Objective. Sclerostin is a Wnt inhibitor produced specifically by osteocytes. However, it is not currently clear whether renal dysfunction has an effect on circulating sclerostin level in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate this relationship. Design and Patients. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 302 type 2 diabetic patients with or without chronic kidney disease. Serum sclerostin level was analyzed by ELISA, and renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Results. There was a strong correlation between sclerostin level with renal function presented as serum creatinine (r = 0.745, P < 0.001) and eGFR (r = −0.590, P < 0.001). Serum sclerostin level was significantly higher in patients with CKD-G3 stage than those with CKD-G1/2 stages after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.011). Patients with CKD-G4/5 stages had dramatically increased level of circulating sclerostin. Multiple regression analyses found that age, sex, and eGFR were independent determining factors for circulating sclerostin level. Conclusion. Our data showed that serum sclerostin levels start to increase in diabetic patients with CKD-G3 stage. Further studies are needed to establish the potential role of elevated sclerostin in diabetic patients with CKD.
Fast signal processing and real-time displays are essential for practical imaging modality in various fields of applications. However, the imaging speed in optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), in particular, depends on factors such as the pulse repetition rate of the laser, scanning method, field of view (FOV), and signal processing time. In the past, efforts to increase acquisition speed either focused on developing new scanning methods or using lasers with higher pulse repetition rates. However, high-speed signal processing is also important for real-time volumetric display in OR-PAM. In this study, we carried out parallel signal processing using a graphics processing unit (GPU) to enable fast signal processing and wide-field real-time displays in laser-scanning OR-PAM. The average total GPU processing time for a B-mode PAM image was approximately 1.35 ms at a display speed of 480 fps when the data samples were acquired with 736 (axial) × 500 (lateral) points/B-mode-frame at a pulse repetition rate of 300 kHz. In addition, we successfully displayed maximum amplitude projection images of a mouse’s ear as volumetric images with an FOV of 3 mm × 3 mm (500 × 500 pixels) at 1.02 s, corresponding to 0.98 fps.
(110.5120) Photoacoustic imaging; (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (170.5120) Photoacoustic imaging; (170.5810) Scanning microscopy; (180.5810) Scanning microscopy
Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative with significant anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and anti-proliferative properties. Studies have shown that pentoxifylline may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, most of these studies were limited by small sample sizes. Therefore, we investigated whether pentoxifylline could reduce proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy and residual proteinuria who received an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). We also studied the effects of pentoxifylline on glycemic control, insulin resistance, and inflammatory parameters.
This was a prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center study. A total of 174 patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria (>30 mg/g of creatinine) who were taking the recommended dosage of ACEI or ARB for > 6 months and receiving conventional therapy for diabetes were randomly assigned to receive pentoxifylline (1200 mg, daily; n = 87) or a placebo (n = 87) for 6 months. The endpoints were the effects of pentoxifylline on proteinuria, renal function, glucose control, and inflammatory parameters.
The percentage changes in proteinuria from baseline in the pentoxifylline and placebo groups were a decrease of 23 % and 4 %, respectively (p = 0.012). In addition, significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment were observed in the pentoxifylline group compared to those in the placebo group. However there was no significant difference in serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α between the groups.
Pentoxifylline therapy reduced proteinuria and improved glucose control and insulin resistance without significant change of serum TNF-α in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, pentoxifylline is a potential therapeutic alternative for treating diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.
Pentoxifylline; Proteinuria; Insulin resistance; Diabetic nephropathy; Diabetes mellitus
Sclerostin is a secreted Wnt inhibitor produced almost exclusively by osteocytes, which inhibits bone formation. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), which reduce the conversion of steroids to estrogen, are used to treat endocrine-responsive breast cancer. As AIs lower estrogen levels, they increase bone turnover and lower bone mass. We analyzed changes in serum sclerostin levels in Korean women with breast cancer who were treated with an AI.
We included postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer (n=90; mean age, 57.7 years) treated with an AI, and compared them to healthy premenopausal women (n=36; mean age, 28.0 years). The subjects were randomly assigned to take either 5 mg alendronate with 0.5 µg calcitriol (n=46), or placebo (n=44) for 6 months.
Postmenopausal women with breast cancer had significantly higher sclerostin levels compared to those in premenopausal women (27.8±13.6 pmol/L vs. 23.1±4.8 pmol/L, P<0.05). Baseline sclerostin levels positively correlated with either lumbar spine or total hip bone mineral density only in postmenopausal women (r=0.218 and r=0.233; P<0.05, respectively). Serum sclerostin levels increased by 39.9%±10.2% 6 months after AI use in postmenopausal women; however, no difference was observed between the alendronate and placebo groups (39.9%±10.2% vs. 55.9%±9.13%, P>0.05).
Serum sclerostin levels increased with absolute deficiency of residual estrogens in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer who underwent AI therapy with concurrent bone loss.
Sclerostin; Breast neoplasms; Aromatase inhibitors; Osteoporosis
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves by repeated focal pressure. HNPP can be diagnosed by clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies, histopathological features, and genetic analysis. Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases; however, sonographic features of HNPP have not been clearly defined. We report the sonographic findings and comparative electrodiagnostic data in a 73-year-old woman with HNPP, confirmed by genetic analysis. The cross-sectional areas of peripheral nerves were enlarged at typical nerve entrapment sites, but enlargement at non-entrapment sites was uncommon. These sonographic features may be helpful for diagnosis of HNPP when electrodiagnostic studies are suspicious of HNPP and/or gene study is not compatible.
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies; Ultrasonography; Electrophysiology
Lofgren's syndrome is an acute form of sarcoidosis characterized by erythema nodosum, bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy (BHL), and polyarthralgia or polyarthritis. This syndrome is common among Caucasians but rare in the Korean population. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of polyarthralgia. A chest radiograph revealed BHL and nodular shadows. Angiotensin-converting enzyme levels were within the normal range. Tissue biopsy from a mediastinum lymph node showed noncaseating granulomas. We diagnosed her with Lofgren's syndrome, an acute form of sarcoidosis.
Sarcoidosis; Arthritis; Lymph node
Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within LIN28B have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP) or early puberty (EP). This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP.
Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77 and 109 girls that fulfilled the criteria for PP and EP, respectively. The controls in this study were 144 healthy volunteers between 20 and 30 years of age. The haplotypes were reconstructed using 11 SNPs of LIN28B, and haplotype association analysis was performed. The haplotype frequencies were compared. Differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the haplotype dosage.
Eleven SNPs in LIN28B were all located in a block that was in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype could be reconstructed using 2 representative SNPs, rs4946651 and rs369065. The AC haplotype was less frequently observed in the PP group than in the controls (0.069 vs. 0.144, P=0.010). The trend that girls with non-AC haplotypes tended to have earlier puberty onset (P=0.037) was illustrated even in the EP+PP patient group by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
The results of the present study showed that non-AC haplotypes of LIN28B had a significant association with PP in girls.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Human LIN28 homolog B; Precocious puberty
Ginsenoside (ginseng saponin), the principal component of ginseng, is responsible for the pharmacological and biological activities of ginseng. We isolated lactic acid bacteria from Kimchi using esculin agar, to produce β-glucosidase. We focused on the bio-transformation of ginsenoside. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by comparing the 16S rRNA sequences. We identified the strain as Lactobacillus (strain 6105). In order to determine the optimal conditions for enzyme activity, the crude enzyme was incubated with 1 mM ginsenoside Rb1 to catalyse the reaction. A carbon substrate, such as cellobiose, lactose, and sucrose, resulted in the highest yields of β-glucosidase activity. Biotransformations of ginsenoside Rb1 were analyzed using TLC and HPLC. Our results confirmed that the microbial enzyme of strain 6105 significantly transformed ginsenoside as follows: Rb1→gypenoside XVII, Rd→F2 into compound K. Our results indicate that this is the best possible way to obtain specific ginsenosides using microbial enzymes from 6105 culture.
Panax ginseng; Lactobacillus pentosus; Transformation; Ginsenoside
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) deficiency. MPS II causes a wide phenotypic spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild to severe. IDS activity, which is measured in leukocyte pellets or fibroblasts, was reported to be related to clinical phenotype by Sukegawa-Hayasaka et al. Measurement of residual plasma IDS activity using a fluorometric assay is simpler than conventional measurements using skin fibroblasts or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This is the first study to describe the relationship between plasma IDS activity and clinical phenotype of MPS II.
We hypothesized that residual plasma IDS activity is related to clinical phenotype. We classified 43 Hunter syndrome patients as having attenuated or severe disease types based on clinical characteristics, especially intellectual and cognitive status. There were 27 patients with the severe type and 16 with the attenuated type. Plasma IDS activity was measured by a fluorometric enzyme assay using 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-iduronate 2-sulphate.
Plasma IDS activity in patients with the severe type was significantly lower than that in patients with the attenuated type (P=0.006). The optimal cut-off value of plasma IDS activity for distinguishing the severe type from the attenuated type was 0.63 nmol·4 hr-1·mL-1. This value had 88.2% sensitivity, 65.4% specificity, and an area under receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve of 0.768 (ROC curve analysis; P=0.003).
These results show that the mild phenotype may be related to residual lysosomal enzyme activity.
Hunter syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Iduronate sulfatase; Genotype phenotype
The aim of this study was to identify the most precise and clinically practicable parameters that predict future oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) failure in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to determine whether these parameters are valuable in various subgroups.
Materials and Methods
We took fasting blood samples from 231 patients for laboratory data and standard breakfast tests for evaluation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were tested, and we collected data related to hypoglycemic medications one year from the start date of the study.
Fasting C-peptide, postprandial insulin and C-peptide, the difference between fasting and postprandial insulin, fasting beta-cell responsiveness (M0), postprandial beta-cell responsiveness (M1), and homeostasis model assessment-beta (HOMA-B) levels were significantly higher in those with OHA response than in those with OHA failure. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) measured with postprandial C-peptide to predict future OHA failure was 0.720, and the predictive power for future OHA failure was the highest of the variable parameters. Fasting and postprandial C-peptide, M0, and M1 levels were the only differences between those with OHA response and those with OHA failure among diabetic subjects with low body mass index, high blood glucose level, or long-standing diabetes.
In conclusion, postprandial C-peptide was most useful in predicting future OHA failure in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, these parameters measuring beta-cell function are only valuable in diabetic subjects with low body mass index, high blood glucose level, or long-standing diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes; beta-cell function; OHA failure; standard breakfast test; C-peptide
Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea.
We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed.
A total of 19 (19.4%) patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively). Sixty-one (62.2%) patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=-0.26, P=0.03).
Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood.
Cancer survivor; Metabolic syndrome; Body composition; Fat percentage
To identify a proper T-score threshold for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Koreans using quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), normative data from 240 females and 238 males (ages 20-29 yr) were newly generated. Then, the osteoporosis prevalence estimate for men and women over 50 yr of age was analyzed using previous World Health Organization (WHO) methods and heel QUS. T-scores were calculated from the normative data. There were definite negative correlations between age and all of the QUS parameters, such as speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and estimated heel bone mineral density (BMD) (p<0.0001). After applying the recently determined prevalence of incident vertebral fracture in Koreans over 50 yr of age (11.6% and 9.1%, female vs male, respectively) to the diagnosis of osteoporosis by T-scores from heel BMD as measured by QUS, it was revealed that applicable T-scores for women and men were -2.25 and -1.85, respectively. These data suggest that simply using a T-score of -2.5, the classical WHO threshold for osteoporosis, underestimates the true prevalence when using peripheral QUS. Further prospective study of the power of QUS in predicting the absolute risk of fracture is needed.
Osteoporosis; Ultrasonography; Diagnosis; Demography
Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption, has a variety of biological functions that include anti-inflammatory effects. Adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common origin, and the formation of new blood vessels often precedes adipogenesis in developing adipose tissue microvasculature. We examined whether OPG is secreted from adipocytes, therefore contributing to the prevention of neovascularization and protecting the vessels from intimal inflammation and medial calcification.
Materials and Methods
The mRNA expression of OPG and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) was measured in differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes and adipose tissues.
OPG mRNA expression increased with the differentiation of 3T3L1 adipocytes, while RANKL expression was not significantly altered. OPG mRNA was expressed at higher levels in white adipose tissue than in brown adipose tissue and was most abundant in the epididymal portion. In differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes, Rosiglitazone and insulin reduced the OPG/RANKL expression ratio in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased the expression of both OPG and RANKL in a time-dependent manner. The OPG/RANKL ratio was at a maximum two hours after TNF-α treatment and then returned to control levels. Furthermore, OPG was abundantly secreted into the media after transfection of OPG cDNA with Phi C31 integrase into 3T3L1 cells.
Our results indicate that OPG mRNA is expressed and regulated in the adipose tissue. Considering the role of OPG in obesity-associated inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and vessels, we speculate that OPG may have both a protective function against inflammation and anti-angiogenic effects on adipose tissue.
Osteoprotegerin; receptor activator of NF-κB ligand; anti-angiogenic effects; obesity