The purpose of this study is to validate the recently published Breast–Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) and propose a new prognostic model and nomogram for patients with brain parenchymal metastases (BM) from breast cancer (BC). We retrospectively investigated 171 consecutive patients who received a diagnosis of BM from BC during 2000–2008. We appraised the recently proposed Sperduto's BC-specific GPA in training cohort through Kaplan-Meier survival curve using log-rank test and area under the curve for the BC-GPA predicting overall survival at 1 year and developed a new nomogram to predict outcomes using multivariate Cox-regression analysis. By putting the Sperduto's Breast-GPA together with our nomogram, we developed a new prognostic model. We validated our new prognostic model with an independent external patient cohort from 2 institutes for the same period. On the basis of our Cox-regression analysis, therapeutic effect of trastuzumab and status of extracranial systemic disease control were incorporated into our new prognostic model in addition to Karnofsky performance status, age, and hormonal status. Our new prognostic model showed significant discrimination in median survival time, with 3.7 months for class I (n = 15), 7.8 months for class II (n = 82), 10.7 months for class III (n = 42), and 19.2 months for class IV (n = 32; P < .0001). The new prognostic model accurately predicted survival among patients with BC from BM in an external validation cohort (P < .0001). We propose a new prognostic model and a nomogram reflecting the different biological features of BC, including treatment effect and status of extracranial disease control, which was excellently validated in an independent external cohort.
brain metastasis; breast cancer; HER2; prognosis; trastuzumab
The aim of the current study was to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes of "bone-only metastases" in patients with breast cancer and to analyze the impact of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status on prognosis.
Materials and Methods
Between 1994 and 2007, of 968 patients with metastatic breast cancer who underwent palliative management at Samsung Medical Center, 565 (57%) relapsed with distant metastases. Of the 968, 146 (15%) had bone-only metastases during a median follow-up period of 75 months. Among the 146 patients with bone-only metastases, 122 (84%) were relapsed patients after curative surgery and 24 (26%) were initially metastatic cases.
The median time from primary surgery to bone-only metastases of the 122 patients was 37 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 46 months). Bone-only metastases were more common in the HR-positive group than in the other subtypes (85% for HR+; 8.2% for HER2+; 6.8% for triple negative. Among all 146 patients, 75 (51%) were treated with hormone therapy. The median post-relapse progression-free survival was 15 months (95%CI, 13 to 17 months). The median overall survival was much longer in the HR+ patients than the HER2+ and triple negative breast cancer patients with marginal statistical significance (65 vs. 40 vs. 40 months, p=0.077).
Breast cancer patients with "bone-only metastases" had excellent clinical outcomes. Further study is now warranted to reveal the underlying biology that regulates the behavior of this indolent tumor, as it should identify 'favorable tumor characteristics' in addition to 'favorable preferential metastatic site.'
Bone; Neoplasm metastasis; Breast neoplasms; Estrogen receptors; Progesterone receptors; HER2
Herein, a case of solitary, unilateral renal metastasis in a patient with curatively resected thoracic esophageal carcinoma, who achieved a pathological complete remission after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy, is reported. The kidney is the 4th or 5th most common visceral metastasis site of a primary esophageal carcinoma. More than 50% of renal metastases typically show bilateral involvement. Solitary, unilateral renal metastasis is extremely rare. Renal metastases from a primary esophageal carcinoma are usually latent and its diagnosis is very unusual in a live patient. The solitary renal metastasis in this case was not accompanied by metastases to other sites. The value of a nephrectomy in solitary renal metastasis of esophageal cancer is not known due to the rarity of such cases. A nephrectomy could be justified in limited situations, such as with uncertainty of histological diagnosis, severe life-threatening hematuria, which cannot be controlled by embolization, or solitary renal metastasis with a long disease-free interval.
Esophageal carcinoma; Metastasis; Kidney
Cases of phenotypic heterogeneity of cells within tumors have recently been reported. Here, we report on a patient with characteristic intra-tumor double primary metastases in the lung. This patient was a 40-year-old Korean woman who had been diagnosed with breast cancer (T1N0M0, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/HER2 +/+/+) and papillary thyroid cancer three years prior and underwent a complete surgical resection followed by appropriate adjuvant treatment with radiation, hormone, and radioactive iodine. She was recently admitted for newly developed pulmonary nodules. Metastasectomy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed recurrent double primary cancer with two different components (metastatic ductal carcinomas from the breast and metastatic papillary carcinomas from the thyroid gland) in each pulmonary nodule in the right upper lobe and right middle lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous recurrent double metastasis in one organ from different primary origins.
Double primary tumor; Neoplasm metastasis; Intra-tumoral heterogeneity
The degree of benefit from palliative chemotherapy differs widely among patients with metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (MESCC). The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic nomogram to predict survival and aid physicians and patients in the decision-making process regarding treatment options.
Materials and Methods
Clinicopathologic variables and treatment outcomes of 239 patients who were diagnosed with MESCC and received either fluorouracil/cisplatin (FP) or capecitabine/cisplatin (XP) as first-line chemotherapy were reviewed. A nomogram was developed as a prognostic scoring system incorporating significant clinical and laboratory variables based on a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. An independent series of 61 MESCC patients treated with FP served as an independent data set for nomogram validation.
No difference in response rate was observed between the FP group (44.8%) and the XP group (54.2%). Similarly, no significant differences in median progression-free survival and median overall survival were observed between regimen groups. Multivariate analysis showed that poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] status≥2), weight loss (10% of the weight loss for 3 months), low albumin level (≤3.5 g/dL), and absence of previous esophagectomy at the time of chemotherapy were significantly associated with low OS in both groups (p<0.05). Based on these findings, patients were classified into favorable (score, 0 to 90), intermediate (91-134), and poor (>135) prognostic groups. The median survival for those with a favorable ECOG was 13.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.8 to 18.6 months), for intermediate 11.2 months (95% CI, 8.7 to 11.9 months), and for poor, 7.0 months (95% CI, 3.6 to 10.0 months). External validation of the nomogram in a different patient cohort yielded significantly similar findings.
The nomogram described here predicts survival in MESCC patients and could serve as a guide for the use of FP/XP chemotherapy in MESCC patients.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Prognostic factor; Nomograms
This study was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for survival from first relapse (SFFR) in stage I-III breast cancer patients.
Materials and Methods
From June 1994 to June 2008, 3,835 patients were treated with surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I-III breast cancer at Samsung Medical Center. Among them, a total of 224 patients died by June 2009, and 175 deaths were of breast cancer. Retrospective review was performed on medical records of 165 patients who met the inclusion criteria of this study. Univariate and multivariate analysis were done on survivals according to variables, such as age, stage, hormone status of tumor, disease-free interval (DFI), sites of first failure, number of organs involved by recurrent disease (NOR), application of salvage treatments, and existence of brain or liver metastasis (visceral metastasis).
Patients' median overall survival time was 38 months (range, 8 to 123 months). Median SFFR was 17 months (range, 5 to 87 months). Ninety percent of deaths occurred within 40 months after first recurrence. The patients with SFFR ≤1 year had tendency of triple-negativity, shorter DFI (≤2 years), larger NOR (>3), visceral metastasis for first relapse than the patients with SFFR >1 year. In multivariate analysis, longer DFI (>2 vs. ≤2 years), absence of visceral metastasis, and application of salvage treatments were statistically significant prognosticators for longer SFFR.
The DFI, application of salvage treatments, and visceral metastasis were significant prognostic factors for SFFR in breast cancer patients.
Survival; Recurrence; Prognosis; Breast neoplasms
The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine prognostic factors and treatment outcomes of brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer (BC) after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS).
Pathologic and clinical features, and outcomes were analyzed in a cohort of 62 patients with BM from BC treated by GKS. The Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and Cox's proportional hazards model were used to assess prognostic factors.
Median survival after GKS was 73.0 weeks (95% confidence interval, 46.0-100.1). HER2+ [hazard ratio (HR) 0.441; p=0.045], Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) ≥70 (RR 0.416; p=0.050) and systemic chemotherapy after GKS (RR 0.282; p=0.001) were found to be a favorable prognostic factor of overall survival. Actuarial local control (LC) rate were 89.5±4.5% and 70.5±6.9% at 6 and 12 months after GKS, respectively. No prognostic factors were found to affect LC rate. Uni- and multivariate analysis revealed that the distant control (DC) rate was higher in patients with; a small number (≤3) of metastasis (HR 0.300; p=0.045), no known extracranial metastasis (p=0.013, log-rank test), or the HER2+ subtype (HR 0.267; p=0.027). Additional whole brain radiation therapy and metastasis volume were not found to be significantly associated with LC, DC, or overall survival.
The treatment outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed BM from BC treated with GKS could be affected primarily by intrinsic subtype, KPS, and systemic chemotherapy. Therapeutic strategy and prognosis scoring system should be individualized based on considerations of intrinsic subtype in addition to traditionally known parameters related to stereotactic radiosurgery.
Brain metastasis; Breast cancer; Gamma Knife radiosurgery; Intrinsic subtype; Treatment outcomes
The aims of the present study were to investigate how breast cancer (BC) subtypes and treatment affect time to brain metastasis (TTBM). We retrospectively investigated 189 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with brain metastasis (BM) from BC between 2000 and 2009 at Samsung Medical Center. We analyzed TTBM from initial diagnosis of metastatic BC according to subtypes and trastzumab (T) administration before BM diagnosis. The median age of 189 BM patients from BC was 48 years. We divided TTBM into four groups considering BC subtypes and treatment; HR-positive/HER2-negative (n=45), HER2-positive with T before BM development (n=47), HER2-positive without T before BM development (n=39), and TNBC (n=58). The median TTBMs for each group were 17.5 months, 13.7 months, 5.8 months, and 2.9 months, respectively (p<0.001). HER2-positive without T (HR 1.892, p=0.008) and TNBC (HR 1.652, p=0.023) were independently associated with shorter TTBM. In multivariate analysis, HER2-positive without T (hazard ratio 1.725, p=0.002) and TNBC (hazard ratio 1.579, p=0.022) were independent risk factors for worse metastatic OS compared with HR-positive/HER2-negative subtype. TTBMs were shorter in patients with HER2-positive without T and TNBC among BC subtypes. Prospective clinical study for high risk patients for early BM is warranted.
Breast cancer; Brain metastases; HER2; Triple negative; Trastuzumab
This study evaluated the treatment results and the necessity to irradiate the supraclavicular lymph node (SCN) region in pathological N0-N1 (pN0-N1) patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by surgery and radiotherapy (RT).
Between 1996 and 2008, 184 patients with initial tumor size >5 cm or clinically positive lymph nodes were treated with NAC followed by surgery and RT. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed 98 patients with pN0-N1. Mastectomy was performed in 55%. The pathological lymph node stage was N0 in 49% and N1 in 51%. All patients received adjuvant RT to chest wall or breast and 56 patients (57%) also received RT to the SCN region (SCNRT).
At 5 years, locoregional recurrence (LRR)-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival rates were 93%, 83%, 81%, and 91%, respectively. In pN0 patients, LRR was 7% in SCNRT- group and 5% in SCNRT+ group. In pN1 patients, LRR was 7% in SCNRT- group and 6% in SCNRT+ group. There was no significant difference of LRR, regardless of SCNRT. However, in pN1 patients, there were more patients with poor prognostic factors in the SCNRT+ group compared to SCNRT- group. These factors might be associated with worse DFS in the SCNRT+ group, even though RT was administered to the SCN region.
Our study showed the similar LRR, regardless of SCNRT in pN0-pN1 breast cancer patients after NAC followed by surgery. Prospective randomized trial is called for to validate the role of SCNRT.
Adjuvant radiotherapy; Breast neoplasms; Lymphatic irradiation; Neoadjuvant therapy
To study clinical features and patterns of recurrence after breast-conserving treatment (BCT) for three molecular subtypes of early stage breast cancer.
The sample studied included 596 patients with T1-2N0-1 breast cancer who received BCT. Three groups were defined by receptor status. Luminal: estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) positive; triple negative (TN): ER, PR, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) receptor negative; and HER2 overexpressing: ER and PR negative but HER2 receptor positive.
The number of patients in each group was 408 (68.5%), 105 (17.6%), and 83 (13.9%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 79 months. The TN and HER2 subtypes occurred in younger patients (p=0.0007) and had higher nuclear grade and poorer histologic grade (p<0.0001 and 0.0071, respectively). During the follow-up period, locoregional recurrence was detected as the first site of recurrence in 26 (6.4%), 11 (10.5%), and 9 (10.8%) patients in the luminal, TN, and HER2 subtypes, respectively (p=0.1924). Thirty-one (7.6%), 7 (6.7%), and 7 (8.4%) patients in each group had distant metastases as the first sign of recurrence (p=0.8996). Median time to locoregional and distant recurrence was shorter in the HER2 subtype (p=0.0889 and 0.0780, respectively), and the HER2 subtype was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p=0.0009).
After BCT in Korean women with early stage breast cancer, the patterns of recurrence were not different among the molecular subtypes, although the TN and HER2 subtypes were associated with younger age, higher nuclear grade, and poorer histologic grade.
Breast-conserving surgery; Breast neoplasms; erbB-2 receptor; Estrogen receptors; Progesterone receptors; Recurrence
We analyzed the responses to first line treatment and clinical outcomes of metastatic breast cancer patients treated with palliative doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) according to molecular cancer subtype.
A retrospective analysis was performed for 110 metastatic breast cancer patients selected on the basis of palliative AC treatment and the availability of immunohistochemical data for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/neu) status.
Of the 110 patients analyzed, 71 (64.5%) were hormone receptor positive (HR+), 14 (12.7%) were HER2+, and 25 (22.7%) were triple negative (TN). There were no differences in age, stage at diagnosis, total number of cycles of palliative chemotherapy, incidence of visceral metastasis, and metastatic sites with the exception of liver among breast cancer subtypes. The overall response rates to AC were 55.9% for the HR+ subgroup, 42.9% for the HER2+ subgroup, and 56.5% for the TN subgroup. The progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with HER2+ and TN were significantly shorter than in the HR+ (median PFS, 9.1 vs 8.1 vs 11.5 months, respectively; p = 0.0002). The overall survival (OS) was 25.4 months in the TN subgroup and 27.3 months in HER2+ subgroup. The median OS for these two groups was significantly shorter than for patients in the HR+ subgroup (median, 38.5 months; 95% CI, 30.1-46.9 months; p < 0.0001).
The response to palliative AC chemotherapy did not differ among breast cancer subtypes. Despite chemosensitivity for palliative AC, the TN subtype has a shorter overall survival than non-TN subtypes. Innovative treatment strategies should be developed to slow the course of disease.
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are known as poor outcome subtypes with a lack of targeted therapy. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the difference of prognostic significance between TNBCs and BLBCs. In this study, we aimed to characterize the prognostic features of TNBCs, in view of BLBCs and quintuple-negative breast cancers (QNBC/5NPs).
Using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical analysis, we categorized 951 primary breast cancers into four or five subtypes according to the expression of ER, PR, HER2, and basal markers (CK5/6, EGFR).
The results of this study showed that both TNBCs and BLBCs were associated with high histological and/or nuclear grades. When the TNBCs are divided into two subtypes by the presence of basal markers, the clinicopathologic characteristics of TNBCs were mainly maintained in the BLBCs. The 5-subgrouping was the better prediction model for both disease free and overall survival in breast cancers than the 4-subgrouping. After multivariate analysis of TNBCs, the BLBCs did not have a worse prognosis than the QNBC/5NPs. Interestingly, the patients with BLBCs showed significant adjuvant chemotherapy benefit. In addition, QNBC/5NPs comprised about 6~8% of breast cancers in publicly available breast cancer datasets
The QNBC/5NP subtype is a worse prognostic subgroup of TNBCs, especially in higher stage and this result may be related to adjuvant chemotherapy benefit of BLBCs, calling for caution in the identification of subgroups of patients for therapeutic classification.
The increased survival of patients with breast cancer has given rise to other problems associated with the complications of chemotherapy. One major complication is premature ovarian failure, an especially harmful outcome for women of reproductive age. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment on protecting ovarian function in young breast cancer patients (30.59±5.1 yr) receiving chemotherapy after surgery. Twenty-two women were enrolled and given subcutaneous injections of leuprolide acetate (3.75 mg) every 4 weeks during chemotherapy. Follow-up laboratory tests (luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], and estradiol) were performed 1, 3, and 6 months after chemotherapy. Menstruation patterns and clinical symptoms were followed up for a mean duration of 35.6±1.7 months. FSH and LH levels were normal in all patients 6 months after completing chemotherapy (8.0±5.3, 4.4±2.7 mIU/mL, respectively). During follow-up, none of the patients complained of menopausal symptoms and 81.8% experienced recovery of menstruation. This report is the first trial of GnRHa as a treatment modality to protect ovarian function during adjuvant chemotherapy in young Korean breast cancer patients.
Ovarian function; Drug Therapy; GnRH agonist; Breast Neoplasms
Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) is a recently identified inhibitor of apoptosis protein. However, the clinical relevance of NAIP expression is not completely understood. In an attempt to determine the clinical relevance of NAIP expression in breast cancer, the levels of NAIP and survivin expression were measured in 117 breast cancer samples and 10 normal breast tissues using quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. While there was no evidence of NAIP expression in the normal breast tissue, NAIP was expressed in all breast cancer samples. The level of NAIP expression in breast cancer was significantly higher (257 times) than in the universal tumor control. There was a strong correlation between the level of NAIP expression and the level of survivin expression (p=0.001). The level of NAIP expression in patients with a large tumor (≥T2) and patients with an unfavorable histology (nuclear grade III) was significantly higher than in those patients with a small tumor (T1) and patients with a favorable histology (nuclear grade I, II) (p=0.026 and p=0.050, respectively). Although the level of NAIP expression was higher in patients with other unfavorable prognostic factors, it was not significant. The three-year relapse-free survival rate was not significantly the patients showing high NAIP expression and patients showing low NAIP expression (86.47±4.79% vs. 78.74±6.57%). Further studies should include the expressions of NAIP in a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up to evaluate correlation with metastasis and treatment outcome. In conclusion, NAIP is overexpressed in breast cancer patients with unfavorable clinical features such as stage and tumor size, suggesting that NAIP would play a role in the disease manifestation.
Breast Cancer; Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory rotein (NAIP); Apoptosis; Prognostic Factor; Clinical Relevance
Despite advanced effective prophylaxes, pulmonary complications still occur in a high proportion of all hematopoietic stem cell recipients, accounting for considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to describe the causes, incidences and mortality rates secondary to pulmonary complications and risk factors of such complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We reviewed the medical records of 287 patients who underwent either autologous or allogeneic HSCT for hematologic disorders from February 1996 to October 2003 at Samsung Medical Center (134 autografts, 153 allografts). The timing of pulmonary complications was divided into pre-engraftment, early and late period. The spectrum of pulmonary complications included infectious and non-infectious conditions. 73 of the 287 patients (25.4%) developed pulmonary complications. Among these patients, 40 (54.8%) and 29 (39.7%) had infectious and non-infectious conditions, respectively. The overall mortality rate from pulmonary complications was 28.8%. Allogeneic transplant, grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and extensive chronic GVHD were the risk factors with statistical significance for pulmonary complications after HSCT. The mortality rates from pulmonary complications following HSCT were high, especially those of viral and fungal pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome.
Infection; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; Graft vs. Host Disease
The association between a multiple myeloma and a secondary solid tumor is not well established. Some reports showed an increased risk of secondary solid neoplasms in multiple myeloma patients, but others have not. Three cases of the synchronous occurrence of multiple myelomas and solid tumors, namely, a small cell carcinoma of the lung, an adenocarcinoma of the colon and a squamous carcinoma of the pyriform sinus were experienced at our hospital. Therefore, herein is reported the clinical courses and treatment results. The stage of multiple myeloma was Durie-Salmon stage I in all of three cases; therefore, the solid tumors were treated as a primary target because the prognosis of early stage multiple myeloma is generally better than that of advanced solid tumor, while a smoldering or stage I myeloma do not need primary therapy until progression of the multiple myeloma. Two patients died of their solid tumors, but one patient is alive.
Multiple myeloma; Synchronous neoplasm; Second neoplasm
Recent observations suggest that immune response is involved in the development of pancreatitis. However, the exact pathogenesis underlying this immune-mediated response is still under debate. TGF-β has been known to be an important regulating factor in maintaining immune homeostasis. To determine the role of TGF-β in the initiation or progression of pancreatitis, TGF-β signaling was inactivated in mouse pancreata by overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant form of TGF-β type II receptor in the pancreas, under control of the pS2 mouse trefoil peptide promoter. Transgenic mice showed marked increases in MHC class II molecules and matrix metalloproteinase expression in pancreatic acinar cells. These mice also showed increased susceptibility to cerulein-induced pancreatitis. This pancreatitis was characterized by severe pancreatic edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, T- and B-cell hyperactivation, IgG-type autoantibodies against pancreatic acinar cells, and IgM-type autoantibodies against pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Therefore, TGF-β signaling seems to be essential either in maintaining the normal immune homeostasis and suppressing autoimmunity or in preserving the integrity of pancreatic acinar cells.