To determine the effectiveness of salvage radiation therapy (RT) in patients with loco-regional recurrences (LRR) following initial complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and assess prognostic factors affecting survivals.
Materials and Methods
Between 1994 and 2007, 64 patients with LRR after surgery of NSCLC were treated with high dose RT alone (78.1%) or concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT, 21.9%) at Samsung Medical Center. Twenty-nine patients (45.3%) had local recurrence, 26 patients (40.6%) had regional recurrence and 9 patients (14.1%) had recurrence of both components. The median RT dose was 54 Gy (range, 44-66 Gy). The radiation target volume included the recurrent lesions only.
The median follow-up time from the start of RT in survivors was 32.0 months. The rates of in-field failure free survival, intra-thoracic failure free survival and extra-thoracic failure free survival at 2 years were 52.3%, 33.9% and 59.4%, respectively. The median survival after RT was 18.5 months, and 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 47.9%. On both univariate and multivariate analysis, the interval from surgery till recurrence and CCRT were significant prognostic factors for OS.
The current study demonstrates that involved field salvage RT is effective for LRR of NSCLC following surgery.
Concurrent chemo-radiation therapy; locoregional recurrence; non-small cell lung cancer; radiation therapy; salvage treatment
To evaluate tumor responses in patients treated with anti-angiogenic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by assessing intratumoral changes using a dual-energy CT (DECT) (based on Choi's criteria) and to compare it to traditional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria.
Materials and Methods
Ten NSCLC patients treated with bevacizumab underwent DECT. Tumor responses to anti-angiogenic therapy were assessed and compared with the baseline CT results using both RECIST (size changes only) and Choi's criteria (reflecting net tumor enhancement). Kappa statistics was used to evaluate agreements between tumor responses assessed by RECIST and Choi's criteria.
The weighted κ value for the comparison of tumor responses between the RECIST and Choi's criteria was 0.72. Of 31 target lesions (21 solid nodules, 8 lymph nodes, and two ground-glass opacity nodules [GGNs]), five lesions (16%) showed discordant responses between RECIST and Choi's criteria. Iodine-enhanced images allowed for a distinction between tumor enhancement and hemorrhagic response (detected in 14% [4 of 29, excluding GGNs] of target lesions on virtual nonenhanced images).
DECT may serve as a useful tool for response evaluation after anti-angiogenic treatment in NSCLC patients by providing information on the net enhancement of target lesions without obtaining non-enhanced images.
Targeted therapy; Tumor response assessment; Response criteria; Guideline; Non-small cell lung cancer; Dual energy CT
Micelle-based siRNA carriers (“micelleplexes”) were prepared from the A-B-C triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PEG-PnBA-PDMAEMA), and their in vitro performance and in vivo biodistribution properties were compared with the benchmark PEGylated and basic polycation systems, PEG-PDMAEMA and PDMAEMA, respectively. The micelle architecture, incorporating increased PEG shielding and a larger particle size (~50 nm) than polycation-based complexes (polyplexes; ~10 nm), enhances siRNA delivery performance in two important aspects: in vitro gene silencing efficiency, and in vivo tumor accumulation. The in vitro gene silencing efficiency of the micelleplexes (24% in HeLa cells) was significantly better than the statistically-insignificant levels observed for PDMAEMA and PEG-PDMAEMA polyplexes under identical conditions. This enhancement is linked to the different mechanisms by which micelleplexes are internalized (i.e., caveolar, etc.) compared to PDMAEMA and PEG-PDMAEMA polyplexes. Folate-functionalization significantly improved micelleplex uptake but had negligible influence on gene silencing efficiency, suggesting that this parameter is not limited by cellular internalization. In vivo biodistribution analysis revealed that siRNA delivered by micelleplexes was more effectively accumulated and retained in tumor tissues than that delivered by PEGylated polyplexes. Overall, the micelle particle size and architecture appear to improve in vitro and in vivo delivery characteristics without significantly changing other properties, such as cytotoxicity and resistance to enzymes and dissociation. The self-assembled nature of micelleplexes is expected to enable incorporation of imaging modalities inside the hydrophobic micelle core, thus combining therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. The findings from the present study suggest that the micelleplex-type carrier architecture is a useful platform for potential theranostic and tumor-targeting applications.
nano-carrier; siRNA delivery; in vitro performance; in vivo biodistribution; polyplex; micelleplex
Although current recommendations for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) include a maximum of six cycles of platinum-based combination therapy as a first-line approach, most patients experience progression within 3–4 months. Therefore, a new treatment strategy, maintenance therapy, has been proposed, and several large randomized prospective controlled trials have shown benefits with maintenance therapy. Maintenance therapy can be classified as either continuation maintenance, which is defined as a prolongation of a part of the first-line chemotherapy or molecularly targeted agent until progression, or switch-maintenance, which is defined as the administration of a different cytotoxic chemotherapy or molecularly targeted agent immediately after induction therapy. In this article, recent results from large randomized phase III trials regarding maintenance therapy are reviewed in order to evaluate the role of maintenance therapy in NSCLC.
non-small cell lung cancer; maintenance therapy
Previous research suggests the therapeutic cancer vaccine L-BLP25 potentially provides a survival benefit in patients with locally advanced unresectable stage III non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). These promising findings prompted the phase III study, INSPIRE, in patients of East-Asian ethnicity. East-Asian ethnicity is an independent favourable prognostic factor for survival in NSCLC. The favourable prognosis is most likely due to a higher incidence of EGFR mutations among this patient population.
The primary objective of the INSPIRE study is to assess the treatment effect of L-BLP25 plus best supportive care (BSC), as compared to placebo plus BSC, on overall survival time in East-Asian patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC and either documented stable disease or an objective response according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria following primary chemoradiotherapy. Those in the L-BLP25 arm will receive a single intravenous infusion of cyclophosphamide (300 mg/m2) 3 days before the first L-BLP25 vaccination, with a corresponding intravenous infusion of saline to be given in the control arm. A primary treatment phase of 8 subcutaneous vaccinations of L-BLP25 930 μg or placebo at weekly intervals will be followed by a maintenance treatment phase of 6-weekly vaccinations continued until disease progression or discontinuation from the study.
The ongoing INSPIRE study is the first large study of a therapeutic cancer vaccine specifically in an East-Asian population. It evaluates the potential of maintenance therapy with L-BLP25 to prolong survival in East-Asian patients with stage III NSCLC where there are limited treatment options currently available.
Clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT01015443
Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC) is a rare type of lung cancer characterized by the poor response to conventional chemotherapy and subsequent disappointing outcomes. Therefore, it is paramount to delineate the molecular characteristics of this disease entity.
In this study, we retrospectively examined the surgical specimens of 61 patients who underwent lung surgery. Mutational or gene amplification statuses of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), k-ras, c-kit, c-met, and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) were examined using genomic DNA sequencing, real-time PCR and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
The median age was 61 years, and 50 patients were men and 11 were women. In the histologic review of epithelial component, adenocarcinoma were in 44 cases (72%), squamous cell carcinoma in 15 (25%) and large cell carcinoma in 2 patients (3%). Overall, 30 cases (49%) had any molecular alterations. Nine patients (15%) possessed EGFR deletion in exon 19 (n = 8) or L858R mutations in exon 21 (n = 1), while 3 other cases having atypical EGFR mutations. Six patients (9.8%) had k-ras mutations in exon 12, and 3 had c-kit mutations. High gene copy number of c-met was found in 11 patients (18.0%) and that of FGFR was in 6 patients (9.8%). No significant relationships were identified among the occurrence and type of mutations and patient survival or any other clinicopathological variables.
Given the diverse repertoire of mutational profiles observed in PPC samples, clinical trials based on accurate cancer-genotyping should be considered as a legitimate treatment scheme for this rare disease entity in the future.
Lung cancer; Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma; EGFR; k-ras; c-kit; c-met; FGFR
We wanted to compare the efficacy of the new CT response evaluation criteria for predicting the tumor progression-free survival (PFS) with that of RECIST 1.1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who were treated with bevacizumab.
Materials and Methods
Sixteen patients (M:F = 11:5; median age, 57 years) treated with bevacizumab and combined cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents were selected for a retrospective analysis. The tumor response was assessed by four different methods, namely, by using RECIST 1.1 (RECIST), RECIST but measuring only the solid component of tumor (RECISTsolid), the alternative method reflecting tumor cavitation (the alternative method) and the combined criteria (the combined criteria) that evaluated both the changes of tumor size and attenuation. To evaluate the capabilities of the different measurement methods to predict the patient prognosis, the PFS were compared, using the log rank test, among the responder groups (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], stable disease [SD] and progressive disease [PD]) in terms of the four different methods.
The overall (CR, PR or SD) response rates according to RECIST, RECISTsolid, the alternative method and the combined criteria were 81%, 88%, 81% and 85%, respectively. The confirmed response rates (CR or PR) were 19%, 19%, 50% and 54%, respectively. Although statistically not significant, the alternative method showed the biggest difference for predicting PFS among the three response groups (PR, SD and PD) (p = 0.07). RECIST and the alternative method showed a significant difference for predicting the prognosis between the good (PR or SD) and poor overall responders (p = 0.02).
The response outcome evaluations using the three different CT response criteria that reflect tumor cavitation, the ground-glass opacity component and the attenuation changes in NSCLC patients treated with bevacizumab showed different results from that with using the traditional RECIST method.
Targeted therapy; Tumor response assessment; Response criteria; Guideline, Non-small cell lung cancer
A novel chemically modified heparin derivative, heparin-deoxycholic acid nano-particles, has lower anticoagulant activity, and was recently reported to have significant anti-tumor effects on squamous head and neck cancer cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of heparin-deoxycholic acid nano-particles in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
Materials and Methods
An orthotopic lung cancer model in 16 mice was developed using intra-thoracic injections of 0.5×106 PC14PE6 cells. Ten days after inoculation, the mice were divided into two groups. PBS and Heparin-DOCA particles were injected once a day every 3 days in the tail vein, for a total of 5 injections. The body weight and survival of each mouse were monitored and the tumor size in the lung was measured by SPECT-CT before and after heparin-DOCA nano-particle treatment.
IThe HD particles had no significant cytotoxicity when the PC9 cells were treated in vitro. There was no statistical difference in tumor size, body weight and survival between the HD treated and control groups in vivo. Furthermore, there was no difference in the amount of CD31 between tumor tissues in the two study groups.
HD synthesized with unfractionated heparin had no apparent inhibitory effects on tumor growth in a PC14PE6 cell induced orthotopic lung cancer mouse model. The HD particles did not significantly inhibit tumor-induced angiogenesis at the tumor sites.
Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Mouse; Heparin; Derivatives; Angiogenesis
We aimed to compare the prognoses of patients with pathologically true negative (P-TN) N2 and PET/CT false negative (FN) results in stage T1 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Materials and Methods
Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study with a waiver of informed consent. The study included 184 patients (124 men and 60 women; mean age, 59 years) with stage T1 NSCLC who underwent an integrated PET/CT and surgery. After estimating the efficacy of PET/CT for detecting N2 disease, we determined and compared disease-free survival (DFS) rates in three groups (P-TN [n = 161], PET/CT FN [n = 12], and PET/CT true positive [TP, n = 11]) using the Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test.
Pathologic N2 disease was observed in 23 (12%) patients. PET/CT had an N2 disease detection sensitivity of 48% (11 of 23 patients), a specificity of 95% (153 of 161), and an accuracy of 89% (164 of 184). The 3-year DFS rate in the PET/CT FN group (31%, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 13.6-48.0%) was similar to that of the TP group (16%, 95% CI; 1.7-29.5%) (p = 0.649), but both groups had significantly shorter DFS rates than the P-TN group (77%, 95% CI; 72.0-81.2%) (p < 0.001).
The PET/CT shows a high specificity, but low sensitivity for detecting N2 disease in stage T1 NSCLC. Patients with PET/CT FN N2 disease have survival rates similar to PET/CT TP N2 disease patients, which are both substantially shorter than the survival rate of P-TN patients.
Lung neoplasms; Lung neoplasms, CT; Lung neoplasms, PET; Lung neoplasms, staging
A 43-year-old male presented with a painless left testicular mass. The pathologic diagnosis of the radical orchiectomy specimen was peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified (PTCL-u). According to the Ann Arbor staging system, his initial stage was III because of the right nasopharyngeal involvement. After first-line chemotherapy with four courses of the CHOP regimen and this was followed by involved-field radiotherapy, he achieved complete remission. Two months later, disease recurred to the left ciliary body of the left eye without evidence of involvement at other sites. Although the patient received intensive chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, he ultimately died of leptomeningeal seeding. Because both the central nervous system (CNS) and the orbit are sanctuary sites for chemotherapy, orbital infiltration of lymphoma should prompt physicians to evaluate involvement of the CNS and to consider performing prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy as a treatment option.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; T cell lymphoma; Testes; Eye neoplasm
This study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of paclitaxel with cisplatin as salvage therapy in patients previously treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin (G/C) for advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelial tract.
Twenty-eight patients with metastatic or locally advanced TCC who had received prior G/C chemotherapy were enrolled. All patients received paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and cisplatin (60 mg/m2) every 3 weeks for eight cycles or until disease progression.
The median age was 61 years (range, 43–83 years), and the median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1 (range, 0–2). The overall response rate was 36% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 18–54], with three complete responses and seven partial responses. The median time to progression was 6.2 months (95% CI = 3.9–8.5), and the median overall survival was 10.3 months (95% CI = 6.1–14.1). The most common Grade 3/4 nonhematologic and hematologic toxicities were emesis (10 of 28 patients; 36%) and neutropenia (5 of 110 cycles; 5%).
Salvage chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin displayed promising results with tolerable toxicity profiles in patients with metastatic or locally advanced TCC who had been pretreated with G/C.
Paclitaxel; cisplatin; transitional cell carcinoma; salvage therapy; urothelium
This study was undertaken to investigate in detail the xenograft mouse orthotopic lung cancer model induced by PC14PE6 adenocarcinoma cells.
Materials and Methods
Three cell doses (0.5×106; 1×106; 2×106) of PC14PE6 cells were injected into the lungs of male BALB/c nude mice by the intrathoracic injection method. The lung and other organs, including brain, liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, adrenal gland, and lymph node on knee, were removed and stained with H/E to detect the presence of tumor cells.
The reliable tumorigenicity time in the PC14PE6 adenocarcinoma cell-inoculated BALB/c nude mouse was 10 days after intrathoracic injection. The average life span of the three groups after inoculation was 14 days in the 2×106 cells inoculum group; 25 days in the 1×106 cells inoculum group; and 32 days in the 0.5×106 cells inoculum group. The PC14PE6 adenocarcinoma cells induced orthotopic lung cancer limited within the thorax.
This orthotopic lung cancer model is an efficient cancer model with easy inoculation methods, rapid and high tumorigenicity, and simple monitoring methods for metastasis.
Orthotopic; PC14PE6; Lung cancer; Animal model
The clinical outcome and prognostic factors of patients with synchronous brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) were analyzed. A total of 35 patients with NSCLC underwent GKS as an initial treatment for metastatic brain lesions of synchronous onset. The period of survival and various prognostic factors such as age, gender, performance status, multiplicity of the brain lesions, intracranial tumor volume, and extent of the primary tumor were analyzed. The overall median survival time for this series was 12 months (range 0.75 to 43 months) from the diagnosis. Of the 21 patients who were no longer alive at the conclusion of this study, only 7 (33.3%) died of neurological causes. Multivariate analysis of these data revealed that N stage, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and chemotherapy were significant predictors for survival (p<0.05). Survival of patients with NSCLC and synchronous brain metastases is mainly dependent upon the progression of the systemic disease, provided that the cerebral lesions are treated adequately with local treatment modalities including radiosurgery. Application of radiosurgery as an initial treatment option and aggressive local and systemic modalities to control extracranial disease may improve survival.
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Neoplasm Metastasis; Radiosurgery
Despite advanced effective prophylaxes, pulmonary complications still occur in a high proportion of all hematopoietic stem cell recipients, accounting for considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to describe the causes, incidences and mortality rates secondary to pulmonary complications and risk factors of such complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We reviewed the medical records of 287 patients who underwent either autologous or allogeneic HSCT for hematologic disorders from February 1996 to October 2003 at Samsung Medical Center (134 autografts, 153 allografts). The timing of pulmonary complications was divided into pre-engraftment, early and late period. The spectrum of pulmonary complications included infectious and non-infectious conditions. 73 of the 287 patients (25.4%) developed pulmonary complications. Among these patients, 40 (54.8%) and 29 (39.7%) had infectious and non-infectious conditions, respectively. The overall mortality rate from pulmonary complications was 28.8%. Allogeneic transplant, grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and extensive chronic GVHD were the risk factors with statistical significance for pulmonary complications after HSCT. The mortality rates from pulmonary complications following HSCT were high, especially those of viral and fungal pneumonia, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome.
Infection; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; Graft vs. Host Disease
This is to examine whether aggressive multimodality therapy improves the treatment outcomes in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fifty-three consecutive NSCLC patients with N2 disease, confirmed by mediastinoscopic biopsy, received preoperative thoracic radiation therapy (45 Gy/5 weeks) concurrent with two cycles of oral etoposide and intravenous cisplatin and surgery. Postoperative radiation therapy (PORT, 18 Gy/2 weeks) was optionally recommended for those with the risk factors of loco-regional recurrence based on the surgical and pathological findings. Surgical resection was performed in 38 patients (71.7%), and down-staging was achieved in 19 patients (50%). The median survival period was 27 months in 38 patients who underwent resection, and the rates at 3-yr of overall survival, loco-regional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and disease-free survival were 44.3%, 87.9%, 32.9%, and 29.3%. Significantly favorable factor regarding overall survival was achieving p0/I stage by the multivariate analysis. PORT was successful in reducing locoregional recurrences in patients with the risk factors. Current preoperative concurrent radiochemotherapy and surgery by the authors resulted in comparable survival with other reports, however, further refinement of multimodality approach may be warranted for more effective reduction of distant metastasis.
Carcinoma, Non-Small Cell Lung; Preoperative, Radiotherapy; Drug Therapy; Surgery
The association between a multiple myeloma and a secondary solid tumor is not well established. Some reports showed an increased risk of secondary solid neoplasms in multiple myeloma patients, but others have not. Three cases of the synchronous occurrence of multiple myelomas and solid tumors, namely, a small cell carcinoma of the lung, an adenocarcinoma of the colon and a squamous carcinoma of the pyriform sinus were experienced at our hospital. Therefore, herein is reported the clinical courses and treatment results. The stage of multiple myeloma was Durie-Salmon stage I in all of three cases; therefore, the solid tumors were treated as a primary target because the prognosis of early stage multiple myeloma is generally better than that of advanced solid tumor, while a smoldering or stage I myeloma do not need primary therapy until progression of the multiple myeloma. Two patients died of their solid tumors, but one patient is alive.
Multiple myeloma; Synchronous neoplasm; Second neoplasm
Herein, a case of solitary, unilateral renal metastasis in a patient with curatively resected thoracic esophageal carcinoma, who achieved a pathological complete remission after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy, is reported. The kidney is the 4th or 5th most common visceral metastasis site of a primary esophageal carcinoma. More than 50% of renal metastases typically show bilateral involvement. Solitary, unilateral renal metastasis is extremely rare. Renal metastases from a primary esophageal carcinoma are usually latent and its diagnosis is very unusual in a live patient. The solitary renal metastasis in this case was not accompanied by metastases to other sites. The value of a nephrectomy in solitary renal metastasis of esophageal cancer is not known due to the rarity of such cases. A nephrectomy could be justified in limited situations, such as with uncertainty of histological diagnosis, severe life-threatening hematuria, which cannot be controlled by embolization, or solitary renal metastasis with a long disease-free interval.
Esophageal carcinoma; Metastasis; Kidney
Major ABO incompatibility may be potentially associated with immediate or delayed hemolysis and delayed onset of erythropoiesis in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To determine if hemolysis can be prevented by the inhibition of graft erythropoiesis, we performed hypertransfusion and assessed red cell transfusion requirement and independence. Between October 1995 and December 2001, 28 consecutive patients receiving major ABO incompatible HSCT at Samsung Medical Center were hypertransfused to maintain their hemoglobin levels at 15 g/dL or more. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of these patients with those of 47 patients at Asan Medical Center whose target hemoglobin levels were 10 g/dL. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly delayed in hypertransfused group (51 days vs. 23 days; p=.001). There was no significant difference in the total amount of red cells transfused within 90 days post-HSCT (25 units vs. 26 units; p=.631). No significant difference in the time to red cell transfusion independence was observed between the two groups (63 days vs. 56 days; p=.165). In conclusion, we failed to improve red cell transfusion requirement and independence in major ABO incompatible HSCT with hypertransfusion.
Blood Transfusion; Blood Group Incompatibility; Hemolysis; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Hematopoietic neoplasm coexpressing CD4 and CD56 includes a subset of acute myeloid leukemia with myelomonocytic differentiation, plasmacytoid monocyte tumor, and other immature hematopoietic neoplasms of undefined origin. Herein, we report a CD4+CD56+CD68+ hematopoietic tumor that was thought to be a tumor of plasmacytoid monocytes. This case is unique in the absence of accompanying myelomonocytic leukemia and the faint expression of cCD3 on the tumor cells. The patient was a 22-yr old man presented with multiple lymphadenopathy and an involvement of the bone marrow. Tumor cells were large and monomorphic with an angulated eosinophilic cytoplasm of moderate amount. Nuclei of most tumor cells were eccentric and round with one or two prominent nucleoli. Rough endoplasmic reticulum was prominent in electron microscopic examination. Tumor cells expressed CD4, CD7, CD10, CD45RB, CD56, CD68, and HLA-DR and were negative for CD1a, CD2, sCD3, CD5, CD13, CD14, CD20, CD33, CD34, CD43, CD45RA, TIA-1, S-100, and TdT. cCD3 was not detected in the immunostaining using paraffin tissue, but was faintly expressed in flow cytometry and immunostaining using a touch imprint slide. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement analysis and EBV in situ hybridization showed negative results. Cytochemically, myeloperoxidase, Sudan black B, and alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase were all negative.