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2.  Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains 
Viruses  2016;8(8):240.
One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3–4 and ORFs 5–6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains.
PMCID: PMC4997602  PMID: 27556483
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; chimeric virus; cytokines; serum virus neutralizing antibodies; vaccine; pig
3.  A successful treatment of hypercalcemia with zoledronic acid in a 15-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
Severe hypercalcemia in children is a rare medical emergency. We present a case of a 15-year-old boy with hypercalcemia (total calcium level, 14.2 mg/dL) with a normal complete blood count, no circulating blasts in the peripheral blood film, and no other signs of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), including no signs of lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. The hypercalcemia was successfully treated with zoledronic acid. As hypercalcemia can be the only presenting symptom of ALL in children, the diagnosis is often delayed. In children presenting with hypercalcemia, malignancies must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4960023  PMID: 27462588
Hypercalcemia; Leukemia; Osteoclast activating factor
4.  Antiobesity Effects of Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel and Its Constituents: An In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of the Underlying Mechanism 
Background. The objective of the present study was to perform a bioguided fractionation of unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel (uRC) and evaluate the lipid accumulation system involvement in its antiobesity activity as well as study the uRC mechanism of action. Results. After the fractionation, the BuOH fraction of uRC (uRCB) was the most active fraction, suppressing the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, after an oral administration for 8 weeks in HFD-induced obese mice, uRCB (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) produced a significant decrease in body weight, food efficiency ratio, adipose tissue weight and LDL-cholesterol, serum glucose, TC, and TG levels. Similarly, uRCB significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA levels of PPARγ in the adipose tissue in vivo. Next, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ellagic acid, erycibelline, 5-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanol, m-hydroxyphenylglycine, and 4-hydroxycoumarin isolated from uRCB. Without affecting cell viability, five bioactive compounds decreased the lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells and the mRNA expression levels of key adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Conclusion. These results suggest that uRC and its five bioactive compounds may be a useful therapeutic agent for body weight control by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis.
PMCID: PMC4745304  PMID: 26904142
5.  Antibody responses after vaccination against equine influenza in the Republic of Korea in 2013 
In this study, antibody responses after equine influenza vaccination were investigated among 1,098 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza viruses, A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08 (H3N8), were used as antigens in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 91.7% (geometric mean antibody levels (GMT), 56.8) and 93.6% (GMT, 105.2) for A/equine/South Africa/4/03 and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08, respectively. Yearlings and two-year-olds in training exhibited lower positive rates (68.1% (GMT, 14) and 61.7% (GMT, 11.9), respectively, with different antigens) than average. Horses two years old or younger may require more attention in vaccination against equine influenza according to the vaccination regime, because they could be a target of the equine influenza virus.
PMCID: PMC4667675  PMID: 26062436
equine influenza; hemagglutination inhibition; seropositivity; vaccination
6.  Complete Genome Sequence of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain E38, Isolated from South Korea with a Novel Deletion 
Genome Announcements  2015;3(5):e01180-15.
We report the complete genome sequence of the European type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus E38 strain, isolated from South Korea with a novel deletion. It contains a 61-nucleotide discontinuous deletion of the Nsp2 and Nsp12 regions. This study will aid in understanding the genetic diversity of type 1 PRRSV and in manufacturing a construct based on Korean vaccine candidate development.
PMCID: PMC4611684  PMID: 26472832
7.  Risk Factors for Falls in Older Korean Adults: The 2011 Community Health Survey 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(11):1482-1487.
Falls are a major health problem for elderly populations worldwide. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey to identify potential risk factors for falls in a representative population-based sample of community-dwelling older Korean adults. Risk factors for falls were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. The prevalence of falls was 36.5% in males and 63.5% in females. Age and female sex were associated with a higher risk of falls. Similarly, living alone, living in an urban area, poor self-rated health, and high stress were associated with a high risk of falls. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, stroke, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, cataracts, or depression had a high risk of falls. However, subjects with hypertension were at low risk for falls. In conclusion, age, female sex, marital status, residence location, self-rated health, stress, and several chronic conditions were significantly associated with the risk for falls in the older Korean adults. Our findings suggest that these risk factors should be addressed in public health policies for preventing falls.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4234914  PMID: 25408578
Accidental Falls; Elderly People; Risk Factors; Koreans
8.  Management of hemophilia in Korea: the past, present, and future 
Blood research  2014;49(3):144-145.
PMCID: PMC4188776  PMID: 25325030
9.  A Proteoliposome Containing Apolipoprotein A-I Mutant (V156K) Enhances Rapid Tumor Regression Activity of Human Origin Oncolytic Adenovirus in Tumor-Bearing Zebrafish and Mice 
Molecules and Cells  2012;34(2):143-148.
We recently reported that the efficiency of adenoviral gene delivery and virus stability are significantly enhanced when a proteoliposome (PL) containing apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is used in an animal model. In the current study, we tested tumor removal activity of oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) using PL-containing wildtype (WT) or V156K. Oncolytic Ad with or without PL was injected into tumors of zebrafish and nude mice as a Hep3B tumor xenograft model. The V156K-PL-Ad-injected zebrafish, group showed the lowest tumor tissue volume and nucleic acids in the tumor area, whereas injection of Ad alone did not result in adequate removal of tumor activity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents increased two-fold in tumor-bearing zebrafish; however, the V156K-PL-Ad injected group showed a 40% decrease in ROS levels compared to that in normal zebrafish. After reducing the tumor volume with the V156K-PL-Ad injection, the swimming pattern of the zebrafish changed to be more active and energetic. The oncolytic effect of PL-Ad containing either V156K or WT was about two-fold more enhanced in mice than that of Ad alone 34 days after the injection. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the PL-Ad-injected groups showed enhanced efficiency of viral delivery with elevated Ad-E1A staining and a diminished number of proliferating tumor cells. Thus, the anti-tumor effect of oncolytic Ad was strongly enhanced by a PL-containing apoA-I and its mutant (V156K) without causing side effects in mice and zebrafish models.
PMCID: PMC3887819  PMID: 22851220
apolipoprotein A-I; oncolytic adenovirus; proteoliposome; reconstituted high-density lipoproteins; zebrafish
10.  Comparative Genomic Analysis and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-Xylene (BTEX) Degradation Pathways of Pseudoxanthomonas spadix BD-a59 
Pseudoxanthomonas spadix BD-a59, isolated from gasoline-contaminated soil, has the ability to degrade all six BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene) compounds. The genomic features of strain BD-a59 were analyzed bioinformatically and compared with those of another fully sequenced Pseudoxanthomonas strain, P. suwonensis 11-1, which was isolated from cotton waste compost. The genome of strain BD-a59 differed from that of strain 11-1 in many characteristics, including the number of rRNA operons, dioxygenases, monooxygenases, genomic islands (GIs), and heavy metal resistance genes. A high abundance of phage integrases and GIs and the patterns in several other genetic measures (e.g., GC content, GC skew, Karlin signature, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat [CRISPR] gene homology) indicated that strain BD-a59's genomic architecture may have been altered through horizontal gene transfers (HGT), phage attack, and genetic reshuffling during its evolutionary history. The genes for benzene/toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene degradations were encoded on GI-9, -13, and -21, respectively, which suggests that they may have been acquired by HGT. We used bioinformatics to predict the biodegradation pathways of the six BTEX compounds, and these pathways were proved experimentally through the analysis of the intermediates of each BTEX compound using a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The elevated abundances of dioxygenases, monooxygenases, and rRNA operons in strain BD-a59 (relative to strain 11-1), as well as other genomic characteristics, likely confer traits that enhance ecological fitness by enabling strain BD-a59 to degrade hydrocarbons in the soil environment.
PMCID: PMC3553784  PMID: 23160122
11.  A Postoperative Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Cardiac Surgery Patient: A Case Report 
Although thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disease, when it develops in a post-cardiac surgery patient, it may have a fatal outcome. Since the frequency of early-onset thrombocytopenia in post-cardiac surgery patients is high, platelet concentrates are commonly transfused during postoperative management. However, when TTP is the likely diagnosis, platelet transfusion is not recommended. We experienced a postoperative TTP in a cardiac surgery patient and discovered the importance of identifying the etiology of postoperative thrombocytopenia. Here, we report the case with a brief review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC3680610  PMID: 23772412
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; Thoracic surgery; Thrombocytopenia
12.  Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Korea 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2013;14(2):115-124.
The high genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been an obstacle to developing an effective vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). This study was performed to assess the degree of genetic diversity among PRRSVs from Korean pig farms where wasting and respiratory syndrome was observed from 2005 to 2009. Samples from 786 farms were tested for the presence of PRRSV using reverse transcription PCR protocol. A total of 117 farms were positive for type 1 PRRSV while 198 farms were positive for type 2. Nucleotide sequences encoding the open reading frame (ORF) 5 were analyzed and compared to those of various published PRRSV isolates obtained worldwide. Sequence identity of the ORF 5 in the isolates was 81.6~100% for type 1 viruses and 81.4~100% for type 2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORF 5 sequences showed that types 1 and 2 PRRSVs from Korea were mainly classified into three and four clusters, respectively. The analyzed isolates were distributed throughout the clusters independent of the isolation year or geographical origin. In conclusion, our results indicated that the genetic diversity of PRRSVs from Korean pig farms is high and has been increasing over time.
PMCID: PMC3694182  PMID: 23628658
Korea; open reading frame 5; phylogenetic analysis; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
13.  A survey of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome among wild boar populations in Korea 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2012;13(4):377-383.
No information is currently available on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Korea. In this study, the status of PRRS in wild boars was investigated. Blood samples were collected from 267 wild boars from eight provinces in Korea. Four of the samples tested (1.5%) were positive for PRRSV antibodies and eight (3.0%) were positive for antigens. Of the virus-positive samples, three and five samples were typed as containing European (EU, type 1) or North American (NA, type 2) viruses, respectively. Two amplicons (one from type 1 and one from type 2) were used to analyze the PRRSV open reading frame 7 (ORF7) sequence. The nucleotide sequences of type 1 PRRSV ORF7 had identities between 96.1% and 98.4% with PRRSVs from domestic pigs in Korea. The sequences of type 2 PRRSV ORF7 had identities of 100% with the PRRSV strain VR-2332, which was prototypic North American strain. These results show that PRRSVs are present in wild boars in Korea, and effective PRRSV surveillance of the wild boar population might therefore be useful for disease control.
PMCID: PMC3539123  PMID: 23271179
ELISA; Korea; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; RT-PCR; wild boar (Sus scrofa)
14.  Clinical and hematologic manifestations in patients with Diamond Blackfan anemia in Korea 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(2):131-135.
Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA), characterized by impaired red cell production, is a rare condition that is usually symptomatic in early infancy. The purpose of this study was to assess nationwide experiences of DBA encountered over a period of 20 years.
The medical records of 56 patients diagnosed with DBA were retrospectively reviewed from November 1984 to July 2010. Fifteen institutions, including 13 university hospitals, participated in this study.
The male-to-female ratio of patients with DBA was 1.67:1. The median age of diagnosis was 4 months, and 74.1% were diagnosed before 1 year of age. From 2000 to 2009, annual incidence was 6.6 cases per million. Excluding growth retardation, 38.2% showed congenital defects: thumb deformities, ptosis, coarctation of aorta, ventricular septal defect, strabismus, etc. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 5.1±1.9 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume was 93.4±11.6 fL, and mean number of reticulocytes was 19,700/mm3. The mean cellularity of bone marrow was 75%, with myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20.4:1. After remission, 48.9% of patients did not need further steroids. Five patients with DBA who received hematopoietic transplantation have survived. Cancer developed in 2 cases (3.6%).
The incidence of DBA is similar to data already published, but our study had a male predilection. Although all patients responded to initial treatment with steroids, about half needed further steroids after remission. It is necessary to collect further data, including information regarding management pathways, from nationwide DBA registries, along with data on molecular analyses.
PMCID: PMC3389062  PMID: 22783360
Diamond Blackfan anemia; Anemia; Congenital defects
15.  Novel influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection in the pediatric patients with hematologic and oncologic diseases in the Yeungnam region 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2011;54(3):117-122.
Natural history and consequences of the novel 2009 influenza A H1N1 (2009 H1N1) infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the clinical features and outcomes of the 2009 H1N1 infection in pediatric patients with hematological and oncological diseases.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 528 patients who had hematological and oncological diseases and who were treated at 7 referral centers located in the Yeungnam region. Among the 528 patients, 27 with definite diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 infection were the subjects of this study. All patients were divided into the following 3 groups: patients who were receiving chemotherapy (group 1), patients who were immunosuppressed due to a non-malignant hematological disease (group 2), and patients who were off chemotherapy and had undergone their last chemotherapy course within 2 years from the influenza A pandemic (group 3).
All 28 episodes of 2009 H1N1 infection were treated with the antiviral agent oseltamivir (Tamiflu®), and 20 episodes were treated after hospitalization. Group 1 patients had higher frequencies of lower respiratory tract infection and longer durations of fever and hospitalization as compared to those in group 2. Ultimately, all episodes resolved completely with no complications.
These results suggest that early antiviral therapy did not influence the morbidity or mortality of pediatric patients with hematological and oncological diseases in the Yeungnam region of Korea after the 2009 H1N1 infection. However, no definite conclusions can be drawn because of the small sample size.
PMCID: PMC3120997  PMID: 21738541
Influenza A Virus; H1N1 Subtype; Immunocompromised Patients; Hematologic Diseases; Oseltamivir; Child
16.  The neuroprotective effect of recombinant human erythropoietin via an antiapoptotic mechanism on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2010;53(10):898-908.
The neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been recently shown in many animal models of brain injury, including hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy, trauma, and excitotoxicity; however, limited data are available for such effects during the neonatal periods. Therefore, we investigated whether recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) can protect against perinatal HI brain injury via an antiapoptotic mechanism.
The left carotid artery was ligated in 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat pups (in vivo model). The animals were divided into 6 groups: normoxia control (NC), normoxia sham-operated (NS), hypoxia only (H), hypoxia+vehicle (HV), hypoxia+rHuEPO before a hypoxic insult (HE-B), and hypoxia+rHuEPO after a hypoxic insult (HE-A). Embryonic cortical neuronal cell culture of SD rats at 18 days gestation (in vitro model) was performed. The cultured cells were divided into 5 groups: normoxia (N), hypoxia (H), and 1, 10, and 100 IU/mL rHuEPO-treated groups.
In the in vivo model, Bcl-2 expressions in the H and HV groups were lower than those in the NC and NS groups, whereas those in the HE-A and HE-B groups were greater than those of the H and HV groups. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were in contrast to those of Bcl-2. In the in vitro model, the patterns of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were similar to the results obtained in the in vivo model.
rHuEPO exerts neuroprotective effect against perinatal HI brain injury via an antiapoptotic mechanism.
PMCID: PMC3004504  PMID: 21189961
Erythropoietin; Apoptosis; Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury; Bcl-2; Bax; Caspase-3
17.  Expression of major piroplasm protein (p33) of Theileria sergenti (Korean isolate) and its immunogenicity in guinea pigs 
To investigate the development of a subunit vaccine against theileriosis in cattle, the DNA fragments encoding piroplasm surface protein (p33) of Theileria sergenti of a Korean isolate were expressed in baculoviruses. The expressed p33 was characterized by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and western blotting analysis. The expression of p33 was mainly detected on the surface of infected Sf21 cells by IFA. The immunoblotting analysis revealed the presence of a same molecular weight protein band of p33. The antigenicity of expressed polypeptide was further examined through the inoculation of a guinea pig. The sera of guinea pigs immunized with p33 expressed cell lysate showed similar fluorescent antibody patterns and reacted with the same molecular weight protein of T. sergenti in immunoblotting analysis, thus indicating that this protein can be a promising candidate for a subunit vaccine in the future.
PMCID: PMC2733206  PMID: 10634045
Theileria sergenti; subunit vaccine; expression; piroplasm surface protein (p33); merozoite; baculovirus; piroplasm

Results 1-17 (17)