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1.  Expression of Histone Deacetylases HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC6 in Invasive Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2014;17(4):323-331.
Purpose
DNA deacetylation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an important mechanism involved in the oncogenic tumorigenesis of breast cancer. Previous studies have reported an association of the estrogen receptor (ER) with HDACs and demonstrated the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancers via in vitro experiments. In this study, we examined the association of HDAC expression with clinicopathological parameters and disease-specific survival.
Methods
Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC6 was performed using tissue microarrays in 300 invasive ductal carcinomas. IHC scoring was determined by multiplication of the intensity (0 to 3) and the proportion (0 to 4) of staining, and we classified tumors into low- and high-HDAC expression groups.
Results
High expression of HDAC1 was correlated with the molecular subtype (p=0.001) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) amplification (p=0.012). High expression of HDAC6 was correlated with a younger age (p<0.001), ER expression (p=0.025), progesterone receptor expression (p=0.034), molecular subtype (p=0.023), and HER2 amplification (p=0.011). High HDAC1 expression was correlated with luminal A tumors (p=0.001), while high HDAC6 expression was more common in luminal B tumors (p=0.023). Although the expression of HDACs did not exhibit prognostic significance in the entire cohort, high expression of HDAC1 and HDAC6 was associated with improved overall survival (OS) in patients with ER-positive tumors (p=0.017 and p=0.029, respectively), and high expression of HDAC2 was correlated with improved OS in ER-negative tumors (p=0.048) on univariate analysis. Furthermore, high HDAC6 expression was associated with improved disease-free survival (p=0.048) on multivariate analysis.
Conclusion
HDAC1 expression is significantly correlated with the molecular subtypes of tumors, with the highest expression being observed in luminal A tumors. HDAC6 is a significantly correlated with ER expression and the molecular subtype, thereby supporting the estrogen regulatory property of HDAC6. HDAC1 and HDAC6 expression are good prognostic factors for ER-positive tumors.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2014.17.4.323
PMCID: PMC4278050  PMID: 25548579
Breast neoplasms; Histone deacetylases; Immunohistochemistry
3.  Hyaline Vascular Castleman Disease Involving Renal Parenchyma and a Lymph Node: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(1):79-82.
Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative lesion that is predominantly found in the mediastinum. Retroperitoneal and pararenal localizations are very rare. We describe a 36-year-old man with a hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving renal parenchyma and a paraaortic lymph node. Most reported renal Castleman disease was plasma cell type with systemic symptoms. Herein, we report the first Korean case of the hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving the renal parenchyma and the paraaortic lymph node simultaneously.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2012.46.1.79
PMCID: PMC3479711  PMID: 23109983
Kidney; Hyaline vascular type, Multicentric; Giant lymph node hyperplasia
4.  Characteristics of Cutaneous Lymphomas in Korea According to the New WHO-EORTC Classification: Report of a Nationwide Study 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(2):126-132.
Background
Previously, cutaneous lymphomas were classified according to either the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) classification paradigms. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of Korean cutaneous lymphoma according to the new WHO-EORTC classification system.
Methods
A total of 517 patients were recruited during a recent 5 year-period (2006-2010) from 21 institutes and classified according to the WHO-EORTC criteria.
Results
The patients included 298 males and 219 females, and the mean age at diagnosis was 49 years. The lesions preferentially affected the trunk area (40.2%). The most frequent subtypes in order of decreasing prevalence were mycosis fungoides (22.2%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (17.2%), CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (13.7%), and extranodal natural killer/T (NK/T) cell lymphoma, nasal type (12.0%). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma accounted for 11.2% of cases, half of which were secondary cutaneous involvement; other types of B-cell lymphoma accounted for less than 1% of cases.
Conclusions
In comparison with data from Western countries, this study revealed relatively lower rates of mycosis fungoides and B-cell lymphoma in Korean patients, as well as higher rates of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma and NK/T cell lymphoma.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.2.126
PMCID: PMC4026803  PMID: 24868225
Cutaneous lymphoma; World Health Organization; EORTC; Classification
5.  Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:421205.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (n = 30), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 11), bowenoid papulosis (n = 9), verrucous carcinoma (n = 1), actinic keratosis (n = 5), and basal cell carcinoma (n = 5). We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease (n = 5) nor those with squamous cell carcinoma (n = 3) showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6%) of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (n = 3), while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7%) of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers.
doi:10.1155/2013/421205
PMCID: PMC3760177  PMID: 24024191
6.  Heterotopic Intestinal Cyst of the Submandibular Gland: A Case Study 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(3):279-283.
Heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts are rarely found in the oral cavity. Most of these cysts are lined with gastric mucosa and involve the tongue. There have been no reported heterotopic intestinal cysts of the submandibular gland that are completely lined with colonic mucosa. An 8-year-old girl presented with an enlarging swelling in the left submandibular area, and a 4-cm unilocular cyst was fully excised. The cyst was completely lined with colonic mucosa that was surrounded by smooth muscle layer, and the lining cells were positive for CDX-2, an intestinal marker, indicating a high degree of differentiation. The pathogenesis remains unclear, but it may be related to the misplacement of embryonic rests within the oral cavity during early fetal development. Although heterotopic intestinal cysts rarely occur in the submandibular gland, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of facial swellings in the pediatric population.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.3.279
PMCID: PMC3701825  PMID: 23837022
Submandibular gland; Cysts; Heterotopia; Intestines
7.  Expression of HAT1 and HDAC1, 2, 3 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas, Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas, and NK/T-Cell Lymphomas 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(2):142-150.
Background
It has generally been proven that histone acetylation and deacetylation are involved in the malignant transformation. To date, however, this has rarely been studied in cases of malignant lymphoma.
Methods
We studied nine cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 78 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 13 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), and 13 cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL). Thus, we attempted to elucidate the associations of the degree of the expression of histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1), histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 with the clinical behaviors of above malignant lymphomas using the immunohistochemistry and a western blot analysis.
Results
The degree of the expression of HAT1 was higher in cases of DLBCL, PTCL-NOS or NKTCL as compared with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (p<0.05). The degree of the expression of HAT1 was correlated with that of HDAC1 in cases of DLBCL or NKTCL (p<0.05). The degree of the expression of HAT1 and HDAC1 was correlated with a poor survival in cases of DLBCL or PTCL-NOS (p>0.05).
Conclusions
HAT1, HDAC1, and HDAC2 play a critical role in the development of malignant lymphomas. Both HAT1 and HDAC1 might be indicators for a poor prognosis in cases of DLBCL as cooperating factors.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2012.46.2.142
PMCID: PMC3479788  PMID: 23109994
Acetylation; Deacetylation; Histone deacetylase inhibitors; Lymphoma
8.  Proteomic and biochemical analyses reveal the activation of unfolded protein response, ERK-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 signaling in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rat model 
BMC Genomics  2011;12:520.
Background
To investigate the molecular and cellular pathogenesis underlying myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)-induced heart failure rat model that represents T cell mediated postinflammatory heart disorders.
Results
By performing unbiased 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from control rat heart tissues and EAM rat heart tissues, followed by nano-HPLC-ESI-QIT-MS, 67 proteins were identified from 71 spots that exhibited significantly altered expression levels. The majority of up-regulated proteins were confidently associated with unfolded protein responses (UPR), while the majority of down-regulated proteins were involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria. Although there was no difference in AKT signaling between EAM rat heart tissues and control rat heart tissues, the amounts and activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were significantly increased. By comparing our data with the previously reported myocardial proteome of the Coxsackie viruses of group B (CVB)-mediated myocarditis model, we found that UPR-related proteins were commonly up-regulated in two murine myocarditis models. Even though only two out of 29 down-regulated proteins in EAM rat heart tissues were also dysregulated in CVB-infected rat heart tissues, other proteins known to be involved with the generation of precursor metabolites and energy metabolism in mitochondria were also dysregulated in CVB-mediated myocarditis rat heart tissues, suggesting that impairment of mitochondrial functions may be a common underlying mechanism of the two murine myocarditis models.
Conclusions
UPR, ERK-1/2 and S6RP signaling were activated in both EAM- and CVB-induced myocarditis murine models. Thus, the conserved components of signaling pathways in two murine models of acute myocarditis could be targets for developing new therapeutic drugs or methods aimed at treating enigmatic myocarditis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-520
PMCID: PMC3209477  PMID: 22014063
9.  Fatal Cutaneous γ/δ T-Cell Lymphoma with Central Nerve System Metastasis 
Annals of Dermatology  2011;23(Suppl 1):S100-S104.
Cutaneous γ/δ T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive tumor that is often resistant to treatment, such as polychemotherapy and radiotherapy. Due to the complexity of clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease entity, the physician should perform a careful evaluation; however, treatment should be rapid and aggressive. We present a case of fatal cutaneous γ/δ T-cell lymphoma of a 55-year old woman who died after recurrence with central nerve system metastasis.
doi:10.5021/ad.2011.23.S1.S100
PMCID: PMC3199401  PMID: 22028551
CNS; Cutaneous T cell lymphoma; Gamma delta TCR; Neoplasm metastasis
10.  Expression of osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand in breast cancer bone metastasis. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(4):541-546.
Bone destruction is primarily mediated by osteoclastic bone resorption, and cancer cells stimulate the formation and activation of osteoclasts next to metastatic foci. Accumulating evidences indicate that receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) is the ultimate extracellular mediator that stimulates osteoclast differentiation into mature osteoclasts. In contrast, osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibits osteoclast development. In order to elucidate a mechanism for cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis, cells from a human breast cancer line, MDA-MB-231, were directly co-cultured with ST2, MC3T3-E1, or with primary mouse calvarial cells. Osteoclast-like cells and tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities were then quantitated. We examined these cell lines and samples from breast cancer by RT-PCR for the expressions of OPG and RANKL mRNA. Compared to controls, co-culture of MDA-MB-231 cells with stromal or osteoblastic cells induced an increase in number of osteoclasts and TRAP activities. MDA-MB-231 cells alone or breast cancer samples did not express RANKL mRNA. However, co-culture of these cancer cells with stromal or osteoblastic cells induced RANKL mRNA expression and decreased OPG mRNA expression. These experiments demonstrate that direct interactions between breast cancer and stromal or osteoblastic cells induce osteoclastogenesis in vitro through modulating RANKL expression.
PMCID: PMC3055084  PMID: 12923331

Results 1-10 (10)