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1.  Serum CA 19-9 and CEA Levels as a Prognostic Factor in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(3):643-649.
To investigate the use of pretreatment carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as prognostic factors to determine survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective review of the medical records of patients who were diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and received surgery, chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy was performed. Factors, including CA 19-9 and CEA, associated with the survival of pancreatic cancer patients were analyzed.
Patients with the median age of 65 years were included (n=187). Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels and CEA levels were observed in 75.4% and 39% of patients at diagnosis, respectively. CEA was correlated with tumor stages (p=0.005), but CA 19-9 was not. CA 19-9 and CEA were elevated in 69.0% and 33.3% of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, and elevated in 72.9% and 47.2% of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, respectively. The median overall survival of the normal serum CEA group was longer than that of the elevated serum CEA group (16.3 months vs. 10.2 months, p=0.004). However, the median overall survival of the normal serum CA 19-9 group was not different from that of the elevated serum CA 19-9 group (12.4 months vs. 13.5 months, p=0.969). The independent factors associated with overall survival were advanced pancreatic cancer [harzard ratio (HR) 4.33, p=0.001] and elevated serum CEA level (HR 1.52, p=0.032).
Patients with elevated serum CEA level at diagnosis demonstrated poor overall survival. Pretreatment CEA level may predict the prognosis of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
PMCID: PMC3635646  PMID: 23549809
CA 19-9; carcinoembryonic antigen; pancreas adenocarcinoma; prognosis
2.  Clinical Features of Right-Sided Infective Endocarditis Occurring in Non-Drug Users 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(6):776-781.
Right-sided infective endocarditis (RIE) occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users in western countries, and it has a relatively good prognosis. Clinical features and prognosis of RIE occurring in non-drug users are not well known. We investigated the clinical findings of RIE in non-drug users. We retrospectively reviewed 345 cases diagnosed with IE. Cases with RIE or left-sided infective endocarditis (LIE) defined by the vegetation site were included and cases having no vegetation or both-side vegetation were excluded. Clinical findings and in-hospital outcome of RIE were compared to those of LIE. Among the 245 cases, 39 (16%) cases had RIE and 206 (84%) cases had LIE. RIE patients were younger (40±19 yr vs 50±18 yr, P=0.004), and had a higher incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) (36% vs 13%, P<0.001) and central venous catheter (CVC) (21% vs 4%, P=0.001) compared to LIE patients. A large vegetation was more common in RIE (33% vs 9%, P<0.001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of RIE, while Streptococcus viridans were the most common cause of LIE. In-hospital mortality and cardiac surgery were not different between the two groups. CHD and use of CVC were common in non-drug users with RIE. The short-term clinical outcome of RIE is not different from that of LIE.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC4055809  PMID: 24932077
Endocarditis; Tricuspid Valve; Echocardiography
3.  Impact of Doctors' Resistance on Success of Drug Utilization Review System 
Healthcare Informatics Research  2014;20(2):99-108.
The drug utilization review (DUR) system, which checks any conflict event of medications, contributes to improve patient safety. One of the important barriers in its adoption is doctors' resistance. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of doctors' resistance on the success of the DUR system.
This study adopted an augmented the DeLone and McLean Information System (D&M IS) Success Model (2003), which used doctors' resistance as a socio-technological measure. This study framework is the same as that of the D&M IS Success Model in that it is based on qualities, such as system, information, and services. The major difference is that this study excluded the variable 'use' because it was not statistically significant for mandatory systems. A survey of doctors who used computers to enter prescriptions was conducted at a Korean tertiary hospital in February 2012.
This study is very meaningful in that it is the first study to explore the success factors of the DUR system associated with doctors' resistance. Doctors' resistance to the DUR system was not statistically associated with user usefulness, whereas it affected user satisfaction.
The results indicate that doctors still complain of discomfort in using the DUR system in the outpatient clinical setting, even though they admit that it contributes to patient safety. To mitigate doctors' resistance and raise user satisfaction, more opinions from doctors regarding the DUR system have to be considered and have to be reflected in the system.
PMCID: PMC4030065  PMID: 24872908
Drug Utilization Review; Information System; Medicare Assignment
4.  Glioma is formed by active Akt1 alone and promoted by active Rac1 in transgenic zebrafish 
Neuro-Oncology  2013;15(3):290-304.
Ongoing characterization of glioma has revealed that Akt signaling plays a crucial role in gliomagenesis. In mouse models, however, Akt alone was not sufficient to induce glioma.
We established transgenic zebrafish that overexpressed dominant-active (DA) human Akt1 or Rac1G12V (DARac1) at ptf1a domain and investigated transgenic phenotypes and mechanisms leading to gliomagenesis.
Transgene expressions were spatiotemporally restricted without any developmental abnormality of embryos and persisted at cerebellum and medulla in adult zebrafish. DAAkt1 alone induced glioma (with visible bumps at the head), with incidences of 36.6% and 49% at 6 and 9 months, respectively. Histologically, gliomas showed various histologic grades, increased proliferation, and frequent invasion into the fourth ventricle. Preferential location of small tumors at periventricular area and coexpression of Her4 suggested that tumors originated from Ptf1a- and Her4-positive progenitor cells at ventricular zone. Gliomagenesis was principally mediated by activation of survival pathway through upregulation of survivin genes. Although DARac1 alone was incapable of gliomagenesis, when coexpressed with DAAkt1, gliomagenesis was accelerated, showing higher tumor incidences (62.0% and 73.3% at 6 and 9 months, respectively), advanced histologic grade, invasiveness, and shortened survival. DARac1 upregulated survivin2, cyclin D1, β-catenin, and snail1a but downregulated E-cadherin, indicating that DARac1 promotes gliomagenesis by enhancing proliferation, survival, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. On pharmacologic tests, only Akt1/2 inhibitor effectively suppressed gliomagenesis, inhibited cellular proliferation, and induced apoptosis in established gliomas.
The zebrafish model reinforces the pivotal role of Akt signaling in gliomagenesis and suggests Rac1 as an important protein involved in progression.
PMCID: PMC3578497  PMID: 23325864
Akt1; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; glioma; Rac1; transgenic zebrafish
5.  Duodenal adenocarcinoma following a neuroendocrine tumor in the duodenum 
Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm accounting for 0.3% of all gastrointestinal tract carcinomas. We herein present one case of duodenal adenocarcinoma after duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma. Poorly differentiated duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with liver metastasis (TxNxM1) was confirmed, and eight cycles of palliative chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/etoposide/cisplatin) were administered. The patient was then in a clinically complete response status. About 1 year later, newly developed adenocarcinoma was detected at the same site. It was completely surgically resected, and the patient was cured.
PMCID: PMC3932400  PMID: 24574838
Neuroendocrine tumors; Duodenal neoplasms; Drug therapy
6.  Electromagnetic Interference of Wireless Local Area Network on Electrocardiogram Monitoring System: A Case Report 
Korean Circulation Journal  2013;43(3):187-188.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect various medical devices. Herein, we report the case of EMI from wireless local area network (WLAN) on an electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. A patient who had a prior myocardial infarction participated in the cardiac rehabilitation program in the sports medicine center of our hospital under the wireless ECG monitoring system. After WLAN was installed, wireless ECG monitoring system failed to show a proper ECG signal. ECG signal was distorted when WLAN was turned on, but it was normalized after turning off the WLAN.
PMCID: PMC3629245  PMID: 23613696
Wireless technology; Electrocardiography
7.  Progression Rate of Aortic Valve Stenosis in Korean Patients 
Although there were studies about ethnic differences in aortic valve thickness and calcification that they may play a role in aortic valvular stenosis (AVS) progression, few studies about the progression rate of AVS in Asian population have been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the progression rate of AVS in Korean patients.
We retrospectively analyzed 325 patients (181 men, age: 67 ± 13 years) with AVS who had 2 or more echocardiograms at least 6 months apart from 2003 to 2008. The patients with other significant valvular diseases or history of cardiac surgery were excluded. The progression rate of AVS was expressed in terms of increase in maximum aortic jet velocity per year (meter/second/year).
Baseline AVS was mild in 207 (64%), moderate in 81 (25%), and severe in 37 (11%). There were no significant differences among the three groups in terms of age, gender, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia. The mean progression rate was 0.12 ± 0.23 m/s/yr and more rapid in severe AVS (0.28 ± 0.36 m/s/yr) when compared to moderate (0.14 ± 0.26 m/s/yr) and mild AVS (0.09 ± 0.18 m/s/yr) (p < 0.001). The progression rate in bicuspid AVS was significantly higher than other AVS (0.23 ± 0.35 vs. 0.11 ± 0.20 m/s/yr, p = 0.002). By multivariate analysis, initial maximum aortic jet velocity (Beta = 0.175, p = 0.003), bicuspid aortic valve (Beta = 0.127, p = 0.029), and E velocity (Beta = -0.134, p = 0.018) were significantly associated with AVS progression.
The progression rate of AVS in Korean patients is slower than that reported in Western population. Therefore, ethnic difference should be considered for the follow-up of the patients with AVS.
PMCID: PMC3021890  PMID: 21253361
Aortic valvular stenosis; Natural history; Disease progression
8.  Placement of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent in a young patient with chronic pancreatitis 
Plastic stent insertion is a treatment option for pancreatic duct stricture with chronic pancreatitis. However, recurrent stricture is a limitation after removing the plastic stent. Self-expandable metal stents have long diameters and patency. A metal stent has become an established management option for pancreatic duct stricture caused by malignancy but its use in benign stricture is still controversial. We introduce a young patient who had chronic pancreatitis and underwent several plastic stent insertions due to recurrent pancreatic duct stricture. His symptoms improved after using a fully covered self-expandable metal covered stent and there was no recurrence found at follow-up at the outpatient department.
PMCID: PMC3004045  PMID: 21173916
Chronic Pancreatitis; Pancreatic duct stricture; Fully covered self-expandable metal covered stent; Young patient
9.  Dual Pulsed-Wave Doppler Tracing of Right Ventricular Inflow and Outflow: Single Cardiac Cycle Right Ventricular Tei Index and Evaluation of Right Ventricular Function 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(8):391-398.
Background and Objectives
The reliability and usefulness of the right ventricular (RV) Tei index (RTX) remains controversial because it has not been possible to simultaneously measure RV inflow and outflow. However, dual pulsed-wave Doppler (DPD) enables flow velocities to be obtained at different sampling sites simultaneously. In this study we evaluated the feasibility and reliability of RTX values obtained by DPD (RTXDPD).
Subjects and Methods
Forty-one patients who underwent cardiac catheterization and echocardiography for RV volume or pressure overloading conditions were evaluated. Symptom-limited exercise treadmill testing with expired gas analysis was performed and maximal exercise capacity was measured.
RTX by conventional flow Doppler (RTXCFD, 0.262±0.164) was similar to RTXDPD (0.253±0.117, p=NS), whereas RTX by tissue Doppler echocardiography (RTXTDE, 0.447±0.125) was significantly larger than RTXDPD (p<0.001). Based on multiple regression analysis, maximal exercise capacity was independently related to RTXDPD (β=-0.60, p<0.001), mid-RV dimension (β=-0.26, p=0.012), left ventricular ejection fraction (β=0.22, p=0.023), and early diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (β=0.21, p=0.048).
It is feasible and reliable to evaluate RV function using RTXDPD values. However, to evaluate the clinical usefulness of RTXDPD, additional studies are required with a large number of patients and long-term follow-up.
PMCID: PMC2933464  PMID: 20830253
Echocardiography; Echocardiography, Doppler, pulsed; Cardiac function; Right ventricle
10.  Characteristics of Double-Chambered Right Ventricle in Adult Patients 
This study evaluated the clinical features of double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) in adults. Most cases of DCRV are diagnosed and treated during childhood. Consequently, very few reports include cases in which its clinical characteristics are evident in adults.
We reviewed the clinical data for 10 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with DCRV.
Electrocardiogram showed right ventricular hypertrophy in 3 DCRV patients. All cases were associated with ventricular septal defect (VSD; 7 for perimembranous, 2 for muscular outlet, and 1 for the subarterial type). Surgical correction was done for 7 DCRV patients all of whom survived operations. Their follow-up echocardiogram showed the pressure gradient in their right ventricle was significantly decreased from 69.4 ± 17.2 mmHg preoperatively to 10.2 ± 5.0 mmHg postoperatively (p < 0.05). In the short-term follow-up, there was no significant increase in the pressure gradient in the right ventricle.
There are lots of cases of DCRV that are not diagnosed accurately in adults. In our experience, all DCRV cases had VSD and surgical correction of these cases showed excellent results. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of DCRV is necessary so that DCRV is not overlooked and operations are enabled within an appropriate time.
PMCID: PMC2880687  PMID: 20526387
Double outlet right ventricle; Heart defects, congenital; Heart ventricles; Ventricular outflow obstruction
11.  The Effects of Short-duration Exercise on Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(5):795-799.
Arterial stiffness is an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of short duration exercise using the treadmill test on arterial stiffness in the presence of coronary artery disease. We enrolled patients with and without coronary artery diseases (CAD and control group, 50 patients each) referred for treadmill testing. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured before and after treadmill testing. Values of baPWV were significantly reduced at 10 min after exercise in both groups, more in the CAD group than in the control group (baseline baPWV and post-exercise change [cm/sec]: 1,527±245 and -132±155 in the CAD group, 1,439±202 and -77±93 in the control group, respectively, P for change in each group <0.001, P for difference in changes between the two groups <0.001). These findings persisted after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), MAP decreases, and baseline baPWV. Significant post-exercise baPWV reductions were observed in both groups, and more prominently in the CAD group. This finding suggests that short-duration exercise may effectively improve arterial stiffness even in patients with stable coronary artery disease.
PMCID: PMC2752758  PMID: 19794973
Exercise; Coronary Artery Disease; Brachial Artery
12.  Outcomes of Pregnancy in Women with Congenital Heart Disease: A Single Center Experience in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(5):808-813.
Pregnancy outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease have not been fully assessed in Korea. Forty-nine pregnancies that occurred in 34 women with congenital heart disease who registered at our hospital between September 1995 and April 2006 were reviewed. Spontaneous abortions occurred in two pregnancies at 6+1 and 7 weeks, and another two underwent elective pregnancy termination. One maternal death in puerperium occurred in a woman with Eisenmenger syndrome. Maternal cardiac complications were noted in 18.4%, pulmonary edema in 16.3%, symptomatic arrhythmia in 6.1%, deterioration of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class by ≥2 in 2.0%, and cardiac death in 2.0%. Independent predictors of adverse maternal cardiac events were an NYHA functional class of ≥3 (odds ratio [OR], 20.3), right ventricular dilation (OR, 21.2), and pulmonary hypertension (OR, 21.8). Neonatal complications occurred in 22.4% of pregnancies and included preterm delivery (16.3%), small for gestational age (12.2%), and neonatal death (2.0%). Independent predictors of adverse neonatal events were pulmonary hypertension (OR, 6.8) and NYHA functional class ≥3 (OR, 23.0). Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease was found to be significantly associated with maternal cardiac and neonatal complications. Pre-pregnancy counseling and multidisciplinary care involving cardiologists and obstetricians are recommended for women with congenital heart disease contemplating pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC2579998  PMID: 18955786
Heart Defects, Congenital; Pregnancy Outcome; Risk Factors
13.  Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction without basal septal hypertrophy, caused by catecholamine therapy and volume depletion 
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with hypertrophy of the basal septum is the most common etiology of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction.
In this article, we report the case of a patient with a structurally normal heart who developed hemodynamic deterioration due to severe LVOT obstruction following treatment with catecholamines. Hypovolemia accompanied with a hyperdynamic condition, resulting from catecholamine treatment, may cause dynamic LVOT obstruction due to the systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leaflet. The solution for this is early recognition and correction of aggravating factors such as, withdrawal of catecholamine therapy and volume replacement.
PMCID: PMC2686978  PMID: 18646515
Left ventricular outflow obstruction; Catecholamines
14.  Spontaneous Closure of Iatrogenic Coronary Artery Fistula to Left Ventricle After Septal Myectomy for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(6):1111-1114.
Cases of iatrogenic coronary artery fistulas draining into the left ventricle after surgical myectomy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy have been published as sporadic reports. However, its management scheme and prognosis are not clear because of the low incidence. A 46-yr-old woman was hospitalized for evaluation of chest pain and shortness of breath for 3 months. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination showed typical hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with a peak pressure gradient of 71 mmHg across the left ventricular outflow tract. The patient underwent surgical septal myectomy. Postoperative color Doppler imaging revealed a diastolic blood flow from the interventricular septal myocardium to the left ventricular cavity, i.e. iatrogenic coronary artery fistula to the left ventricle. Ten days later, the fistula closed spontaneously which was diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography and confirmed by coronary angiography.
PMCID: PMC2721939  PMID: 17179697
Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic; Vascular Fistula; Postoperative Complications
15.  Clinical Outcome of Cardiac Surgery in Octogenarians 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(5):747-751.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the operative results and the clinical outcomes for octogenarians who underwent cardiac surgery. Twenty consecutive octogenarians who had cardiac operations at Samsung Medical Center from October 1994 through December 2004 were included in the study. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed and the follow-up results were obtained by the interview. The patients were 15 men and 5 women, and their mean age was 83.1 yr (range: 80-89 yr). The surgical priority was urgent for 5 patients and it was elective for 15 patients. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed in 14 patients, valve surgery was performed in 4 patients and CABG plus valve surgery was performed in 2 patients. There was one hospital death on day one after urgent CABG in an 80-yr-old man who had left main coronary artery occlusion. There were three deaths during the follow-up. Sudden death occurred in one patient at 2 months after valve surgery, and there were two non-cardiac deaths at 12 and 14 months, respectively, after CABG. Non-fatal postoperative complications occurred in 2 of 5 urgent patients and in 3 of 15 electives. The survival rate for the 19 hospital survivors at 24 months after surgery was 80% and the mean follow-up period was 22.5 months (range: 1-58 months). In conclusion, cardiac surgery could be performed within acceptable limits of the risk and its long-term results could be expected to be favorable for the octogenarians.
PMCID: PMC2779269  PMID: 16224146
Thoracic Surgical Procedures; Aged 80 and over; Coronary Artery Bypass
16.  Efficacy of fimasartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in hypertensive patients inadequately controlled by fimasartan monotherapy 
The study reported here compared the blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy of fimasartan alone with that of fimasartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination in patients whose BP goal was not achieved after 4 weeks of treatment with once-daily fimasartan 60 mg.
Patients with sitting diastolic blood pressure (siDBP) ≥90 mmHg with 4 weeks of once-daily fimasartan 60 mg were randomly assigned to receive either once-daily fimasartan 60 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg or fimasartan 60 mg for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the dose was increased from fimasartan 60 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg to fimasartan 120 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg or from fimasartan 60 mg to fimasartan 120 mg if siDBP was ≥90 mmHg.
Of the 263 randomized patients, 256 patients who had available efficacy data were analyzed. The fimasartan/HCTZ treatment group showed a greater reduction of siDBP compared to the fimasartan treatment group at Week 4 (6.88±8.10 mmHg vs 3.38±7.33, P=0.0008), and the effect persisted at Week 8 (8.67±9.39 mmHg vs 5.02±8.27 mmHg, P=0.0023). Reduction of sitting systolic BP in the fimasartan/HCTZ treatment group was also greater than that in the fimasartan treatment group (at Week 4, 10.50±13.76 mmHg vs 5.75±12.18 mmHg, P=0.0069 and, at Week 8, 13.45±15.15 mmHg vs 6.84±13.57 mmHg, P=0.0007). The proportion of patients who achieved a reduction of siDBP ≥10 mmHg from baseline and/or a mean siDBP <90 mmHg after 4 weeks of treatment was higher in the fimasartan/HCTZ treatment group than in the fimasartan treatment group (53.6% vs 39.8%, P=0.0359). The overall incidence of adverse drug reaction was 11.79% with no significant difference between the treatment groups.
The combination treatment of fimasartan and HCTZ achieved better BP control than fimasartan monotherapy, and had comparable safety and tolerance to fimasartan monotherapy.
PMCID: PMC4459623  PMID: 26082615
blood pressure; antihypertensive; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; angiotensin-receptor blocker; angiotensin II type 1 receptor; renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitor
17.  Gender Difference in Ventricular Response to Aortic Stenosis: Insight from Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0121684.
Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling is associated with cardiac mortality and morbidity, little is known about the impact of gender on the ventricular response in aortic stenosis (AS) patients. This study aimed to analyze the differential effect of gender on ventricular remodeling in moderate to severe AS patients.
Methods and Results
A total of 118 consecutive patients (67±9 years; 63 males) with moderate or severe AS (severe 81.4%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) within a 1-month period in this two-center prospective registry. The pattern of LV remodeling was assessed using the LV mass index (LVMI) and LV remodeling index (LVRI; LV mass/LV end-diastolic volume) by CMR. Although there were no differences in AS severity parameters nor baseline characteristics between genders, males showed a significantly higher LVMI (102.6±29.1g/m2 vs. 86.1±29.2g/m2, p=0.003) and LVRI (1.1±0.2 vs. 1.0±0.3, p=0.018), regardless of AS severity. The LVMI was significantly associated with aortic valve area (AVA) index and valvuloarterial impedance in females, whereas it was not in males, resulting in significant interaction between genders (PInteraction=0.007/0.014 for AVA index/valvuloarterial impedance, respectively). Similarly, the LVRI also showed a significantly different association between male and female subjects with the change in AS severity parameters (PInteraction=0.033/<0.001/0.029 for AVA index/transaortic mean pressure gradient/valvuloarterial impedance, respectively).
Males are associated with greater degree of LVH and higher LVRI compared to females at moderate to severe AS. However, females showed a more exaggerated LV remodeling response, with increased severity of AS and hemodynamic loads, than males.
PMCID: PMC4374835  PMID: 25811358
19.  Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm during Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients with Significant Coronary Artery Disease 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;56(1):38-44.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) shares several risk factors with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We evaluated the prevalence during transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and risk factors of AAA in patients with CAD.
Materials and Methods
A total of 1300 CAD patients were screened from August 2009 to May 2010, and measurement of abdominal aorta size was feasible in 920 patients (71%) at the end of routine TTE. An AAA was defined as having a maximal diameter of ≥30 mm.
Of the 920 patients, 22 (2.4% of the study population) were diagnosed with AAA; of these AAA patients, 86% were male, and 82% were over 65 years-old. Abdominal aortic size was weakly correlated with aortic root diameter (r=0.22, p<0.01). Although the proportions of male gender, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were higher in AAA patients, such differences were not statistically significant. Advanced age [odds ratio (OR)=1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.12; p<0.01], smoking (OR=3.44; 95% CI: 1.18-10.04; p=0.02), and peripheral arterial disease (OR=5.88; 95% CI: 1.38-25.05; p=0.01) were found to be associated with AAA.
Although prevalence of AAA is very low in the Asian population, the prevalence of AAA in Asian CAD patients is higher than the general population. Therefore, opportunistic examination of the abdominal aorta during routine TTE could be effective, especially for male CAD patients over 65 years with a history of smoking or peripheral arterial disease.
PMCID: PMC4276776  PMID: 25510745
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; screening; coronary artery disease; transthoracic echocardiography
20.  The Efficacy of Endoscopic Palliation of Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(5):1267-1272.
Obstructive jaundice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon (0.5-13%). Unlike other causes of obstructive jaundice, the role of endoscopic intervention in obstructive jaundice complicated by HCC has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of obstructive jaundice caused by HCC and predictive factors for successful endoscopic intervention.
Materials and Methods
From 1999 to 2009, 54 patients with HCC who underwent endoscopic intervention to relieve obstructive jaundice were included. We defined endoscopic intervention as a clinical success when the obstructive jaundice was relieved within 4 weeks.
Clinical success was achieved in 23 patients (42.6%). Patients in the clinical success group showed better Child-Pugh liver function (C-P grade A or B/C; 17/6 vs. 8/20), lower total bilirubin levels (8.1±5.3 mg/dL vs. 23.1±10.4 mg/dL) prior to the treatment, and no history of alcohol consumption. The only factor predictive of clinical success by multivariate analysis was low total bilirubin level at the time of endoscopic intervention, regardless of history of alcohol consumption [odds ratio 1.223 (95% confidence interval, 1.071-1.396), p=0.003]. The cut-off value of pre-endoscopic treatment total bilirubin level was 12.8 mg/dL for predicting the clinical prognosis. Median survival after endoscopic intervention in the clinical success group was notably longer than that in the clinical failure group (5.6 months vs. 1.5 months, p≤0.001).
Before endoscopic intervention, liver function, especially total bilirubin level, should be checked to achieve the best clinical outcome. Endoscopic intervention can be helpful to relieve jaundice in well selected patients with HCC.
PMCID: PMC4108811  PMID: 25048484
Hepatocellular carcinoma; obstructive jaundice; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; palliative treatment
21.  Validation of Group B Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: Retrospective Analysis 
Gut and Liver  2014;8(5):557-562.
Among borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC), group B BRPC patients have findings that are suggestive but not diagnostic of metastasis. In this study, we attempted to validate whether group B could truly be categorized as a borderline resectable group.
We placed the BRPC patients into group A or group B. The survival outcomes were compared between the groups.
A total of 53 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma was classified as either group A or B borderline resectable. In group A, 23 (60.5%) of 38 patients underwent pancreatectomy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy, but in group B, only five (33.3%) of 15 patients underwent pancreatectomy, mainly because of the progression of suspected distant metastasis. There was a significant difference in overall survival (OS) between group A and B patients (median OS, 21.2 months vs 10.2 months, respectively; p=0.007). Of the patients who underwent pancreatectomy, group B had a higher recurrence rate compared to group A (recurrence rate: 11 of 23 patients [47.8%] vs five of five patients [100%], respectively; p=0.033).
This report is the first to validate the definition of BPRC. Group B had much worse outcomes, and whether group B BRPC can be categorized as BRPC together with group A is questionable.
PMCID: PMC4164249  PMID: 25228978
Pancreatic neoplasms; Chemoradiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Prognosis
22.  Clinicopathologic Characteristics Associated with Complications and Long-Term Outcomes of Endoscopic Papillectomy for Adenoma 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(3):644-650.
Endoscopic papillectomy (EP) is currently employed for the treatment of ampullary adenoma. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic characteristics related to complications and long-term outcomes of EP.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-nine patients underwent EP for ampullary adenoma. Patients were grouped according to the occurrence of procedure-related complications: no complication group (n=28) and complication group (n=11).
The overall complication rate was 28.2%. The most common complication was EP-related pancreatitis (n=7). Amylase (p=0.006) and lipase levels (p=0.007), 24 hours after EP, were significantly higher in the complication group, however, these levels did not differ at earlier times. As the tumor progressed from adenoma to cancer, the complete resection was significantly lessened (p=0.032). The duration of antiprotease injection during the hospital stay was significantly longer (p=0.017) and the transfusion requirements were significantly higher (p=0.018) in the complication group. During a median follow-up of 15 months, three lesions (10.3%) recurred among patients with complete resection (n=29) and five lesions (12.8%) recurred among enrolled patients. One patient with progressive recurrence from low-grade dysplasia to adenocarcinoma was noted during a follow-up of 22 months.
If symptoms are present, amylase and lipase levels, 24 hours after EP, could help predict possible EP-related pancreatitis. Histologic diagnosis through resected specimens may result in complete resection. Patients with complications need a longer duration of antiprotease injection during their hospital stay and more transfusions. The recurrence rate was not significantly high in completely resected cases, however, there was a possibility of progressive recurrence.
PMCID: PMC3990097  PMID: 24719130
Ampullary adenoma; endoscopic papillectomy; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; complication
23.  Native valve endocarditis due to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae 
PMCID: PMC4028533  PMID: 24851078
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Endocarditis

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