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1.  Clinical outcomes of radiation therapy for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma 
AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma).
METHODS: The records of 64 patients treated between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients (n = 31), chemotherapy or H. pylori eradication therapy was the initial treatment. In patients with failure after H. pylori eradication, RT was performed. For H. pylori-negative patients (n = 33), chemotherapy or RT was the first-line treatment. The median RT dose was 36 Gy. The target volume included the entire stomach and the perigastric lymph node area.
RESULTS: All of the patients completed RT without interruption and showed complete remission on endoscopic biopsy after treatment. Over a median follow-up period of 39 mo, the 5-year local control rate was 89%. Salvage therapy was successful in all relapsed patients. Secondary malignancies developed in three patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 94%. No patient presented symptoms of moderate-to-severe treatment-related toxicities during or after RT.
CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALToma who experience failure of H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i36.6062
PMCID: PMC3785628  PMID: 24106407
Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Radiation therapy; Treatment response
2.  Interfractional Variation of Radiation Target and Adaptive Radiotherapy for Totally Resected Glioblastoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(8):1233-1237.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of volume adapted re-planning for radiotherapy (RT) after gross total resection (GTR) for glioblastoma. Nineteen patients with glioblastoma who underwent GTR and postoperative RT were analyzed. The volumes of the surgical cavity on computed tomography (CT) obtained one day after GTR (CT0), the first RT simulation CT (sim-CT1), and the second simulation CT for the boost RT plan (sim-CT2) were compared. The boost RT plan was based on the surgical cavity observed on the sim-CT2 (boost RTP2) and was compared with that based on the surgical cavity observed on the sim-CT1 (boost RTP1). The volume reduction ratios were 14.4%-51.3% (median, 29.0%) between CT0 and sim-CT1 and -7.9%-71.9% (median, 34.9%) between sim-CT1 and sim-CT2 (P < 0.001). The normal brain volumes in boost RTP1 were significantly reduced in boost RTP2, especially at high dose levels. Target volume in sim-CT2 which was not covered with the boost RTP1, developed in five cases (26.3%). The surgical cavity volume was reduced following surgery in patients with glioblastoma who underwent GTR. The application of volume-adapted re-planning during RT could decrease the irradiated volume of normal brain and prevent a target miss for boost RT.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.8.1233
PMCID: PMC3744714  PMID: 23960453
Glioblastomas; Surgery; Brain; Radiotherapy, Image-Guided
3.  Postoperative Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Patients with Gastric Adenocarcinoma 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2012;12(4):205-209.
In gastric adenocarcinoma, high rates of loco-regional recurrences have been reported even after complete resection, and various studies have been tried to find the role of postoperative adjuvant therapy. Among them, Intergroup 0116 trial was a landmark trial, and demonstrated the definite survival benefit in adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, compared with surgery alone. However, the INT 0116 trial had major limitation for global acceptance of the INT 0116 regimen as an adjuvant treatment modality because of the limited lymph node dissection. Lately, several randomized studies that were performed to patients with D2-dissected gastric cancer were published. This review summarizes the data about patterns of failure after surgical resection and the earlier prospective studies, including INT 0116 study. Author will introduce the latest studies, including ARTIST trial and discuss whether external beam radiotherapy should be applied to patients receiving extended lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy.
doi:10.5230/jgc.2012.12.4.205
PMCID: PMC3543969  PMID: 23346491
Stomach neoplasms; Radiotherapy; Adjuvant
4.  Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk medulloblastoma 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;15(3):352-359.
Background
We assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of reduced-dose craniospinal (CS) radiotherapy (RT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) in reducing late adverse effects without jeopardizing survival among children with high-risk medulloblastoma (MB).
Methods
From October 2005 through September 2010, twenty consecutive children aged >3 years with high-risk MB (presence of metastasis and/or postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm2) were assigned to receive 2 cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy, CSRT (23.4 or 30.6 Gy) combined with local RT to the primary site (total 54.0 Gy), and 4 cycles of post-RT chemotherapy followed by tandem HDCT/autoSCT. Carboplatin-thiotepa-etoposide and cyclophosphamide-melphalan regimens were used for the first and second HDCT, respectively.
Results
Of 20 patients with high-risk MB, 17 had metastatic disease and 3 had a postoperative residual tumor >1.5 cm2 without metastasis. The tumor relapsed/progressed in 4 patients, and 2 patients died of toxicities during the second HDCT/autoSCT. Therefore, 14 patients remained event-free at a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 23−82) from diagnosis. The probability of 5-year event-free survival was 70.0% ± 10.3% for all patients and 70.6% ± 11.1% for patients with metastases. Late adverse effects evaluated at a median of 36 months (range, 12−68) after tandem HDCT/autoSCT were acceptable.
Conclusions
In children with high-risk MB, CSRT dose might be reduced when accompanied by tandem HDCT/autoSCT without jeopardizing survival. However, longer follow-up is needed to evaluate whether the benefits of reduced-dose CSRT outweigh the long-term risks of tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos304
PMCID: PMC3578484  PMID: 23258845
autologous stem cell transplantation; high-dose chemotherapy; late effect; medulloblastoma; radiotherapy
5.  Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiation therapy for treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2014;32(1):14-22.
Purpose
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) followed by radiotherapy (RT) in treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Materials and Methods
Eligibility criteria were as follows: newly diagnosed with HCC, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C, Child-Pugh class A or B, and no prior treatment for HCC. Patients with extrahepatic spread were excluded. A total of 59 patients were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were treated with TACE followed by RT. The time interval between TACE and RT was 2 weeks as per protocol. A median RT dose was 47.25 Gy10 as the biologically effective dose using the α/β = 10 (range, 39 to 65.25 Gy10).
Results
At 1 month, complete response was obtained in 3 patients (5%), partial response in 27 patients (46%), stable disease in 13 patients (22%), and progressive disease in 16 patients (27%). The actuarial one- and two-year OS rates were 60.1% and 47.2%, respectively. The median OS was 17 months (95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 28.4 months). The median time to progression was 4 months (range, 1 to 35 months). Grade 3 or greater liver enzyme elevation occurred in only two patients (3%) after RT. Grade 3 gastroduodenal toxicity developed in two patients (3%).
Conclusion
The combination treatment of TACE followed by RT with two-week interval was safe and it showed favorable outcomes in treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced HCC. A prospective randomized trial is needed to validate these results.
doi:10.3857/roj.2014.32.1.14
PMCID: PMC3977127  PMID: 24724047
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization; Radiotherapy
6.  Changes of the liver volume and the Child-Pugh score after high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(4):189-196.
Purpose
To investigate the safety of high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients with small HCC who were treated with high dose hypofractionated RT between 2006 and 2009. The serial changes of the liver volumetric parameter were analyzed from pre-RT and follow-up (FU) computed tomography (CT) scans. We estimated linear time trends of whole liver volume using a linear mixed model. The serial changes of the Child-Pugh (CP) scores were also analyzed in relation to the volumetric changes.
Results
Mean pre-RT volume of entire liver was 1,192.2 mL (range, 502.6 to 1,310.2 mL) and mean clinical target volume was 14.7 mL (range, 1.56 to 70.07 mL). Fourteen (87.5%) patients had 4 FU CT sets and 2 (12.5%) patients had 3 FU CT sets. Mean interval between FU CT acquisition was 2.5 months. After considering age, gender and the irradiated liver volume as a fixed effects, the mixed model analysis confirmed that the change in liver volume is not significant throughout the time course of FU periods. Majority of patients had a CP score change less than 2 except in 1 patient who had CP score change more than 3.
Conclusion
The high dose hypofractionated RT for small HCC is relatively safe and feasible in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function.
doi:10.3857/roj.2012.30.4.189
PMCID: PMC3546287  PMID: 23346538
Radiotherapy; Hepatocellular carcinoma
7.  Scheduled Interval Trans-Catheter Arterial Chemoembolization Followed by Radiation Therapy in Patients with Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(7):736-743.
Combination treatment of trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and conformal radiation therapy (RT) reported promising results in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but, optimal interval was not determined. We hypothesized that a two-week interval between TACE and RT would be optimal. Therefore, we designed this study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of scheduled interval TACE followed by RT. HCC patients who were not eligible for standard therapies were enrolled for scheduled interval TACE followed by RT (START). Patients received TACE on the first day of treatment, and then RT was delivered after 14 days. The entire course of treatment took between four and five weeks. In 81 patients (96.4%), START was completed in the planned treatment period. RT was delayed in the remaining three patients because of decreased liver function or poor performance status after TACE. Of the 81 patients, objective response was observed in 57 patients (70.4%). One unexpected death occurred after START due to hepatic failure. Other toxicities were manageable. The median survival was 14.7 months. There was a significant difference in overall survival according to the response to START (P < 0.001). In conclusion, START is safe and feasible.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.7.736
PMCID: PMC3390720  PMID: 22787367
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Radiationtherapy; Trans-Catheter Arterial Chemoembolization; Combination Treatment
8.  Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Young Children with Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Central Nervous System 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(2):135-140.
The feasibility and effectiveness of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/autoSCT) were evaluated in children younger than 3 yr of age with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Tandem HDCT/autoSCT was administered following six cycles of induction chemotherapy. Radiotherapy (RT) was administered if the tumor relapsed or progressed, otherwise, it was administered after 3 yr of age. Tumors relapsed or progressed during induction chemotherapy in 5 of 9 patients enrolled; 3 of these 5 received tandem HDCT/autoSCT as a salvage treatment. One patient died from sepsis during induction chemotherapy. The remaining 3 patients proceeded to tandem HDCT/autoSCT; however, 2 of these patients showed tumor relapse/progression after tandem HDCT/autoSCT. All 7 relapses/progressions occurred at primary sites even in patients with leptomeningeal seeding. Toxicities during tandem HDCT/autoSCT were manageable. A total of 5 patients were alive with a median follow-up of 20 (range 16-70) months from diagnosis. Four of 5 patients who received RT after relapse/progression are alive. The probability of overall survival at 3 yr from diagnosis was 53.3% ± 17.3%. Our tandem HDCT/autoSCT is feasible; however, early administration of RT prior to tandem HDCT/autoSCT should be considered to improve the outcome after tandem HDCT/autoSCT.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.2.135
PMCID: PMC3271285  PMID: 22323859
Rhabdoid Tumor; Central Nervous System; Drug Therapy; Stem Cell Transplantation; Radiotherapy; Child
9.  Prognostic Index for Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Radiation Therapy 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(8):1014-1022.
We performed a retrospective review of 281 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) treated with radiation therapy (RT) between 1998 and 2008 to develop a prognostic model for those patients. Of the 281 patients, PVTT and intrahepatic main masses completely disappeared in 10 patients (3.6%), and shown a partial response in 141 patients (50.2%). The median survival was 11.6 months. Patients who had more than PR have shown significantly longer survival than the others (22.0 months vs 5.0 months, P < 0.001). On the multivariate analysis, pre-treatment poor prognosticators for overall survival were ECOG performance status, Child-Pugh class, multiple tumors, main PVTT, complete portal vein occlusion, lymph node metastasis, and primary tumor size. Prognostic index of RT for PVTT of HCC (PITH) scores were defined as the number of pre-treatment poor prognostic factors. PITH scores correlated well with overall survival. In the analysis of 1 and 2 yr overall survival rate, patients who had PITH scores of 3 or greater showed a significantly lower rate of overall survival than the others (33.0%, 17.3% vs 70.1%, 40.8%, respectively, P < 0.001). The PITH scoring model, proposed in the current study in HCC patients with PVTT, reliably predict overall survival.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.8.1014
PMCID: PMC3154336  PMID: 21860551
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis; Radiotherapy; Prognostic Index
10.  The Role of Radiosurgery in Patients with Brain Metastasis from Small Cell Lung Carcinoma 
Objective
The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and/or whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for the treatment of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) metastasis to the brain.
Methods
From 2000 to 2010, 50 patients underwent GKRS for metastatic brain lesions originating from SCLC. Among these patients, 11 received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) before the development of metastatic lesions (PCI group), and GKRS was performed as an initial treatment for newly diagnosed lesions in 12 patients who had not received PCI (primary GKRS group). In addition, GKRS was performed as a salvage treatment for progressive lesions after WBRT in 27 patients (salvage GKRS group). The medical records and imaging data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed.
Results
The overall survival of the 50 patients was 20.8 months (range 1-53) after the diagnosis of primary tumor and 12.0 months (range 1-47) after the development of cerebral metastasis. Median survival after GKRS was 4.8 months (range 1-15) in the PCI group, 4.6 months (range 0-18) in the primary GKRS group, and 7.6 months (range 0-33) in the salvage GKRS group. Further treatment for progressive lesions after GKRS was necessary in 15 patients, after a mean interval of 3.8 months. Causes of death were systemic organ failure in 15 patients, deterioration of neurological state in 13 patients, and unknown or combined causes in 16 patients. The local control rate of the lesions treated with GKRS was 76.4% (decreased in 13 patients and stable in 16 patients at the final imaging follow-up (mean 5.60 months).
Conclusion
GKRS is an effective local treatment for brain metastasis from SCLC both as an initial treatment for newly diagnosed lesions after PCI and as a salvage treatment for recurrent or progressive lesions. However, the survival benefit is not significant because most patients die of systemic multi-organ failure with a short life expectancy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.2.99
PMCID: PMC3206286  PMID: 22053227
Small cell lung carcinoma; Radiosurgery; Gamma knife; Metastasis
11.  Primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL: a descriptive analysis of clinical features and treatment outcomes 
Annals of Hematology  2011;90(12):1391-1398.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) constitutes most primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL), whereas T-cell, low-grade and Burkitt’s lymphomas (BL) are rarely encountered. Due to the paucity of cases, little is known about the clinical features and treatment outcomes of PCNSL other than DLBCL. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with PCNSL other than DLBCL. Fifteen patients, newly diagnosed with PCNSLs other than DLBCL between 2000 and 2010, were included. The male to female ratio was 0.67:1 with a median age of diagnosis of 31 years (range 18–59). Pathologic distributions were as follows: peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; n = 7), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL; n = 1), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL; n = 2), Burkitt’s lymphoma (n = 1), other unspecified (T-cell lineage, n = 2; B-cell lineage, n = 2). Thirteen patients (87%) showed Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS) 1–2. The remaining two were one PTCL patient and one Burkitt’s lymphoma patient. Of the nine patients with T-cell lymphoma, five (56%) had multifocal lesions, and one (20%) with LPL of the five patients with B-cell lymphoma showed a single lesion. Leptomeningeal lymphomatosis was identified in two patients (one with Burkitt’s lymphoma and one with unspecified B-cell lymphoma). Two patients (22%) with T-cell lymphoma died 7.7 and 23.3 months later, respectively, due to disease progression, despite HD-MTX-based therapy. Six patients with T-cell lymphoma (6/9, 66.7%) and four patients with low-grade B-cell lymphoma (4/5, 80%) achieved complete response and have survived without relapse (Table 3). One patient with Burkitt’s lymphoma showed poor clinical features with ECOG PS 3, deep structure, multifocal, and leptomeningeal lymphomatosis, and died 7.6 months after the initiation of treatment. In comparison with previously reported DLBCLs (median OS 6.4 years, 95% CI 3.7–9.1 years), T-cell lymphoma showed equivocal or favorable clinical outcomes and low-grade B-cell lymphomas, such as MZBCL and LPL, had a good prognosis. However, primary CNS Burkitt’s lymphoma presented poor clinical outcomes and showed a comparatively aggressive clinical course. In conclusion, primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL occurred more in younger patients and showed a generally good prognosis, except for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Further research on treatment strategies for Burkitt’s lymphoma is needed.
doi:10.1007/s00277-011-1225-0
PMCID: PMC3210363  PMID: 21479535
Primary CNS lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
12.  Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy for gliomatosis cerebri 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:424.
Background
Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is characterized by a diffuse infiltration of tumor cells throughout CNS, however, few details are available about the chemotherapeutic effect on GC. The aim of this study was to investigate its clinical course and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC.
Methods
Between Jan. 1999 and Dec. 2004, 37 GC patients were diagnosed by biopsy and treated with radiotherapy in a single institution. To determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC, we retrospectively reviewed their clinical courses. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups, those with and without receiving post-radiotherapy adjuvant chemotherapy such as temozolomide or nitrosourea-based chemotherapy.
Results
Nineteen patients with adjuvant chemotherapy were assigned to the chemotreatment group and 18 with radiotherapy alone were assigned to the control group. Mean survival for chemotreatment group and control group were 24.2 and 13.1 months, respectively (p = 0.045). Time to progression for these groups were 16.0 and 6.0 months, respectively (p = 0.007). Overall review of the clinical course of patients with GC provided that early appearance of new contrast-enhancing lesions within 6 months from the initial diagnosis and higher histological grade were closely associated with poor survival (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008).
Conclusion
Adjuvant chemotherapy following radiotherapy could prolong the survival in patients with GC. In addition, newly developed contrast-enhanced lesions on the follow-up MR images indicate the progression of GC.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-424
PMCID: PMC2933624  PMID: 20704759
13.  Efficacy of High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Relapsed Medulloblastoma: A Report on The Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO)-S-053 Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(8):1160-1166.
The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007. All patients received approximately 4 cycles of salvage chemotherapy after relapse. Thirteen underwent HDCT/ASCT; CTE and CM regimen were employed for the first HDCT (HDCT1) and second HDCT (HDCT2), respectively, and 7 underwent HDCT2. One transplant related mortality (TRM) due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurred during HDCT1 but HDCT2 was tolerable with no further TRM. The 3-yr overall survival probability and event-free survival rates ±95% confidence intervals (CI) were 33.3±12.2% and 26.7% ±11.4%, respectively. When analysis was confined to only patients who had a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) prior to HDCT, the probability of 3-yr overall survival rates ±95% CI was 40.0±15.5%. No patients with stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD) survived. Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.8.1160
PMCID: PMC2908784  PMID: 20676326
Recurrence; Medulloblastoma; Transplantation, Autologous; Tandem; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
14.  Improved Outcome of Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors: Implications for the Role of Risk-adapted Intensive Chemotherapy 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):458-465.
To determine the impact of treatment protocols on the outcome of central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS-GCTs), we reviewed the medical records of 53 patients who received front-line chemotherapy from September 1997 to September 2006. Pure germinoma, normal alpha-fetoprotein level and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level <50 mIU/mL were regarded as low-risk features and the others as high-risk. Patients from different time periods were divided into 3 groups according to the chemotherapy protocols. Group 1 (n=19) received 4 cycles of chemotherapy comprising cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin. Group 2 (n=16) and group 3 (n=18) received 4 cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and vincristine in the former and with carboplatin, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and bleomycin in the latter. In group 2 and group 3, high-risk patients received double doses of cisplatin, carboplatin and cyclophosphamide. Radiotherapy was given after chemotherapy according to the clinical requirements. The event-free survivals of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 67.0%, 93.8%, and 100%, respectively (group 1 vs. 2, P=0.06; group 2 vs. 3, P=0.29; group 1 vs. 3, P=0.02). Our data suggest that risk-adapted intensive chemotherapy may improve the outcome of patients with malignant CNS-GCTs.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.3.458
PMCID: PMC2826748  PMID: 20191048
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal; Central Nervous System; Drug Therapy; Survival
15.  The Effect of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression on Tumor Volume Response in Patients Treated with Radiotherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(6):1170-1176.
We investigated the correlation between Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and the tumor response in patients with cervical cancer that were treated with curative radiotherapy (RT). Fifty-seven patients with squamous cell carcinoma were treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy (CRCT, n=29) or RT alone (n=28). The response of each patient was evaluated by three serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations: before the start of RT, at four weeks after the start of RT (mid-RT) and at four weeks after the completion of RT (post-RT). Forty-three patients had positive COX-2 expression. The COX-2 negative patients achieved a higher rate of complete response (CR) at mid-RT than did the COX-2 positive patients (28.6% vs. 7.0%, P=0.054), but not at post-RT (64.3% vs. 69.8%). The initial tumor volume was a significant predictor of CR at mid-RT (P=0.003) and post-RT (P=0.004). The multivariate analysis showed that the initial tumor volume (at mid-RT and post-RT) and CRCT (at post-RT) were significant predictors of CR; however, the COX-2 expression was not. In conclusion, the COX-2 expression status has no significant correlation with the tumor response. Further studies on the changes in COX-2 expression levels during RT may be helpful for determination of its role in the tumor response to treatment and patient prognosis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.6.1170
PMCID: PMC2775869  PMID: 19949677
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms; Cyclooxygenase 2; Radiotherapy; Tumor Burden; Tumor Response
16.  High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in Patients with High-risk Stage 3 Neuroblastoma: 10-Year Experience at a Single Center 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(4):660-667.
High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) was applied to improve the prognosis of patients with high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma. From January 1997 to December 2006, 28 patients were newly diagnosed as stage 3 neuroblastoma. Nine of 11 patients with N-myc amplification and 5 of 17 patients without N-myc amplification (poor response in 2 patients, persistent residual tumor in 2 and relapse in 1) underwent single or tandem HDCT/ASCR. Patients without high-risk features received conventional treatment modalities only. While 8 of 9 patients underwent single HDCT/ASCR and the remaining one patient underwent tandem HDCT/ASCR during the early study period, all 5 patients underwent tandem HDCT/ASCR during the late period. Toxicities associated with HDCT/ASCR were tolerable and there was no treatment-related mortality. While the tumor relapsed in two of eight patients in single HDCT/ASCR group, all six patients in tandem HDCT/ASCR group remained relapse free. The 5-yr event-free survival (EFS) from diagnosis, in patients with N-myc amplification, was 71.6±14.0%. In addition, 12 of 14 patients who underwent HDCT/ASCR remained event free resulting in an 85.1±9.7% 5-yr EFS after the first HDCT/ASCR. The present study demonstrates that HDCT/ASCR may improve the survival of patients with high-risk stage 3 neuroblastoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.4.660
PMCID: PMC2719186  PMID: 19654949
Neuroblastoma; High-dose Chemotherapy; Autologous Stem Cell Rescue; Prognosis; N-myc
17.  Preoperative Concurrent Radiochemotherapy and Surgery for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(2):229-235.
This is to examine whether aggressive multimodality therapy improves the treatment outcomes in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fifty-three consecutive NSCLC patients with N2 disease, confirmed by mediastinoscopic biopsy, received preoperative thoracic radiation therapy (45 Gy/5 weeks) concurrent with two cycles of oral etoposide and intravenous cisplatin and surgery. Postoperative radiation therapy (PORT, 18 Gy/2 weeks) was optionally recommended for those with the risk factors of loco-regional recurrence based on the surgical and pathological findings. Surgical resection was performed in 38 patients (71.7%), and down-staging was achieved in 19 patients (50%). The median survival period was 27 months in 38 patients who underwent resection, and the rates at 3-yr of overall survival, loco-regional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and disease-free survival were 44.3%, 87.9%, 32.9%, and 29.3%. Significantly favorable factor regarding overall survival was achieving p0/I stage by the multivariate analysis. PORT was successful in reducing locoregional recurrences in patients with the risk factors. Current preoperative concurrent radiochemotherapy and surgery by the authors resulted in comparable survival with other reports, however, further refinement of multimodality approach may be warranted for more effective reduction of distant metastasis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.2.229
PMCID: PMC2733996  PMID: 16614506
Carcinoma, Non-Small Cell Lung; Preoperative, Radiotherapy; Drug Therapy; Surgery
18.  Radical Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cancer of Uterine Cervix 
Purpose
This study was performed to evaluate the treatment results, prognostic factors and complication rates in patients with locally advanced cancer of uterine cervix after radiotherapy with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy.
Materials and Methods
One hundred and twenty patients with a locally advanced (stages IIB~IVA according to FIGO classification) carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with radiotherapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center between September 1994 and December 2001. The median age of the patients was 61 years (range 29 to 81). Sixty-one, 56 and 3 patients had FIGO stage IIB, III, and IV diseases, respectively. All patients were given external beam radiotherapy over the whole pelvis (median 50.4 Gy) and HDR intracavitary brachytherapy, with a median of 4 Gy per fraction, to point A. Twenty-one patients received chemotherapy, of which 13 and 21 received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy, respectively, during the first and fourth weeks of external beam radiotherapy. The chemotherapy was not randomly assigned and the median follow-up time was 28.5 months (range: 6~100 months).
Results
The three- and 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 64.4 and 57.0%, and 63.7 and 60.2%, respectively. The 5-year OS and DFS rates of the patients at stages IIB, III and IV were 60.2, 57.9 and 33.3%, and 57.4, 65.4 and 33.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that the FIGO stage, overall treatment time (OTT) and treatment response were significant variables for the OS (p=0.035, p=0.0649 and p=0.0009) and of the DFS (p=0.0009, p=0.0359 and p=0.0363). Multivariate analysis showed that the treatment response was the only significant variable for the OS (p=0.0018) and OTT for the DFS (p=0.0360). The overall incidence of late complications in the rectum and bladder were 11.7 and 6.7%, respectively. In addition, insufficiency fractures were observed in 7 patients (5.8%).
Conclusion
The results of this study suggest that radical radiotherapy with HDR brachytherapy was appropriate for the treatment of locally advanced uterine cervix cancer. Also, the response after treatment and OTT are significant prognostic factors.
doi:10.4143/crt.2004.36.4.222
PMCID: PMC2843887  PMID: 20368838
Radiotherapy; Advanced cancer of the uterine cervix; High-dose rate brachytherapy
19.  Double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma: a pilot study in a single center. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(4):537-543.
Double high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) was applied to 18 patients with highrisk neuroblastoma including 14 patients who could not achieve complete response (CR) even after the first HDCT. In 12 patients, successive double HDCT was rescued with peripheral blood stem cells collected during a single round of leukaphereses and in 6 patients, second or more rounds of leukaphereses were necessary after the first HDCT to rescue the second HDCT. The median interval between the first and second HDCT (76 days; range, 47-112) in the single harvest group was shorter than that (274.5 days; range, 83-329) in the double harvest group (p<0.01). Hematologic recovery was slow in the second HDCT. Six (33.3%) treatment-related mortalities (TRM) occurred during the second HDCT but were not related to the shorter interval. Disease-free survival rates at 2 years with a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 6-46) in the single and double harvest group were 57.1% and 33.3%, respectively. These results suggest that successive double HDCT using the single harvest approach may improve the survival of high-risk patients, especially who could not achieve CR after the first HDCT despite delayed hematologic recovery and high rate of TRM during the second HDCT.
PMCID: PMC3054907  PMID: 12172052
20.  Nanostring-Based Multigene Assay to Predict Recurrence for Gastric Cancer Patients after Surgery 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90133.
Despite the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, approximately one-third of stage II gastric cancer (GC) patients developed recurrences. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic algorithm for gastric cancer (GCPS) that can robustly identify high-risk group for recurrence among stage II patients. A multi-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, a microarray gene expression profiling of archived paraffin-embedded tumor blocks was used to identify candidate prognostic genes (N = 432). Second, a focused gene expression assay including prognostic genes was used to develop a robust clinical assay (GCPS) in stage II patients from the same cohort (N = 186). Third, a predefined cut off for the GCPS was validated using an independent stage II cohort (N = 216). The GCPS was validated in another set with stage II GC who underwent surgery without adjuvant treatment (N = 300). GCPS was developed by summing the product of Cox regression coefficients and normalized expression levels of 8 genes (LAMP5, CDC25B, CDK1, CLIP4, LTB4R2, MATN3, NOX4, TFDP1). A prospectively defined cut-point for GCPS classified 22.7% of validation cohort treated with chemoradiotherapy (N = 216) as high-risk group with 5-year recurrence rate of 58.6% compared to 85.4% in the low risk group (hazard ratio for recurrence = 3.16, p = 0.00004). GCPS also identified high-risk group among stage II patients treated with surgery only (hazard ratio = 1.77, p = 0.0053).
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090133
PMCID: PMC3943911  PMID: 24598828
21.  Trans-Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells: A Therapeutic Mechanism Against the Radiation Induced Brain Damage 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e25936.
Radiation therapy is an indispensable therapeutic modality for various brain diseases. Though endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) would provide regenerative potential, many patients nevertheless suffer from radiation-induced brain damage. Accordingly, we tested beneficial effects of exogenous NSC supplementation using in vivo mouse models that received whole brain irradiation. Systemic supplementation of primarily cultured mouse fetal NSCs inhibited radiation-induced brain atrophy and thereby preserved brain functions such as short-term memory. Transplanted NSCs migrated to the irradiated brain and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. In addition, neurotrophic factors such as NGF were significantly increased in the brain by NSCs, indicating that both paracrine and replacement effects could be the therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs. Interestingly, NSCs also differentiated into brain endothelial cells, which was accompanied by the restoration the cerebral blood flow that was reduced from the irradiation. Inhibition of the VEGF signaling reduced the migration and trans-differentiation of NSCs. Therefore, trans-differentiation of NSCs into brain endothelial cells by the VEGF signaling and the consequential restoration of the cerebral blood flow would also be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of NSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that exogenous NSC supplementation could prevent radiation-induced functional loss of the brain. Therefore, successful combination of brain radiation therapy and NSC supplementation would provide a highly promising therapeutic option for patients with various brain diseases.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025936
PMCID: PMC3277599  PMID: 22347993
22.  Reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for children with newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(2):120-126.
Background
In this study, we investigated the effects of reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) followed by tandem high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) in children with a newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET).
Methods
Between March 2005 and April 2007, patients older than 3 years with a newly diagnosed high-risk MB or sPNET were enrolled. The patients received two cycles of pre-RT chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (cycle A), and carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, and ifosphamide (cycle B), followed by CSRT with 23.4 Gy and local RT with 30.6 Gy. After four cycles of post-RT chemotherapy (cycles A, B, A, and B), tandem double HDCT with ASCR was performed.
Results
A total of 13 patients (MB=11, sPNET=2) were enrolled. Of these, one patient progressed, one patient died of septic shock after the second cycle of B, and one patient relapsed after the third cycle of B. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of the patients intended for HDCT was 76.9%, whereas the 3-year EFS rate of the patients who received HDCT was 100%. No treatment-related mortality occurred during HDCT.
Conclusion
Although the follow-up period was short and the patient cohort was small in size, the results of this study are encouraging. The limited toxicity and favorable EFS rate observed in children treated with reduced-dose CSRT followed by HDCT and ASCR warrant further exploration in a larger study population.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.2.120
PMCID: PMC2983022  PMID: 21120191
Radiotherapy; High-dose chemotherapy; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Medulloblastoma; Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor; Children
23.  Liposarcoma: exploration of clinical prognostic factors for risk based stratification of therapy 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:205.
Background
Prognosis and optimal treatment strategies of liposarcoma have not been fully defined. The purpose of this study is to define the distinctive clinical features of liposarcomas by assessing prognostic factors.
Methods
Between January 1995 and May 2008, 94 liposarcoma patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent were reviewed.
Results
Fifty patients (53.2%) presented with well differentiated, 22 (23.4%) myxoid, 15 (16.0%) dedifferentiated, 5 (5.3%) round cell, and 2 (2.1%) pleomorphic histology. With the median 14 cm sized of tumor burden, about half of the cases were located in the retroperitoneum (46.8%). Seventy two (76.6%) patients remained alive with 78.1%, and 67.5% of the 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates, respectively. Low grade liposarcoma (well differentiated and myxoid) had a significantly prolonged OS and disease free survival (DFS) with adjuvant radiotherapy when compared with those without adjuvant radiotherapy (5-year OS, 100% vs 66.3%, P = 0.03; 1-year DFS, 92.9% vs 50.0%, respectively, P = 0.04). Independent prognostic factors for OS were histologic variant (P = 0.001; HR, 5.1; 95% CI, 2.0 – 12.9), and margin status (P = 0.005; HR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.6–10.5). We identified three different risk groups: group 1 (n = 66), no adverse factors; group 2, one or two adverse factors (n = 28). The 5-year OS rate for group 1, and 2 were 91.9%, 45.5%, respectively.
Conclusion
The histologic subtype, and margin status were independently associated with OS, and adjuvant radiotherapy seems to confer survival benefit in low grade tumors. Our prognostic model for primary liposarcoma demonstrated distinct three groups of patients with good prognostic discrimination.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-205
PMCID: PMC2711972  PMID: 19558664

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