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author:("Sung, kick")
1.  Clinical Results of Different Myocardial Protection Techniques in Aortic Stenosis 
Hypertrophied myocardium is especially vulnerable to ischemic injury. This study aimed to compare the early and late clinical outcomes of three different methods of myocardial protection in patients with aortic stenosis.
This retrospective study included 225 consecutive patients (mean age, 65±10 years; 123 males) with severe aortic stenosis who underwent aortic valve replacement. Patients were excluded if they had coronary artery disease, an ejection fraction <50%, more than mild aortic regurgitation, or endocarditis. The patients were divided into three groups: group A, which was treated with antegrade and retrograde cold blood cardioplegia; group B, which was treated with antegrade crystalloid cardioplegia using histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution; and group C, treated with retrograde cold blood cardioplegia.
Group A contained 70 patients (31.1%), group B contained 74 patients (32.9%), and group C contained 81 patients (36%). The three groups showed significant differences with regard to the proportion of patients with a New York Heart Association functional classification ≥III (p=0.035), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (p=0.042), ejection fraction (p=0.035), left ventricular dimensions (p<0.001), left ventricular mass index (p<0.001), and right ventricular systolic pressure (p<0.001). Differences in cardiopulmonary bypass time (p=0.532) and aortic cross-clamp time (p=0.48) among the three groups were not statistically significant. During postoperative recovery, no significant differences were found regarding the use of inotropes (p=0.328), mechanical support (n=0), arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, p=0.347; non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, p=0.1), and ventilator support time (p=0.162). No operative mortality occurred. Similarly, no significant differences were found in long-term outcomes.
Although the three groups showed some significant differences with regard to patient characteristics, both antegrade crystalloid cardioplegia with HTK solution and retrograde cold blood cardioplegia led to early and late clinical results similar to those achieved with combined antegrade and retrograde cold blood cardioplegia.
PMCID: PMC4463236  PMID: 26078922
Aortic valve; Replacement; Myocardial reperfusion injury; Cardioplegic solutions; Retrograde
2.  Predictors of neurological outcomes after successful extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15:26.
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) refers to use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cardiopulmonary arrest. Although ECPR can increase survival rates after cardiac arrest, it can also result in poor post-resuscitation neurological status. Thus, we investigated predictors of good neurological outcomes after successful ECPR.
A total of 227 patients underwent ECPR from May 2004 to June 2013 at Samsung Medical Center. Successful ECPR was defined as survival more than 24 hours after ECPR. Neurological outcomes were assessed at discharge using the Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Categories scale (CPC). CPC 1 and 2 were classified as good and CPC 3 to 5 were classified as poor neurological outcomes. Excluded were 22 patients who did not survive more than 24 hours after ECPR and 90 patients who died from unknown causes or causes other than brain death or whose neurological status could not be assessed at discharge. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of neurological outcomes.
Included were 115 patients with a mean age of 58 (range 45–66) years and 80 men (70%). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed at non-hospital sites for 19 (17%) patients and bystander CPR was performed in 9 of 19 cases (47%). Cardiac etiology was verified in 74 (64%) patients and therapeutic hypothermia was performed in 9 patients (8%); 68 (59%) had good neurological outcomes and 47 (41%) did not and 24 patients died from brain death. Neurological outcomes were affected by hemoglobin levels before ECMO (P = 0.02), serum lactic acid (P < 0.001) before ECMO insertion, and interval from cardiac arrest to ECMO (P = 0.04).
Low hemoglobin or high serum lactic acid levels before ECMO, and prolonged interval from cardiac arrest to ECMO predicted poor neurological outcomes after successful ECPR. Early institution of ECMO and a low threshold for blood transfusion might improve neurological outcomes for patients who survive ECPR.
PMCID: PMC4358703  PMID: 25774089
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Extracorporeal life support; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Cardiac arrest
3.  Transfromation of Percutaneous Extracorporeal Life Support to Paracorporeal Ventricular Assist Device: A Case Report 
Percutaneous extracorporeal life support (P-ECLS) is a useful modality for the management of refractory cardiac or pulmonary failure. However, venoarterial P-ECLS may result in a complication of left ventricular distension. In this case report, we discuss a patient with drug-induced dilated cardiomyopathy managed with venoarterial P-ECLS and a left atrial vent catheter. The venoarterial P-ECLS was modified to a paracorporeal left ventricular assist device (LVAD) by removing the femoral venous cannula. After 28 days of hospitalization, the patient was successfully weaned from the paracorporeal LVAD and discharged home from the hospital.
PMCID: PMC4157508  PMID: 25207254
Heart failure; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Dilated cardiomyopathy; Left ventricular assist device
4.  Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Severe Refractory Cardiogenic Shock Assisted with Percutaneous Cardiopulmonary Support 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(4):920-927.
Limited data are available on the role of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with cardiogenic shock. We investigated the clinical outcomes and predictors of in-hospital mortality after PCPS in patients with AMI complicated by severe refractory cardiogenic shock.
Materials and Methods
From January 2004 to December 2011, we analyzed data from 96 consecutive AMI patients with cardiogenic shock assisted by a PCPS system. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The predictors of in-hospital mortality were determined by a Cox proportional-hazards model.
In-hospital mortality occurred in 51 (53.1%) patients and 58 (60.4%) patients were able to be weaned from PCPS. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed in 61 (63.5%) patients before PCPS initiation. On multivariate analysis, age ≥67 years [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 4.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.27-9.93; p<0.001], CPR (adjusted HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.11-4.85; p=0.03), lactate clearance for 48 hours <70% (adjusted HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.04-6.05; p=0.041), and unsuccessful revascularization (adjusted HR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.85-6.90; p=0.002) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality after PCPS in patients with AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock.
In spite of PCPS management, AMI patients complicated by severe refractory cardiogenic shock demonstrated high mortality. Older age, CPR, lower lactate clearance for 48 hours, and unsuccessful revascularization were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.
PMCID: PMC4075395  PMID: 24954319
Myocardial infarction; cardiogenic shock; percutaneous cardiopulmonary support
5.  Clinical impact of intra-aortic balloon pump during extracorporeal life support in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14:27.
There is no available data on clinical outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock who are supported by an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in combination with extracorporeal life support (ECLS).
We analysed 96 consecutive patients with AMI and complicating cardiogenic shock who were assisted by an ECLS system between January 2004 and December 2011. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes were the success rate of weaning from ECLS and the lactate clearance for 48 hours (%).
A combination of IABP and ECLS was used in 41 (42.7%) patients. In-hospital mortality occurred for 51 patients (ECLS with IABP versus ECLS alone; 51.2% vs. 54.5%, p = 0.747). The success rate of weaning from ECLS was similar between the two groups (63.4% vs. 58.2%, p = 0.604). Complications such as ischemia of a lower extremity or bleeding at the ECLS insertion site (p = 0.521 and p = 0.667, respectively) did not increase when ECLS was combined with IABP. Among patients who survived for 24 hours after intervention, lactate clearance was not significantly different between patients who received ECLS alone and those who received ECLS with IABP (p = 0.918).
The combined use of ECLS and IABP did not improve in-hospital survival in patients with AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock.
PMCID: PMC4003289  PMID: 24725532
Myocardial infarction; Cardiogenic shock; Extracorporeal life support; Intra-aortic balloon pump
6.  Surgical Treatment of Post-Infarction Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture: Three Cases Review 
Left ventricular free wall rupture (LFWR) is rare, but is one of the most serious complications of myocardial infarction and is associated with high mortality. Several operative techniques have been attempted, but early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are crucial for a positive patient outcome. We report three cases of LFWR successfully treated with surgical methods.
PMCID: PMC3810558  PMID: 24175271
Myocardial infarction; Heart rupture; Heart ventricles; Surgical procedures
7.  Surgical Treatment for an Invasive Leiomyosarcoma of the Inferior Vena Cava 
A 49-year-old woman presented with right lumbar pain and edema in both legs. Computed tomography showed a large low attenuated mass around and in the S7 segment of the liver involving the right kidney and multiple enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. There were multiple variably sized discrete nodules in both lungs. Cavography showed subtotal occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC). She was successfully treated by wide resection and IVC reconstruction with partial cardiopulmonary bypass and metastasectomy.
PMCID: PMC3810562  PMID: 24175275
Leimyosarcoma; Inferior vena cava; Multiple metastasis
8.  Successful Management of Atrio-Esophageal Fistula after Cardiac Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation 
An increase in cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation for treating refractory atrial fibrillation has resulted in an increased prevalence of complications. Among numerous complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation, atrio-esophageal fistula, although rare, is known to have fatal results. We report a case of successful management of an atrio-esophageal fistula as a complication of cardiac radiofrequency catheter ablation.
PMCID: PMC3631790  PMID: 23614102
Atrium; Esophageal surgery; Fistula; Radiofrequency; Complication
9.  Diagnosis of Graft Infection Using FDG PET-CT 
Graft infections after aortic replacement are a rare, but severe complication. Because surgical removal of the infection source is essential, an accurate diagnosis is required to prevent unnecessary treatment. Both of the patients described herein were diagnosed with graft infections using dual-modality positron emission tomography-computed tomography; one patient was a false-positive, and the other was confirmed with an infection.
PMCID: PMC3373977  PMID: 22708089
Aorta, surgery; Infection; Graft; Positron-emission tomography
10.  Bridge to Transplantation with a Left Ventricular Assist Device 
A 61-year-old female patient was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy with severe left ventricle dysfunction. Two days after admission, continuous renal replacement therapy was performed due to oliguria and lactic acidosis. On the fifth day, an intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted due to low cardiac output syndrome. Beginning 4 days after admission, she was supported for 15 days thereafter with an extracorporeal left ventricular assist device (LVAD) because of heart failure with multi-organ failure. A heart transplant was performed while the patient was stabilized with the LVAD. She developed several complications after the surgery, such as cytomegalovirus pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, wound dehiscence, and H1N1 infection. On postoperative day 19, she was discharged from the hospital with close follow-up and treatment for infection. She received follow-up care for 10 months without any immune rejection reaction.
PMCID: PMC3322181  PMID: 22500282
Left ventricular assist device; Heart failure; Heart transplantation; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
11.  Long-Term Echocardiographic Follow-up after Posterior Mitral Annuloplasty Using a Vascular Strip for Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: Ten-Years of Experience at a Single Center 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(12):1582-1590.
Management of ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term clinical and echocardiographic results of restrictive mitral annuloplasty for ischemic MR. From 2001 through 2010, 96 patients who underwent myocardial revascularization with restrictive mitral annuloplasty using a vascular strip for ischemic MR were analyzed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): group I, n = 50, with LVEF > 35% and group II, n = 46, with LVEF ≤ 35%. The early mortality rate was 2.1% (2/96) and the late cardiac mortality rate was 11.5% (11/96). MR grade was reduced at discharge (0.8 ± 0.7) but increased during follow-up (1.1 ± 0.8, P = 0.001). There was no intergroup difference in terms of freedom from recurrent MR ≥ moderate eight years after surgery (94.1% ± 5.7%, group I vs 87.8% ± 7.2%, group II; P = 0.575). NYHA functional class (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; P = 0.044) and early postoperative residual MR ≥ mild (OR, 25.4; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of recurrent MR. Restrictive mitral annuloplasty using a vascular strip is effective in ischemic MR. It is important to avoid early postoperative residual MR.
PMCID: PMC3230018  PMID: 22147995
Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Mitral Valve Iinsufficiency; Myocardial Revascularization; Mitral Valve Annuloplasty
12.  The First Successful Transapical Aortic Valve Implant in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(4):577-579.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is an alternative to open heart surgery in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. High mortality and complications related to cardiopulmonary bypass for conventional open heart surgery can be avoided with this new less invasive technique. In case of concomitant severe arterial disease, the transapical approach is recommended rather than transfemoral access. An 80-yr-old man with symptomatic aortic stenosis and who had very high surgical risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, a history of stroke, bronchial asthma including poor pulmonary function and hepatocellular carcinoma was treated with a transapical aortic valve replacement. The expected mortality in this patient was 25.4% by Euroscore if we performed the conventional aortic valve surgery. The patient was discharged and was well at the 45 follow-up days. We report the first case of successful transcatheter transapical aortic valve implantation which is available recently in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3069580  PMID: 21468268
Aortic Valve; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Replacement
13.  A Huge Mediastinal Organizing Hematoma Causing Reversal of Atrial Septal Defect Shunt Flow 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(2):97-100.
We report a case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with subacute exertional dyspnea and severe hypoxia. A large cystic mass compressing the right side of the heart along with right-to-left atrial shunt flow through an alleged atrial septal defect (ASD) were detected on echocardiography. CT scan of the chest and MRI of the heart revealed a loculated cystic mediastinal mass with hemorrhage measuring 5.5×8 cm compressing the right atrium and ventricle. The patient underwent cyst resection and primary closure of the ASD. This report illustrates a case of an unusual symptomatic pericardial mass compressing the right atrium and ventricle in a patient with an secundum ASD.
PMCID: PMC3053567  PMID: 21430995
Mediastinal cyst; Atrial septal defect; Hematoma
14.  Midterm Results of Aortic Arch Replacement in a Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection With an Intimal Tear in the Aortic Arch 
Korean Circulation Journal  2009;39(7):270-274.
Background and Objectives
Stanford type A aortic dissection is a potentially catastrophic event that requires surgical repair, on an emergency basis. The extent of arch repair that should be carried out during emergency surgery of this type is controversial. This study was designed to evaluate the results of arch replacement carried out during acute type A dissection.
Subjects and Methods
28 patients with Stanford type A dissection and who underwent arch replacement between 1995 and 2006 were reviewed.
Hospital mortality was 3.6% (1 patient), and transient neurocognitive dysfunction was observed in 5 patients. During the follow-up period (mean 26±20 months; range 1 to 66 months), 3 patients underwent reoperation due to descending thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysm. There was no late death. Follow up computed tomography was performed in 15 patients and false lumen disappeared totally or partially in 10 patients (66.7%).
Arch replacement for acute Stanford type A dissection may decrease the risk of late complications related to false lumen and lead to an excellent midterm survival rate.
PMCID: PMC2771823  PMID: 19949611
Aortic dissection
15.  Multidetector CT and MR Imaging of Cardiac Tumors 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2009;10(2):164-175.
The purpose of this article is to provide a current review of the spectrum of multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI findings for a variety of cardiac neoplasms. In the diagnosis of cardiac tumors, the use of MDCT and MRI can help differentiate benign from malignant masses. Especially, the use of MDCT is advantageous in providing anatomical information and MRI is useful for tissue characterization of cardiac masses. Knowledge of the characteristic MRI findings of benign cardiac tumors or thrombi can be helpful to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures. Presurgical assessment of malignant cardiac tumors with the use of MDCT and MRI may allow determination of the resectability of tumors and planning for the reconstruction of cardiac chambers.
PMCID: PMC2651440  PMID: 19270863
Cardiac tumor; Magnetic resonance (MR); Multidetector CT
16.  Repair of Long-segment Congenital Tracheal Stenosis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(3):491-496.
Long-segment tracheal stenosis in infants and small children is difficult to manage and can be life-threatening. A retrospective review of 12 patients who underwent surgery for congenital tracheal stenosis between 1996 and 2004 was conducted. The patients' median age was 3.6 months. All patients had diffuse tracheal stenosis involving 40-61% (median, 50%) of the length of the trachea, which was suspected to be associated with complete tracheal ring. Five patients had proximal bronchial stenosis also. Ten patients had associated cardiac anomalies. Three different techniques were performed; pericardial patch tracheoplasty (n=4), tracheal autograft tracheoplasty (n=6), and slide tracheoplasty (n=2). After pericardial tracheoplasty, there were 2 early and 2 late deaths. All patients survived after autograft and slide tracheoplasty except one who died of pneumonia one year after the autograft tracheoplasty. The duration of ventilator support was 6-40 days after autograft and 6-7 days after slide tracheoplasty. The duration of hospital stay was 13-266 days after autograft and 19-21 days after slide tracheoplasty. Repeated bronchoscopic examinations were required after pericardial and autograft tracheoplasty. These data demonstrate that pericardial patch tracheoplasty show poor results, whereas autograft or slide tracheoplasty gives excellent short- and long-term results.
PMCID: PMC2693643  PMID: 17596659
Tracheal Stenosis/congenital; Trachea/surgery; Infant; Treatment Outcome; Pulmonary artery/surgery
17.  Clinical Outcome of Cardiac Surgery in Octogenarians 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(5):747-751.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the operative results and the clinical outcomes for octogenarians who underwent cardiac surgery. Twenty consecutive octogenarians who had cardiac operations at Samsung Medical Center from October 1994 through December 2004 were included in the study. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed and the follow-up results were obtained by the interview. The patients were 15 men and 5 women, and their mean age was 83.1 yr (range: 80-89 yr). The surgical priority was urgent for 5 patients and it was elective for 15 patients. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed in 14 patients, valve surgery was performed in 4 patients and CABG plus valve surgery was performed in 2 patients. There was one hospital death on day one after urgent CABG in an 80-yr-old man who had left main coronary artery occlusion. There were three deaths during the follow-up. Sudden death occurred in one patient at 2 months after valve surgery, and there were two non-cardiac deaths at 12 and 14 months, respectively, after CABG. Non-fatal postoperative complications occurred in 2 of 5 urgent patients and in 3 of 15 electives. The survival rate for the 19 hospital survivors at 24 months after surgery was 80% and the mean follow-up period was 22.5 months (range: 1-58 months). In conclusion, cardiac surgery could be performed within acceptable limits of the risk and its long-term results could be expected to be favorable for the octogenarians.
PMCID: PMC2779269  PMID: 16224146
Thoracic Surgical Procedures; Aged 80 and over; Coronary Artery Bypass

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