We report a 13-year-old girl with Graves disease, who showed an increased level of serum creatine kinase (CK) accompanied by myalgia after methimazole (MMI) treatment. This patient developed muscular pain two weeks after MMI administration, along with increased CK levels. The level of thyroid hormone was within the normal range when she showed increased CK levels. After the MMI dose was decreased and levo-thyroxine was added, serum CK levels decreased to normal and the myalgia improved. The pathophysiologic mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated. An acute relatively hypothyroid state occurs secondary to antithyroid drug (ATD) administration in chronic hyperthyroidism, which may cause changes in the CK levels. In this report, we present a rare pediatric case, along with a literature review of similar cases. In the initial state of MMI treatment, myalgia should be detected and when it occurs, CK levels should be measured. The clinical strategy of monitoring CK levels with the aim of normalizing thyroid hormones is helpful in case of the development of adverse reactions, such as myalgia, during ATD treatment for Graves disease in children.
Graves disease; Antithyroid drugs; Methimazole; Creatine kinase; Myalgia
Hunter syndrome (or mucopolysaccharidosis type II [MPS II]) arises because of a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Short stature is a prominent and consistent feature in MPS II. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase®) or idursulfase beta (Hunterase®) have been developed for these patients. The effect of ERT on the growth of Korean patients with Hunter syndrome was evaluated at a single center. This study comprised 32 patients, who had received ERT for at least 2 yr; they were divided into three groups according to their ages at the start of ERT: group 1 (<6 yr, n=14), group 2 (6-10 yr, n=11), and group 3 (10-20 yr, n=7). The patients showed marked growth retardation as they got older. ERT may have less effect on the growth of patients with the severe form of Hunter syndrome. The height z-scores in groups 2 and 3 revealed a significant change (the estimated slopes before and after the treatment were -0.047 and -0.007, respectively: difference in the slope, 0.04; P<0.001). Growth in response to ERT could be an important treatment outcome or an endpoint for future studies.
Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter Syndrome; Enzyme Replacement Therapy; Growth; Elaprase; Hunterase
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by bone fragility, frequent fractures, and low bone mass. Dominantly inherited COL1A1 or COL1A2 mutations appear to be causative in the majority of OI types, but rare recessively inherited genes have also been reported. Recently, SERPINF1 has been reported as another causative gene in OI type VI. To date, only eight SERPINF1 mutations have been reported and all are homozygous. Our patient showed no abnormalities at birth, frequent fractures, osteopenia, and poor response on pamidronate therapy. At the time of her most recent evaluation, she was 8 yr old, and could not walk independently due to frequent lower-extremity fractures, resulting in severe deformity. No clinical signs were seen of hearing impairment, blue sclera, or dentinogenesis imperfecta. In this study, we describe the clinical and radiological findings of one Korean patient with novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.77dupC and c.421dupC) of SERPINF1.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta; Osteogenesis Imperfect Type VI; SERPINF1; Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor
Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS) is a rare syndrome manifested by extreme insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, acanthosis nigricans, tooth dysplasia and growth retardation. Our patient was first noted at the age of 8 months due to pigmentations on skin-folded areas. Initial laboratory tests showed normal fasting glucose (69 mg/dL). Fasting insulin level was severely elevated, up to 554.6 µIU/mL, and c-peptide level was increased, up to 13.81 ng/mL. However, hemoglobin A1c was within normal range (4.8%). He is now 11 yr old. His growth development followed the 5-10th percentile and oral hypoglycemic agents are being administered. The last laboratory results showed insulin 364.1 µIU/mL, C-peptide 4.30 ng/mL, and hemoglobin A1c 7.6%. The boy was a compound heterozygote for the c.90C > A and c.712G > A mutations of the insulin receptor gene, INSR, which are nonsense and missense mutations. In summary, we report the first Korean case of RMS, which was confirmed by two novel mutations of the INSR.
Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome; Insulin Resistance; Receptor, Insulin; INSR
Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) presents with primary skeletal manifestations such as tall stature, chest wall abnormality, and scoliosis. These primary skeletal manifestations affect the growth pattern in MFS. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use normal growth charts to evaluate the growth status of MFS. We aimed to develop disease-specific growth charts for Korean MFS patients and to use these growth charts for understanding the growth patterns in MFS and managing of patients with MFS. Anthropometric data were available from 187 males and 152 females with MFS through a retrospective review of medical records. Disease-specific growth charts were generated and 3, 25, 50, 75, and 97 percentiles were calculated using the LMS (refers to λ, μ, and σ, respectively) smoothing procedure for height and weight. Comparisons between MFS patients and the general population were performed using a one-sample t-test. With regard to the height, the 50th percentile of MFS is above the normative 97th percentile in both genders. With regard to the weight, the 50 percentile of MFS is above the normative 75th percentile in male and between the normative 50th percentile and the 75th percentile in female. The disease-specific growth charts for Korean patients with MFS can be useful for monitoring growth patterns, planning the timing of growth-reductive therapy, predicting adult height and recording responses to growth-reductive therapy.
Marfan Syndrome; Growth Charts; Body Height; Body Weight
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a well-known genetic disorder, and microdeletion on chromosome 15 is the most common causal mechanism. Several previous studies have suggested that various environmental factors might be related to the pathogenesis of microdeletion in PWS. In this study, we investigated birth seasonality in Korean PWS.
A total of 211 PWS patients born from 1980 to 2014 were diagnosed by methylation polymerase chain reaction at Samsung Medical Center. Of the 211 patients, 138 were born from 2000-2013. Among them, the 74 patients of a deletion group and the 22 patients of a maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) group were compared with general populations born from 2000 using the Walter and Elwood method and cosinor analysis.
There was no statistical significance in seasonal variation in births of the total 211 patients with PWS (χ2=7.2522, P=0.2982). However, a significant difference was found in the monthly variation between PWS with the deletion group and the at-risk general population (P<0.05). In the cosinor model, the peak month of birth for PWS patients in the deletion group was January, while the nadir occurred in July, with statistical significance (amplitude=0.23, phase=1.2, low point=7.2). The UPD group showed the peak birth month in spring; however, this result was not statistically significant (χ2=3.39, P=0.1836).
Correlation with birth seasonality was identified in a deletion group of Korean PWS patients. Further studies are required to identify the mechanism related to seasonal effects of environmental factors on microdeletion on chromosome 15.
Prader-Willi syndrome; Microdeletion; Birth; Seasonality
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a constellation of disorders characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in tissues and organs. This accumulation results in the deterioration and degeneration of multiple organs. This paper describes the general distribution of types of MPS in patients, their clinical characteristics and genotypes, the development of animal studies and preclinical studies, enzyme replacement therapy in South Korea, and the development of idursulfase beta and clinical trials on idursulfase beta in South Korea. In addition, this paper discusses academic collaboration among specialists in MPS care in the Asia-Pacific region, which includes Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and South Korea, through an organization called the Asia-Pacific MPS Network (APMN). The Asia-Pacific MPS Registry, an electronic remote data entry system, has been developed by key doctors in the APMN. Rare diseases require international cooperation and collaboration to elucidate their mechanisms and carry out clinical trials; therefore, an organization such as the APMN is required. Furthermore, international collaboration among Asian countries and countries around the world will be of utmost importance in the future.
Mucopolysaccharidosis; Hunter syndrome; enzyme replacement therapy
The purpose of the study was to evaluate endocrine patterns of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and each gene mutation and to analyze the correlation between each phenotype and genotype.
This was a retrospective study of the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the pediatric outpatient clinic at the Samsung Medical Center from November 1994 to December 2012. We analyzed the medical records of 27 patients (male, 19; female, 8) with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who had been diagnosed by genetic testing to have 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
In genetic analysis of 54 alleles from 27 patients, 13 types of mutations were identified. The distribution of 21-hydroxylase deficiency gene mutations revealed that intron 2 splice site (c.293-13A/C>G) mutations and large deletions were the most common, at 31.5% and 22.2% respectively, followed by p.I173N, p.R356W, and p.I172N mutations at 11.1%, 9.3%, and 9.3%, respectively. Other mutations were observed at 1.9-3.7%. No novel mutations were detected.
The analysis of 54 alleles revealed 13 types of mutation. The salt wasting form showed a good correlation between genotype and phenotype, but the simple virilizing and nonclassic forms showed inconsistencies between genotype and phenotype. The distribution of CYP21A2 mutations was evaluated for 21-hydroxylase deficiency patients from a single center. This study provides limited data on mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Korea.
21 hydroxylase deficiency; Human CYP21A2 protein; Genotype; Phenotype
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disease with a distinctive dysmorphic face, intellectual disability, and multiple congenital abnormalities. KS is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. As the primary cause of KS, MLL2 mutations have been identified in 56-76% of affected individuals who have been tested, suggesting that there may be additional genes associated with KS. Recently, a few KS individuals have been found to have de novo partial or complete deletions of an X chromosome gene, KDM6A, which encodes a histone demethylase that interacts with MLL2. Nevertheless, mutations in MLL2 are the major cause of KS. Although there are a few reports of KS patients in Korea, none of these had been confirmed by genetic analysis. Here, we report a case of a Korean patient with clinical features of KS. Using direct sequencing, we identified a frameshift heterozygous mutation for MLL2: (c.5256_5257delGA;p.Lys1753Alafs*34). Clinically, the patient presented with typical facial features, and diagnosis of KS was based on the diagnostic criteria. While KS is a rare disease, other malformations that overlap with those found in individuals with KS are common. Hence, the diagnosis of KS by mutational analysis can be a valuable method for patients with KS-like syndromes. Furthermore, in the near future, other genes could be identified in patients with KS without a detectable MLL2 mutation.
Kabuki syndrome; MLL2 mutation; KDM6; KS-associated genes
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by abnormalities of the enzyme α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) that is required for degradation of heparan sulfate. The patient in this study was a 4-yr-old boy. He presented with normal height and weight, pectus carinatum, and multiple persistent Mongolian spots on his back. He had mild dysmorphic features with prominent speech developmental delays and, to a lesser extent, motor developmental delays. The cetylpyridinium chloride precipitation test revealed excessive mucopolysacchariduria (657.2 mg glycosaminoglycan/g creatinine; reference range, <175 mg glycosaminoglycan/g creatinine). Thin layer chromatography showed urinary heparan sulfate excretion. NAGLU enzyme activity was significantly decreased in leukocytes (not detected; reference range, 0.9-1.51 nmol/hr/mg protein) as well as in plasma (0.14 nmol/hr/mg protein; reference range, 22.3-60.9 nmol/hr/mg protein). PCR and direct sequencing analysis of the NAGLU gene showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote for 2 mutations: c.200T>C (p.L67P) and c.1444C>T (p.R482W). The c.200T>C mutation was a novel finding. This is the first report of a Korean patient with MPS IIIB who was confirmed by molecular genetic analyses and biochemical investigation.
Korean; Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB; NAGLU; Novel mutation
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). In affected patients, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulates in the lysosomes of many organs and tissues contributing to the pathology associated with MPS II. The objective of this phase I/II clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human iduronate-2-sulfatase (idursulfase beta, Hunterase®) in the treatment of MPS II.
Thirty-one MPS II patients between 6 and 35 years of age were enrolled in a randomized, single-blinded, active comparator-controlled phase I/II trial for 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to active comparator infusions (N=11), 0.5 mg/kg idursulfase beta infusions (N=10), or 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase beta infusions (N=10). The primary efficacy variable was the level of urinary GAG excretion. The secondary variables were changes in the distance walked in 6 minutes (6-minute walk test, 6MWT), echocardiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and joint mobility.
Patients in all three groups exhibited reduction in urine GAG and this reduced GAG level was maintained for 24 weeks. Urine GAG was also significantly reduced in the 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase beta groups when compared to the active comparator group (P = 0.043, 0.002, respectively). Changes in 6MWT were significantly greater in the 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg idursulfase groups than in the active comparator group (p= 0.003, 0.015, respectively). Both idursulfase beta infusions were generally safe and well tolerated, and elicited no serious adverse drug reactions. The most frequent adverse events were urticaria and skin rash, which were easily controlled with administration of antihistamines.
This study indicates that idursulfase beta generates clinically significant reduction of urinary GAG, improvements in endurance as measured by 6MWT, and it has an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of MPS II.
Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Hunter syndrome; ERT; Recombinant iduornate-2-sulfatase; Idursulfase beta
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) III has 4 enzymatically distinct forms (A, B, C, and D), and MPS IIIC, also known as Sanfilippo C syndrome, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of heparan acetyl-CoA:alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (HGSNAT). Here, we report a case of MPS IIIC that was confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. The patient was a 2-yr-old girl presenting with skeletal deformity, hepatomegaly, and delayed motor development. Urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was markedly elevated (984.4 mg GAG/g creatinine) compared with the age-specific reference range (<175 mg GAG/g creatinine), and a strong band of heparan sulfate was recognized on performing thin layer chromatography. HGSNAT enzyme activity in leukocytes was 0.7 nmol/17 hr/mg protein, which was significantly lower than the reference range (8.6-32 nmol/17 hr/mg protein). PCR and direct sequencing of the HGSNAT gene showed 2 mutations: c.234+1G>A (IVS2+1G>A) and c.1150C>T (p.Arg384*). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of MPS IIIC to be confirmed by clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in Korea.
Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIC; HGSNAT; Sanfilippo syndrome; Korea
Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups.
The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from 2006 to 2010 for the evaluation of precocious puberty. Study groups comprised fast puberty, true precocious puberty (PP), pseudo PP, premature thelarche, and control. We determined the height standard deviation score (HSDS), weight standard deviation score (WSDS), and body mass index standard deviation score (BMISDS) of each group using the published 2007 Korean growth charts. Hormone tests were performed at our outpatient clinic.
The PP groups comprised fast puberty (67%), premature thelarche (17%), true PP (15%), and pseudo PP (1%). Advanced bone age and levels of estradiol, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), and peak LH after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation testing were significantly high in the fast puberty and true PP groups compared with the control group. HSDS, WSDS, and BMISDS were significantly higher in the true PP group than in the control group (P<0.05).
The frequent causes of PP were found to be fast puberty, true PP, and premature thelarche. Furthermore, BMISDS were significantly elevated in the true PP group. Therefore, we emphasize the need for regular follow-up of girls who are heavier or taller than others in the same age group.
Precocious puberty; Puberty; Premature thelarche; Body mass index; Sexual maturation
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) deficiency. Only a few MPS IVA cases have been reported in the Korean literature; there is a paucity of research about clinical or radiologic findings for this disorder. Therefore, we studied clinical findings, radiological features, and genetic data of Korean MPS IVA patients for determining factors that may allow early diagnosis and that may thus improve the patients' quality of life.
MPS IVA was confirmed via assay for enzymatic activity of leukocytes in 10 patients. The GALNS gene was analyzed. Patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed for obtaining clinical features and evaluated for radiological skeletal surveys, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and ophthalmologic test results.
Nine patients had severe clinical phenotype, and 1 had an intermediate phenotype, on the basis of clinical phenotype criteria. Radiologic findings indicated skeletal abnormalities in all patients, especially in the hips and extremities. Eight patients had an odontoid hypoplasia, and 1 showed mild atlantoaxial subluxation and cord myelopathy. Genetic analysis indicated 10 different GALNS mutations. Two mutations, c.451C>A and c.1000C>T, account for 37.5% (6/16) and 25% (4/16) of all mutations in this samples, respectively.
An understanding of the clinical and radiological features involved in MPS IVA may allow early diagnosis of MPS IVA. Adequate evaluations and therapy in the early stages may improve the quality of life of patients suffering from skeletal abnormalities and may reduce life-threatening effects of atlantoaxial subluxation.
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA; GALNS; Atlantoaxial subluxation; Morquio A syndrome
Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within LIN28B have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP) or early puberty (EP). This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP.
Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77 and 109 girls that fulfilled the criteria for PP and EP, respectively. The controls in this study were 144 healthy volunteers between 20 and 30 years of age. The haplotypes were reconstructed using 11 SNPs of LIN28B, and haplotype association analysis was performed. The haplotype frequencies were compared. Differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the haplotype dosage.
Eleven SNPs in LIN28B were all located in a block that was in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype could be reconstructed using 2 representative SNPs, rs4946651 and rs369065. The AC haplotype was less frequently observed in the PP group than in the controls (0.069 vs. 0.144, P=0.010). The trend that girls with non-AC haplotypes tended to have earlier puberty onset (P=0.037) was illustrated even in the EP+PP patient group by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
The results of the present study showed that non-AC haplotypes of LIN28B had a significant association with PP in girls.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism; Human LIN28 homolog B; Precocious puberty
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) deficiency. MPS II causes a wide phenotypic spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild to severe. IDS activity, which is measured in leukocyte pellets or fibroblasts, was reported to be related to clinical phenotype by Sukegawa-Hayasaka et al. Measurement of residual plasma IDS activity using a fluorometric assay is simpler than conventional measurements using skin fibroblasts or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This is the first study to describe the relationship between plasma IDS activity and clinical phenotype of MPS II.
We hypothesized that residual plasma IDS activity is related to clinical phenotype. We classified 43 Hunter syndrome patients as having attenuated or severe disease types based on clinical characteristics, especially intellectual and cognitive status. There were 27 patients with the severe type and 16 with the attenuated type. Plasma IDS activity was measured by a fluorometric enzyme assay using 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-iduronate 2-sulphate.
Plasma IDS activity in patients with the severe type was significantly lower than that in patients with the attenuated type (P=0.006). The optimal cut-off value of plasma IDS activity for distinguishing the severe type from the attenuated type was 0.63 nmol·4 hr-1·mL-1. This value had 88.2% sensitivity, 65.4% specificity, and an area under receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve of 0.768 (ROC curve analysis; P=0.003).
These results show that the mild phenotype may be related to residual lysosomal enzyme activity.
Hunter syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Iduronate sulfatase; Genotype phenotype
Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea.
We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed.
A total of 19 (19.4%) patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively). Sixty-one (62.2%) patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=-0.26, P=0.03).
Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood.
Cancer survivor; Metabolic syndrome; Body composition; Fat percentage