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1.  Proposal for the Promotion of Korean Neurosurgery 
The author conducted a survey on the current status of neurosurgery around the world in preparation for Presidential Address at the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN). The addresses and findings from the survey were presented at ISPN in 2006 and Child's Nervous System in 2007. After reviewing the current status of neurosurgery of various countries, the author would like to share this information with members of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, as well as offer a proposal to promote Korean neurosurgery around the world.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.1.1
PMCID: PMC2588160  PMID: 19096536
Neurosurgery; World Federation of Neurological Surgeons; Korean Neurosurgical Society; Neurosurgical Society
2.  Pineal Cavernous Malformations: Report of Two Cases 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2005;46(6):851-858.
Pineal hemorrhage only occurs in rare cases, and this known to have several different causes such as germ cell tumors, pineal cysts and vascular malformations, including the cavernous malformations. Pineal cavernous malformations are extremely rare: to date only fifteen cases have been reported worldwide. Although the diagnosis of pineal cavernous malformation is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. Case 1. A 42-year- old man presented with a limitation in his upward gazing. Radiologic examinations showed acute hemorrhage in the pineal region. He underwent ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunting but the patient's condition deteriorated after the shunting surgery. We operated and totally removed the tumor and the hemorrhages via an occipital-transtentorial approach. Case 2. A 37-year-old man presented with diplopia. Radiologic examinations showed acute hemorrhage in the third ventricle. He underwent VP shunting, and after this procedure the diplopia was aggravated. We operated and totally removed the tumor and the hemorrhages via an occipital-transtentorial approach. If there is no doubt about the pineal cavernous malformation on MR imaging, we strongly recommend early surgical intervention without performing a risky biopsy. In this study, we describe our experiences for the diagnosis of cavernous malformations in the pineal region with special emphasis on the radiological aspects and the clinical course of this disease.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2005.46.6.851
PMCID: PMC2810602  PMID: 16385664
Cavernous malformation; pineal region
3.  Intraventricular Hemorrhage Long after Successful Encephaloduroarterio Synangiosis in Moyamoya Patient 
Intraventricular hemorrhage long after successful encephaloduroarterio synangiosis (EDAS) is very rare. The effect of revascularization surgery for preventing hemorrhagic event of moyamoya disease remains controversial. We report a 17-year-old female with intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrahge 10 years after successful EDAS. Even though cerebral vessels angiography showed good collateral circulations without specific weak points, a cerebral hemorrhage could occur in patient with ischemic type of moyamoya disease long after successful indirect bypass operations. Good collateralization of cerebral angiography or magnetic resonance perfusion image after indirect bypass surgery would ensure against ischemic symptoms, not a hemorrhage. And, thus a life-time follow-up strategy might be necessary even if a good collateral circulation has been established.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.3.257
PMCID: PMC2764026  PMID: 19844628
Moyamoya disease; Intracranial hemorrhage; Perfusion; Ischemic attack
4.  Congenital Cavernous Sinus Cystic Teratoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(4):704-710.
Teratomas represent 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. These benign tumors contain tissue representative of the three germinal layers. Most teratomas are midline tumors located predominantly in the sellar and pineal regions. The presence of a teratoma in the cavernous sinus is very rare. Congenital teratomas are also rare, especially those of a cystic nature. To our knowledge, this would be the first case report of a congenital, rapidly growing cystic teratoma within the cavernous sinus. A three-month-old boy presented with a past medical history of easy irritability and poor oral intake. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) scan of the head disclosed a large expanding cystic tumor filling the right cavernous sinus and extending into the pterygopalatine fossa through the foramen rotundum. These scans also demonstrated a small area of mixed signal intensity, the result of the different tissue types conforming to the tumor. Heterogeneous enhancement was seen after the infusion of contrast medium. However, this was a cystic tumor with a large cystic portion. Thus, a presumptive diagnosis of cystic glioma was made. With the use of a right frontotemporal approach, extradural dissection of the tumor was performed. The lesion entirely occupied the cavernous sinus, medially displacing the Gasserian ganglion and trigeminal branches (predominantly V1 and V2). The lesion was composed of different tissues, including fat, muscle and mature, brain-like tissue. The tumor was completely removed, and the pathological report confirmed the diagnosis of a mature teratoma. There was no evidence of recurrence. Despite the location of the lesion in the cavernous sinus, total removal can be achieved with the use of standard microsurgical techniques.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2007.48.4.704
PMCID: PMC2628058  PMID: 17722246
Benign tumors; cavernous sinus; pathology; surgery; teratoma
5.  Effects of Methylprednisolone on the Neural Conduction of the Motor Evoked Potentials in Spinal Cord Injured Rats 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(1):132-138.
Methylprednisolone (MP), a glucocorticoid steroid, has an anti-inflammatory action and seems to inhibit the formation of oxygen free radicals produced during lipid peroxidation in a spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the effects of MP on the functional recovery after a SCI is controversial. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of MP on the recovery of neural conduction following a SCI. A SCI was produced using the NYU spinal cord impactor. A behavioral test was conducted to measure neurological disorders, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded. According to the behavioral test, using BBB locomotor scaling, MP-treated animals showed improved functional recoveries when compared to salinetreated animals. MEP latencies in the MP-treated group were shortened when compared to those in the control group. Peak amplitudes of MEPs were larger in the MP-treated group than those in the control group. The thresholds of MEPs tended to be lower in the MP-treated group than those in the control group. These results suggest that MP may improve functional recovery after a SCI.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.1.132
PMCID: PMC2808560  PMID: 15716618
Spinal Cord Injuries; Methylprednisolone; Behavior; Evoked Potentials; Recovery of Function
6.  The Role of VEGF and KDR Polymorphisms in Moyamoya Disease and Collateral Revascularization 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e47158.
We conducted a case-control study to investigate whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF −2578, −1154, −634, and 936) and kinase insert domain containing receptor (KDR −604, 1192, and 1719) polymorphisms are associated with moyamoya disease. Korean patients with moyamoya disease (n = 107, mean age, 20.9±15.9 years; 66.4% female) and 243 healthy control subjects (mean age, 23.0±16.1 years; 56.8% female) were included. The subjects were divided into pediatric and adult groups. Among the 64 surgical patients, we evaluated collateral vessel formation after 2 years and divided patients into good (collateral grade A) or poor (collateral grade B and C) groups. The frequencies and distributions of four VEGF (−2578, −1154, −634, and 936) and KDR (−604, 1192, and 1719) polymorphisms were assessed from patients with moyamoya disease and compared to the control group. No differences were observed in VEGF −2578, −1154, −634, and 936 or KDR −604, 1192, and 1719 polymorphisms between the control group and moyamoya disease group. However, we found the −634CC genotype occurred less frequently in the pediatric moyamoya group (p = 0.040) whereas the KDR −604C/1192A/1719T haplotype increased the risk of pediatric moyamoya (p = 0.024). Patients with the CC genotype of VEGF −634 had better collateral vessel formation after surgery. Our results suggest that the VEGF −634G allele is associated with pediatric moyamoya disease and poor collateral vessel formation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047158
PMCID: PMC3470587  PMID: 23077562
7.  Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for children with newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(2):120-126.
Background
In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in children with a newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
Methods
Between March 2005 and April 2007, patients older than 3 years with a newly diagnosed high-risk MB or sPNET were enrolled. The patients received two cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (cycle A), and carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and ifosphamide (cycle B), followed by CSRT with 23.4 Gy and local RT with 30.6 Gy. After four cycles of post-RT chemotherapy (cycles A, B, A, and B), tandem double HDCT with ASCR was performed.
Results
A total of 13 patients (MB=11, sPNET=2) were enrolled. Of these, one patient progressed, one patient died of septic shock after the second cycle of B, and one patient relapsed after the third cycle of B. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of the patients intended for HDCT was 76.9%, whereas the 3-year EFS rate of the patients who received HDCT was 100%. No treatment-related mortality occurred during HDCT.
Conclusion
Although the follow-up period was short and the patient cohort was small in size, the results of this study are encouraging. The limited toxicity and favorable EFS rate observed in children treated with reduced-dose CSRT followed by HDCT and ASCR warrant further exploration in a larger study population.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.2.120
PMCID: PMC2983022  PMID: 21120191
Radiotherapy; High-dose chemotherapy; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Medulloblastoma; Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor; Children

Results 1-7 (7)