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1.  Malignant Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor of the Uterus with Lung Metastasis 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(6):454-457.
PMCID: PMC4284495  PMID: 25588640
2.  Pulmonary Calciphylaxis Associated with Acute Respiratory and Renal Failure Due to Cryptogenic Hypercalcemia: An Autopsy Case Report 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(6):601-605.
Metastatic calcification is rare; it is found during autopsy in patients who underwent hemodialysis. Diffuse calcium precipitation of small and medium-sized cutaneous vessels, known as calciphylaxis, can result in progressive tissue necrosis secondary to vascular calcification. This condition most commonly involves the skin; however, a rare occurrence of visceral calciphylaxis has been reported. Here we report on an autopsy case. Despite a thorough evaluation, and even performing an autopsy, the underlying cause of acute-onset hypercalcemia, resulting in the production of pulmonary calciphylaxis and metastatic renal calcification associated with acute respiratory and renal failure, could not be determined. Metastatic calcification often lacks specific symptoms, and the degree of calcification is a marker of the severity and chronicity of the disease. This unusual autopsy case emphasizes the importance of rapidly progressing visceral calciphylaxis, as well as its early detection.
PMCID: PMC3540341  PMID: 23323114
Calcification; Hypercalcemia; Calciphylaxis
3.  Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of a Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model Seen on a 7 Tesla Animal MR Scanner: Comparison of ADC Values and Pathologic Findings 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;13(1):82-89.
To assess the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and pathologic measures of a tumor using a prostate cancer xenograft model.
Materials and Methods
Eighteen athymic nude mice with 36 PC-3-induced tumors were sacrificed to obtain specimens immediately after MR imaging in order to compare the findings on MR images with those seen on pathological specimens. Using a high-field small-animal MR scanner, T1- and T2-weighted imaging and DW MR imaging was performed. Tumors were then processed for Hematoxylin and Eosin staining to evaluate tumor cellularity, intratumoral necrosis and immunostaining using antibodies directed against CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to determine the levels of microvessel density (MVD). Mean ADC values that were measured on the solid portion within each tumor were compared with tumor volume, cellularity, degree of necrosis, VEGF expression, and MVD in the corresponding section of the pathological specimen.
Mean ADC values of the solid portion within the PC-3-induced high-grade tumors were significantly correlated with the degree of intratumoral necrosis (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001) and MVD (r = -0.44, p = 0.008) on pathologic slides. The ADC values were not significantly correlated with tumor cellularity, VEGF expression, or tumor volume in high-grade prostate cancer tissues.
In the xenografted prostate cancer model, the ADC values of the solid portion of the tumors are significantly correlated with tumor necrosis and MVD of the pathologic specimens. The ADC values may be utilized as surrogate markers for the noninvasive assessment of tumor necrosis and MVD in high-grade prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC3253407  PMID: 22247640
PC3; Prostate; Diffusion weighted imaging; MR; Necrosis; MVD
4.  Ribosomal Protein L19 and L22 Modulate TLR3 Signaling 
Immune Network  2011;11(3):155-162.
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces inflammation. In this study we attempted to ascertain if there are endogenous host molecules controlling the production of cytokines and chemokines. Two candidates, ribosomal protein L19 and L22, were analyzed to determine if they influence cytokine production followed by TLR3 activation. In this study we report that L19 acts upon production of IP-10 or IL-8 differently in glioblastoma cells.
L19 or L22 was transfected into HEK293-TLR3, A549 or A172 cells. After treatment with several inhibitors of NF-kB, PI3K, p38 or ERK, production of IL-8 or IP-10 was measured by ELISA. siRNA was introduced to suppress expression of L19. After Vesicular stomatitis virus infection, viral multiplication was measured by western blot.
L19 increased ERK activation to produce IL-8. In A172 cells, in which TLR3 is expressed at endosomes, L19 inhibited interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation and IP-10 production to facilitate viral multiplication, whereas L19 inhibited viral multiplication in A549 cells bearing TLR3 on their cell membrane.
Our results suggest that L19 regulates TLR3 signaling, which is cell type specific and may be involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases.
PMCID: PMC3153667  PMID: 21860608
RPL19; RPL22; TLR3
5.  MET Expression in Sporadic Renal Cell Carcinomas 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(4):672-677.
Although germline mutations of met proto-oncogene on human chromosome 7q31-34 have been known as useful molecular markers of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the expression of MET, a product of met proto-oncogene, has not been fully studied in sporadic RCC, along with its clinical significance. We investigated the expression of MET by immunohistochemistry in 182 cases of renal neoplasm encompassing 145 RCC, 25 urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis, and 12 oncocytomas. MET was diffusely and strongly expressed in 90% of papillary RCC, all collecting duct carcinomas, and 92% of urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis. On the contrary, clear cell RCC, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytomas were negative or focally positive for MET expression. In clear cell RCC, MET expression was positively correlated with high nuclear grade, presence of infiltrative growth, tumoral necrosis, papillary architecture, sarcomatoid component, tumoral involvement of the renal pelvis or ureter, involvement of the calyx, and lymphatic invasion. In conclusion, diffuse and strong expression of MET in papillary RCC and collecting duct carcinoma might be helpful in discriminating from the other subtypes of RCC with tubular or papillary growth. In case of MET expression observed in clear cell RCC, it might correlate with those clinicopathological parameters implying aggressive behavior.
PMCID: PMC2729889  PMID: 16891811
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Neoplasms; Kidney; Immunohistochemistry

Results 1-5 (5)