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1.  Is a Metallic Microcoil Really a Permanent Embolic Agent for the Management of Distal Guidewire-Induced Coronary Artery Perforation? 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(8):474-478.
Coronary artery perforation (CAP) after percutaneous coronary intervention is a rare, but serious complication. It can cause cardiac tamponade, acute myocardial infarction or death. The treatments of CAP involve prolonged balloon inflation, emergent surgery, coil embolization, and implantation of covered stent. We have successfully performed the emergent microcoil embolization in a patient with uncontrolled Ellis grade 3 guidewire-induced CAP resulting in delayed cardiac tamponade. Contrasting our usual expectation, the 1-year follow-up angiography showed a patent flow at the embolized site.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.8.474
PMCID: PMC3173669  PMID: 21949533
Embolization, therapeutic; Cardiac tamponade; Angioplasty, balloon, coronary
2.  Successful Treatment by Chemotherapy of Pineal Parenchymal Tumor with Intermediate Differentiation: A Case Report 
A 37-year-old male presented with a mass measuring 2.5 cm in size in the midbrain and obstructive hydrocephalus, which had manifested as a headache and dizziness. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain showed intermediate enhancement on T1-weighted MR imaging and a high intensity of enhancement on T2-weighted MR. Neurosurgeons performed an occipital craniotomy with partial removal of the tumor and the postoperative diagnosis was a pineal parenchymal tumor with intermediate differentiation. He had undergone irradiation with 54 Gy of radiation on 27 fractions for removal of the remaining tumor approximately one month after surgery. However, in follow-up imaging performed four months after radiotherapy, a remnant mass in the superoposterior aspect of the midbrain was found to have extended to the hypothalamus and the third ventricle. He was treated with six cycles of procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine chemotherapy. At five months since the completion of chemotherapy, the brain MR imaging showed no evidence of any remaining tumor and he no longer displayed any of his initial symptoms.
doi:10.4143/crt.2013.45.3.244
PMCID: PMC3804738  PMID: 24155685
Pinealoma; Drug therapy; Radiotherapy; Surgery
3.  The Role of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery in a Right Hemicolectomy for Right-Sided Colon Cancer 
Annals of Coloproctology  2014;30(1):11-17.
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perioperative and long-term oncologic outcomes of hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) and standard laparoscopic surgery (SLS) and assess the role of HALS in the management of right-sided colon cancer.
Methods
The study group included 53 patients who underwent HALS and 45 patients who underwent SLS for right-sided colon cancer between April 2002 and December 2008.
Results
The patients in each group were similar in age, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score, body mass index, and history of previous abdominal surgeries. Eight patients in the HALS group and no patient in the SLS group exhibited signs of tumor invasion into adjacent structures. No differences were noted in the time to return of normal bowel function, time to toleration of diet, lengths of hospital stay and narcotic usage, and rate of postoperative complications. The median incision length was longer in the HALS group (HALS: 7.0 cm vs. SLS: 4.8 cm, P < 0.001). The HALS group had a significantly higher pathologic TNM stage and significantly larger tumor size (HALS: 6.0 cm vs. SLS: 3.3 cm, P < 0.001). The 5-year overall, disease-free, and cancer-specific survival rates of the HALS and the SLS groups were 87.3%, 75.2%, and 93.9% and 86.4%, 78.0%, and 90.7%, respectively (P = 0.826, P = 0.574, and P = 0.826).
Conclusion
Although patients in the HALS group had more advanced disease and underwent more complex procedures than those in the SLS group, the short-term benefits and the oncologic outcomes between the two groups were comparable. HALS can, therefore, be considered an alternative to SLS for bulky and fixed right-sided colon cancer.
doi:10.3393/ac.2014.30.1.11
PMCID: PMC3953162  PMID: 24639965
Colonic neoplasms; Laparoscopy; Hand-assisted laparoscopy
4.  Success Rate and Risk Factors for Failure of Empirical Antifungal Therapy with Itraconazole in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: A Multicenter, Prospective, Open-Label, Observational Study in Korea 
We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462)
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.1.61
PMCID: PMC3890478  PMID: 24431907
Hematological Malignancy; Itraconazole; Empirical Antifungal Therapy; Galactomannan Test
5.  Development of a Specific and Rapid Diagnostic Method for Detecting Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 Virus Infection Using Immunochromatographic Assay 
Objectives
The aim of this study was to develop an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection.
Materials and methods
Several monoclonal antibodies against influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus were generated and an ICA (pdm09-ICA) was developed for the rapid and specific detection of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection. The specificity and sensitivity of the developed assay were compared with that of hemagglutination assay and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).
Results
The detection limit was estimated to be 1/2 (8) hemagglutinating unit; the sensitivity and specificity rates of pdm09-ICA were 75.86% (110/145) and 100% (43/43), respectively, compared with rRT-PCR. The cross-reactivity for 20 influenza viruses, including seasonal H1N1 viruses, was found to be negative except for the H1N1 virus (A/Swine/Korea/GC0503/2005).
Conclusion
These results indicate that the proposed method can be easily used for rapid and specific detection of the pdm09 infection. The assay developed in this study would be a useful tool for distinguishing the pdm09 infection from seasonal influenza A and B infections.
doi:10.1016/j.phrp.2013.10.006
PMCID: PMC3922102  PMID: 24524023
immunochromatographic assay; immunochromatography test; influenza; pdm09
6.  Predicting Survival in Patients with Advanced Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Validating the Extent of Metastasis 
Purpose
A number of factors related to overall survival (OS) have been addressed in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was conducted to determine the impact of whole-body metastatic regions on survival outcome in advanced non-squamous NSCLC.
Materials and Methods
Between March 2005 and February 2011, 112 eligible patients with newly confirmed stage IV non-squamous NSCLC, available for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status 18-21 analysis, and accessible for the determination of pretreatment whole-body metastatic regions were enrolled in this retrospective study. The total number of synchronous metastatic regions was scored according to the following disease sites: abdomen/pelvis, lung to lung/pulmonary lymphangitic spread, bone, pleura/pleural effusion/pericardial effusion, neck/axillary lymph nodes, other soft tissue, brain.
Results
The median age of the cohort was 65 years (range, 31 to 88 years). The median whole-body metastatic score was 2 (range, 1 to 6), and bone and lung to lung were the most common metastatic sites. EGFR mutations were observed in 40 (35.7%) patients with a deletion in exon 19 and Leu858Arg mutation in exon 21 being detected in 16 (40.0%) and 19 (47.5%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis for OS revealed that treatment factors (p=0.005), performance status (p=0.006), whole-body metastatic score (p<0.001), and EGFR mutation status (p=0.095) were significantly or marginally associated with OS.
Conclusion
The results of the present study demonstrated that whole-body metastatic extent strongly affects survival outcome, even after adjustment for other significant variables in advanced non-squamous NSCLC. The clinical validity of more curative multimodal approaches in cohorts with limited metastases remains to be explored.
doi:10.4143/crt.2013.45.2.95
PMCID: PMC3710968  PMID: 23864842
Epidermal growth factor receptor; Mutation; Adenocarcinoma of lung; Neoplasm metastasis; Non-small cell lung carcinoma; Prognosis
7.  Evaluation of Short-Term Use of N-Acetylcysteine as a Strategy for Prevention of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: EPOCH Trial - A Prospective Randomized Study 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(3):174-181.
Background and Objectives
We investigate to determine whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can prevent anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 103 patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized open label controlled trial. They are patients first diagnosed with breast cancer or lymphoma, who require chemotherapy, including anthracycline like adriamycine or epirubicine. Patients were randomized to the NAC group {n=50; 1200 mg orally every 8 hours starting before and ending after the intravenous infusion of anthracycline in all chemotherapy cycles (3-6)} or the control group (n=53). Primary outcome was the decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) absolutely ≥10% from the baseline and concomitantly <50% at 6-month. Composite of all-cause death, heart failure and readmission were compared.
Results
The primary outcome was not significantly different in the NAC and control groups {3/47 (6.4%) vs. 1/52 (1.9%), p=0.343}. The mean LVEF significantly decreased in both the NAC (from 64.5 to 60.8%, p=0.001) and control groups (from 64.1 to 61.3%, p<0.001) after the completion of whole chemotherapy. The mean LVEF change did not differ between the two groups (-3.64% in NAC vs. -2.78% in control group, p=0.502). Left ventricular (LV) end systolic dimension increased with higher trend in NAC by 3.08±4.56 mm as compared with 1.47±1.83 mm in the control group (p=0.064). LV end diastolic dimension did not change in each group and change does not differ in both. Peak E, A and E/A ratio change and cardiac enzymes were comparable in two groups. Cumulative 12-month event rate was 6% and 3.8% in the NAC group and the control group, respectively, with no difference (p=0.672).
Conclusion
We cannot prove that NAC prevents anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2013.43.3.174
PMCID: PMC3629243  PMID: 23613694
Acetylcysteine; Anthracyclines; Cardiomyopathies
8.  The Effects of Preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in Breast Cancer Patients in Comparison to the Conventional Imaging Study 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(4):441-448.
Purpose
There have been recent studies of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the staging, detection, and follow-up of the breast cancer occurrence and recurrence. There was controversy concerning the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT for staging primary breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the initial assessment of patients with primary breast cancer.
Methods
From January 2008 to December 2009, 154 consecutive biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study. Patients underwent conventional imaging studies including mammography, breast ultrasonography (USG), and magnetic resonance imaging for local assessment, and plain chest X-ray, liver USG, and bone scan to rule out distant metastasis. All 154 patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT in the initial assessment.
Results
18F-FDG PET/CT did not detect primary breast lesions in 16 patients with a sensitivity of 89.6% and detected only 5 multiple lesions (12.5%) out of 40 cases. Histologically confirmed axillary lymph node (LN) metastases were in 51 patients, and the sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT to detect metastatic axilla were 37.3% and 95.8%, respectively; whereas the corresponding estimates of USG were 41.2% and 93.7%, respectively. Eleven extra-axillary LN metastases were found in eight patients, and seven lesions were detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT only. The sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting distant metastasis were 100% and 96.4%, respectively; whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the conventional imaging were 61.5% and 99.2%, respectively.
Conclusion
18F-FDG PET/CT cannot be recommended as a primary diagnostic procedure in breast cancer, but it has the potential to be used as an additional imaging tool for the detection of axillary metastasis, distant metastasis, and extra-axillary LN metastasis. 18F-FDG PET/CT cannot solely replace the conventional diagnostic procedure in primary breast cancer. The best approach may be the combination of different imaging modalities.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2012.15.4.441
PMCID: PMC3542853  PMID: 23346174
Breast; Carcinoma; Computed tomography; Diagnostic imaging; Positron-emission tomography
9.  S100A2 Level Changes Are Related to Human Periodontitis 
Molecules and Cells  2011;32(5):445-450.
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, which, when severe, can result in tooth loss, that affects the quality of life. S100A2 was previously identified as a component of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) via proteome analysis, but it has not been investigated whether S100A2 plays a role in periodontitis. In this study, we analyzed mRNA expression of S100A2 in gingival tissues from normal and classified periodontal disease patients and compared it to that of S100A8 and S100A9. Quantitative real time-PCR revealed that the mRNA expression levels of S100A2, S100A8, and S100A9 were significantly upregulated in gingival tissues with gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis compared to normal tissues. In addition, S100A2 proteins in GCF and the conditioned media of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Jurkat cells were confirmed by ELISA. S100A2 protein levels were significantly higher in GCF in gingivitis and moderate periodontitis groups than in normal groups. S100A2 mRNA expression and protein secretion were also increased by LPS stimulation. Based on the up-regulation of S100A2 in LPS-stimulated immune cells, gingival tissues and GCF from periodontal disease groups, we conclude that S100A2 is a functional component in the immune response during periodontitis and may serve as a potential biomarker for periodontitis.
doi:10.1007/s10059-011-0132-5
PMCID: PMC3887693  PMID: 21922197
gingival crevicular fluid; gingival tissue; lipopolysaccharide; periodontitis; s100a2
10.  Effect of Activated Charcoal Fibers on the Survival of the House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: A Pilot Study 
ISRN Allergy  2012;2012:868170.
House dust mites produce potent allergens that exacerbate asthma in sensitized patients, whom are recommended to practice allergen avoidance within their home environment. We tested the effect of activated charcoal impregnated fibers on house dust mite survival. One hundred live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were added to eight culture dishes preequilibrated at room temperature (n = 4) and 70% humidity (n = 4) containing house dust mite food and active charcoal fibers. At 10 minute intervals, live and dead house dust mites were counted. All house dust mites instantly attached to the activated charcoal fibers and started to shrink almost immediately. There were no live house dust mites present as early as 40 minutes in some dishes while after 190 minutes all house dust mites were dead. In conclusion, activated charcoal fibers, if incorporated into bedding items, have the potential to control house dust mites in the indoor environment.
doi:10.5402/2012/868170
PMCID: PMC3671713  PMID: 23762605
11.  Enterovirus infection in Korean children and anti-enteroviral potential candidate agents 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2012;55(10):359-366.
Although most enterovirus infections are not serious enough to be life threatening, several enteroviruses such as enterovirus 71 are responsible for severe, potentially life-threatening disease. The epidemic patterns of enteroviruses occur regularly during the year, but they may change due to environmental shifts induced by climate change due to global warming. Therefore, enterovirus epidemiological studies should be performed continuously as a basis for anti-viral studies. A great number of synthesized antiviral compounds that work against enteroviruses have been developed but only a few have demonstrated effectiveness in vivo. No proven effective antiviral agents are available for enterovirus disease therapy. The development of a new antiviral drug is a difficult task due to poor selective toxicity and cost. To overcome these limitations, one approach is to accelerate the availability of other existing antiviral drugs approved for antiviral effect against enteroviruses, and the other way is to screen traditional medicinal plants.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2012.55.10.359
PMCID: PMC3488610  PMID: 23133481
Enterovirus; Antiviral agents; Medicinal plants
12.  Polyarteritis Nodosa Complicated by Chronic Total Occlusion Accompanying Aneurysms on All Coronary Arteries 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(8):568-570.
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is characterized by inflammatory necrosis of medium sized arteries. PAN can also be associated with stenosis or aneurysm of the coronary artery. However, the involvement of PAN at a coronary artery is usually asymptomatic, which makes it difficult to diagnose. In addition, all of the three main coronary arteries involved with chronic total occlusion (CTO) is a rare finding in patients with PAN. We report a patient that presented with PAN complicated by CTO and aneurysms of three main coronary arteries, without typical symptoms of angina.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.8.568
PMCID: PMC3438269  PMID: 22977455
Polyarteritis nodosa; Coronary aneurysm; Coronary occlusion
13.  Evaluation of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probe-based Real-time PCR for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Specimens 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(4):257-263.
Background
A peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe-based real-time PCR (PNAqPCR™ TB/NTM detection kit; PANAGENE, Korea) assay has been recently developed for the simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in clinical specimens. The study was aimed at evaluation of the performance of PNA probe-based real-time PCR in respiratory specimens.
Methods
To evaluate potential cross-reactivity, the extracted DNA specimens from Mycobacterium species and non-mycobacterial species were tested using PNA probe-based real-time PCR assay. A total of 531 respiratory specimens (482 sputum specimens and 49 bronchoalveolar washing fluid specimens) were collected from 230 patients in July and August, 2011. All specimens were analyzed for the detection of mycobacteria by direct smear examination, mycobacterial culture, and PNA probe-based real-time PCR assay.
Results
In cross-reactivity tests, no false-positive or false-negative results were evident. When the culture method was used as the gold standard test for comparison, PNA probe-based real-time PCR assay for detection of MTBC had a sensitivity and specificity of 96.7% (58/60) and 99.6% (469/471), respectively. Assuming the combination of culture and clinical diagnosis as the standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the new real-time PCR assay for detection of MTBC were 90.6% (58/64) and 99.6% (465/467), respectively. The new real-time PCR for the detection of NTM had a sensitivity and specificity of 69.0% (29/42) and 100% (489/489), respectively.
Conclusions
The new real-time PCR assay may be useful for the detection of MTBC in respiratory specimens and for discrimination of NTM from MTBC.
doi:10.3343/alm.2012.32.4.257
PMCID: PMC3384806  PMID: 22779066
Peptide nucleic acids; PCR; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterium
14.  Enhancing Nanoparticle-Based Visible Detection by Controlling the Extent of Aggregation 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:456.
Visible indication based on the aggregation of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) is highly advantageous for rapid on-site detection of biological entities, which even untrained persons can perform without specialized instrumentation. However, since the extent of aggregation should exceed a certain minimum threshold to produce visible change, further applications of this conventional method have been hampered by insufficient sensitivity or certain limiting characteristics of the target. Here we report a signal amplification strategy to enhance visible detection by introducing switchable linkers (SLs), which are designed to lose their function to bridge NPs in the presence of target and control the extent of aggregation. By precisely designing the system, considering the quantitative relationship between the functionalized NPs and SLs, highly sensitive and quantitative visible detection is possible. We confirmed the ultrahigh sensitivity of this method by detecting the presence of 20 fM of streptavidin and fewer than 100 CFU/mL of Escherichia coli.
doi:10.1038/srep00456
PMCID: PMC3374159  PMID: 22701160
15.  Bevacizumab as a second- or later-line of treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer 
AIM: To determine the efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) who have failed prior chemotherapy without bevacizumab.
METHODS: Between March 2002 and June 2010, 40 patients in South Korea with MCRC who were treated with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as a second or later-line treatment were analyzed retrospectively for their overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). The tumor responses were assessed using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guidelines.
RESULTS: All of the patients had progressed under prior chemotherapy without bevacizumab. Three patients (7.5%) exhibited an ORR, twenty one patients (52.5%) exhibited stable disease (SD), and fifteen patients (37.5%) exhibited disease progression. The median duration of the OS and PFS were 14.0 mo and 6.13 mo respectively. The median OSs were 16.60, 14.07 and 13.00 mo for second-line, third-line and fourth- or later-line treatments, respectively. The median PFSs were 7.23, 7.30 and 3.87 mo for the second-line, third-line and fourth- or later-line treatments, respectively.
CONCLUSION: In patients with MCRC, bevacizumab combined chemotherapy may be beneficial during second- or later-line treatment.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i10.1104
PMCID: PMC3296985  PMID: 22416186
Colorectal cancer; Metastasis; Bevacizumab; Efficacy; Second- or later-line
16.  Alterations in arterial function after high-voltage electrical injury 
Critical Care  2012;16(1):R25.
Introduction
The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional changes of the arterial endothelium and smooth muscle after a high-voltage electrical injury (HVEI), using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and nitrate-mediated dilation (NMD).
Methods
Twenty-five male patients injured in the upper extremities by current due to contact with more than 20,000 volts were enrolled in the study. FMD and NMD were measured on the brachial artery within 48 hours after HVEI, and follow-up FMD and NMD were evaluated six weeks later. In addition, we enrolled an age, sex and body mass index matched healthy control group consisting of 25 individuals. Including FMD and NMD, all the variables of the control group were investigated one time and compared with the initial and six week follow-up data of the HVEI group.
Results
A significantly lower initial FMD was seen in the HVEI group compared with the control group (2.1 ± 1.2% versus 13.6 ± 3.4%, P < 0.01). At the six week follow-up, the FMD of the HVEI group had significantly improved compared to the initial FMD (2.1 ± 1.2% versus 5.1 ± 2.1%, P < 0.01), but it was still lower than the FMD of the control group (5.1 ± 2.1% versus 13.6 ± 3.4%, P < 0.01). A significantly lower NMD was seen both initially and at the six week follow-up compared with the NMD of the control group (7.3 ± 4.7% versus 20.4 ± 4.1%, P < 0.01 and 11.4 ± 6.7% versus 20.4 ± 4.1%, P < 0.01, respectively). The FMD study of the contralateral arm which was uninjured by HVEI was available in six patients. In those patients, the six week follow-up FMD was significantly improved in the HVEI arm compared with the initial FMD (1.8 ± 0.6% versus 4.4 ± 1.6%, P < 0.01). However, in the contralateral uninjured arm, there was no difference between the initial and the six week follow-up FMDs (5.5 ± 1.4% versus 6.9 ± 2.2%, P = 0.26).
Conclusions
After HVEI, the endothelial and smooth muscle functions of the brachial artery were significantly decreased for at least six weeks. Long term cautious care might be needed for all victims of HVEI, because there is a chance of increased risk of thrombosis or stenosis in the injured arm.
doi:10.1186/cc11190
PMCID: PMC3396269  PMID: 22326053
high-voltage electrical injury; endothelium; smooth muscle; arterial function; flow-mediated dilation; nitrate-mediated dilation
17.  The Revised Edition of Korean Calendar for Allergenic Pollens 
The old calendar of pollens did not reflect current pollen distribution and concentrations that can be influenced by changes of weather and environment of each region in South Korea. A new pollen calendar of allergenic pollens was made based on the data on pollen concentrations obtained in eight regions nationwide between 1997 and 2009. The distribution of pollen was assessed every day at 8 areas (Seoul, Guri, Busan, Daegu, Jeonju, Kwangju, Kangneung, and Jeju) for 12 years between July 1, 1997 and June 30, 2009. Pollens were collected by using Burkard 7-day sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co Ltd, UK). Pollens which were stained with Calberla's fuchsin staining solution were identified and counted. Pine became the highest pollen in May, and the pollen concentrations of oak and birch also became high. Ragweed appeared in the middle of August and showed the highest pollen concentration in the middles of September. Japanese hop showed a high concentration between the middle of August and the end of September, and mugwort appeared in the middles of August and its concentration increased up until early September. In Kangneung, birch appeared earlier, pine showed a higher pollen concentration than in the other areas. In Daegu, Oriental thuja and alder produced a large concentration of pollens. Pine produced a large concentration of pollens between the middle of April and the end of May. Weeds showed higher concentrations in September and mugwort appeared earlier than ragweed. In Busan the time of flowering is relatively early, and alder and Oriental thuja appeared earliest among all areas. In Kwangju, Oriental thuja and hazelnut appeared in early February. Japanese cedar showed the highest pollen concentration in March in Jeju. In conclusion, update information on pollen calendar in South Korea should be provided for allergic patients through the website to manage and prevent the pollinosis.
doi:10.4168/aair.2012.4.1.5
PMCID: PMC3242062  PMID: 22211164
Allergens; pollen
18.  Evaluation of a New Immunochromatographic Assay Kit for the Rapid Detection of Norovirus in Fecal Specimens 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2011;32(1):79-81.
Rapid and accurate detection of norovirus is essential for the prevention and control of norovirus outbreaks. This study compared the effectiveness of a new immunochromatographic assay kit (SD BIOLINE Norovirus; Standard Diagnostics, Korea) and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for detecting norovirus in fecal specimens. Compared with real-time RT-PCR, the new assay had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 76.5% (52/68), 99.7% (342/343), 98.1% (52/53), and 95.5% (342/358), respectively. The sensitivity of the assay was 81.8% (18/22) for GII.3 and 75.7% (28/37) for GII.4. None of the 38 enteric virus-positive specimens (3 for astrovirus, 5 for enteric adenovirus, and 30 for rotavirus) tested positive in the cross-reactivity test performed by using this assay. The new immunochromatographic assay may be a useful screening tool for the rapid detection of norovirus in sporadic and outbreak cases; however, negative results may require confirmatory assays of greater sensitivity.
doi:10.3343/alm.2012.32.1.79
PMCID: PMC3255496  PMID: 22259783
Immunochromatographic assay; Norovirus; Sensitivity; Specificity
19.  Simultaneous Total Occlusion of Multiple Distal Coronary Arteries in Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(10):622-624.
Simultaneous multiple coronary artery thrombosis is a rare finding in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We report a case of myocardial infarction with multiple ST segment elevation on the electrocardiography and total occlusions of the distal left anterior descending artery (dLAD), as well as of the second and third obtuse marginal artery on emergency coronary angiography. Thrombus aspiration was performed at dLAD and systemic glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor was used successfully. In patients with STEMI, multiple coronary thromboses are unusual and associated with patient fatality. However, assertive thrombus aspiration and antiplatelet therapy could be effective in STEMI patients with multiple distal coronary artery occlusions.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.10.622
PMCID: PMC3221907  PMID: 22125564
Myocardial infarction; Coronary artery disease; Multiple
20.  Identification of azurocidin as a potential periodontitis biomarker by a proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid 
Proteome Science  2011;9:42.
Background
The inflammatory disease periodontitis results in tooth loss and can even lead to diseases of the whole body if not treated. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) reflects the condition of the gingiva and contains proteins transuded from serum or cells at inflamed sites. In this study, we aimed to discover potential protein biomarkers for periodontitis in GCF proteome using LC-MS/MS.
Results
We identified 305 proteins from GCF of healthy individuals and periodontitis patients collected using a sterile gel loading tip by ESI-MS/MS coupled to nano-LC. Among these proteins, about 45 proteins were differentially expressed in the GCF proteome of moderate periodontitis patients when compared to the healthy individuals. We first identified azurocidin in the GCF, but not the saliva, as an upregulated protein in the periodontitis patients and verified its increased expression during periodontitis by ELISA using the GCF of the classified periodontitis patients compared to the healthy individuals. In addition, we found that azurocidin inhibited the differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to osteoclasts.
Conclusions
Our results show that GCF collection using a gel loading tip and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis following 1D-PAGE proteomic separation are effective for the analysis of the GCF proteome. Our current results also suggest that azurocidin could be a potential biomarker candidate for the early detection of inflammatory periodontal destruction by gingivitis and some chronic periodontitis. Our data also suggest that azurocidin may have an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation and, thus, a protective role in alveolar bone loss during the early stages of periodontitis.
doi:10.1186/1477-5956-9-42
PMCID: PMC3162872  PMID: 21794177
21.  Phase II Study of Vinorelbine Plus Trastuzumab in HER2 Overexpressing Metastatic Breast Cancer Pretreated with Anthracyclines and Taxanes 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2011;14(2):140-146.
Purpose
The role of first-line trastuzumab-based therapy has been firmly established in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) positive metastatic breast cancer. In this trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a vinorelbine and trastuzumab combination chemotherapy in patients who were pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes.
Methods
Thirty-three patients with HER2 overexpressing metastatic breast cancer, all of whom had previously been treated with anthracyclines and taxanes, were included in this study. The patients were treated with 25 mg/m2 of vinorelbine (over a 15-minute infusion) on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks. Additionally, trastuzumab was administered at an initial dose of 4 mg/kg over 90 minutes, and was subsequently administered at weekly doses of 2 mg/kg (over 30 minutes).
Results
The median age of the patients was 53 years (range, 39-72 years). The overall response rate was 30.3% (10 patients; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23-57%). The median time to progression was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.3-8.2 months). The median overall survival was 12.4 months (95% CI, 10.3-14.6 months). In the 194 cycles of treatment, the incidence rates of grade ≥3 neutropenia and anemia were 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Neutropenic fever was detected in three cycles (1.5%). The non-hematological toxicities were not severe: grade 1 or 2 nausea or vomiting was detected in 15.2%, and grade 2 neuropathy was noted in 6.1% of patients. None of the patients experienced any serious cardiac toxicity, and no treatment-related deaths occurred.
Conclusion
These results show that a combination chemotherapy consisting of vinorelbine and trastuzumab is useful in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer who were pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes, with a favorable toxicity profile.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2011.14.2.140
PMCID: PMC3148545  PMID: 21847410
Breast neoplasms; Metastasis; Trastuzumab; Vinorelbine
22.  A giant retroperitoneal lymphangioma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;80(Suppl 1):S43-S46.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is a genetically inherited disorder that may cause skin abnormalities and tumors that form on nerve tissues. These tumors can be small or large and can occur anywhere in the body, including the brain, spinal cord, or other peripheral nerves. Retroperitoneal lymphangiomas are very rare benign malformations of the lymphatic system. About 95% lymphangiomas occur in the skin and the subcutaneous tissues of the head, neck and axillary region and the remaining 5% appear in other parts of the body such as lungs, pleura, pericardium, liver, gallbladder, kidney, and the mesentery. Herein, we report the case of a giant retroperitoneal lymphangioma in a patient with NF-1 with a review of the literature.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.Suppl1.S43
PMCID: PMC3205378  PMID: 22066082
Lymphangioma; Retroperitoneal neoplasms; Neurofibromatosis 1
23.  Predictive Value of Post-Transplant Bone Marrow Plasma Cell Percent in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergone Autologous Transplantation 
Background/Aims
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has become the treatment of choice for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Studies have shown that maintenance treatment with interferon-alpha is associated with improved survival rates following ASCT. However, despite these recent advances in regimes, relapses are inevitable; thus, the prediction of relapse following ASCT requires assessment.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 39 patients who received ASCT between 2003 and 2008. All patients received chemotherapy with vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone (VAD), and ASCT was performed following high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy. We evaluated the influence of the post-transplant day +14 (D+14) bone marrow plasma cell percent (BMPCp) (≥ 2 vs. < 2%), international scoring system (ISS) stage (II vs. III), response after 3 cycles of VAD therapy (complete response [CR] vs. non-CR), deletion of chromosome 13q (del[13q]) (presence of the abnormality vs. absence), and BMPCp at diagnosis (≥ 50 vs. < 50%) on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Results
During the median follow-up of 28.0 months, the median PFS and OS were 29.1 and 42.1 months, respectively. By univariate analysis, ISS stage III at diagnosis, BMPCp ≥ 50% at diagnosis, CR after 3 cycles of VAD therapy, del (13q) by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and BMPCp ≥ 2% at post-transplant D+14 were correlated with PFS and OS. A multivariate analysis revealed that a post-transplant D+14 BMPCp ≥ 2% (PFS, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.426, p = 0.008; OS, HR = 3.545, p = 0.038) and CR after 3 cycles of VAD therapy (PFS, HR = 0.072, p = 0.014; OS, HR = 0.055, p = 0.015) were independent prognostic parameters.
Conclusions
Post-transplant D+14 BMPCp is a useful parameter for predicting the outcome for patients with MM receiving ASCT.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2011.26.1.76
PMCID: PMC3056259  PMID: 21437166
Multiple myeloma; Stem cell transplantation; Bone marrow; Plasma cell
24.  Different Antiulcer Activities of Pantoprazole in Stress, Alcohol and Pylorus Ligation-Induced Ulcer Models 
Laboratory Animal Research  2011;27(1):47-52.
Antiulcer effects of pantoprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, on water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-, alcohol (ethanol)- and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcers were investigated in male rats. Rats were orally administered with pantoprazole 30 min prior to exposure to various types of ulcer inducers. In stress-induced ulcer model, rats were subjected to WIRS at 22℃ for 4 hours, and the degree of ulcer (in mm) was evaluated. In alcohol-induced ulcer model, rats were orally administered with pure (100%) ethanol (1 mL/kg), and the ulcer lesions were measured 1 hour after ethanol challenge. In pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model, rats were subjected to pylorus ligation, and the degree of erosions and ulcers was scored 17 hours after the operation. Pantoprazole attenuated the ulcer lesions induced by WIRS in a dose-dependent manner, exhibiting a median effective dose (ED50) value of 0.78 mg/kg. By comparison, pantoprazole was effective at relatively-high doses for the improvement of ethanol-induced ulcers, showing an ED50 value of 20.5 mg/kg. Notably, pantoprazole was practically ineffective (ED50>50.0) in pylorus ligation model. Taken together, it was confirmed that pantoprazole showed inhibitory activity on gastric ulcers induced by stress and alcohol, but was ineffective on pylorus ligation-induced ulcer. Therefore, the results indicate that proton-pump inhibitors including pantoprazole might reveal highly-different effects according to the type of ulcer inducers, and that the prescription of antiulcer agents should be carefully selected.
doi:10.5625/lar.2011.27.1.47
PMCID: PMC3145982  PMID: 21826160
Pantoprazole; gastric ulcer; stress; alcohol; pylorus ligation
25.  Increased Nephrotoxicity after Combined Administration of Melamine and Cyanuric Acid in Rats 
Laboratory Animal Research  2011;27(1):25-28.
Renal toxicity by melamine in combination with cyanuric acid (1:1) was investigated. Male rats were orally administered melamine plus cyanuric acid (5, 50 or 400 mg/kg each) for 3 days. In contrast to a negligible effect by melamine alone (50 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect-level: NOAEL), co-administration with cyanuric acid markedly increased the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, as well as kidney weight. A high dose (400 mg/kg) of melamine plus cyanuric acid induced more severe kidney toxicity. The increased blood parameters for kidney toxicity and organ weight lasted longer than 4 days. Combined treatment with melamine and cyanuric acid (50-400 mg/kg each) resulted in many gold-brown crystals and toxic lesions in renal tubules, which were not observed in animals treated with melamine alone (50 mg/kg). These results indicate that only a 3-day exposure to melamine in combination with cyanuric acid causes severe renal damage, even at a NOAEL for melamine found in a 13-week toxicity study. Therefore, it is suggested that the tolerable daily intake or regulatory/management levels of melamine need to be re-considered for cases of co-exposure with cyanuric acid.
doi:10.5625/lar.2011.27.1.25
PMCID: PMC3145992  PMID: 21826156
Melamine; cyanuric acid; nephrotoxicity; renal crystal

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