clones were significantly decreased in biliary atresia. By Northern blot hybridization, the results of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and IGFBP-2 were well correlated with differential EST screening (DES). This study identified the pattern of differentially expressed genes in the biliary cirrhosis due to biliary atresia using DES technique.