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1.  Treatment of Dexamethasone-Induced Hiccup in Chemotherapy Patients by Methylprednisolone Rotation 
The Oncologist  2013;18(11):1229-1234.
Dexamethasone-induced hiccup (DIH) is an underrecognized symptom in patients with cancer, and little information is available about its treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of methylprednisolone rotation as treatment and to confirm the male predominance among those with cancer who experienced DIH during chemotherapy. DIH during chemotherapy could be controlled without losing antiemetic potential by replacing dexamethasone with methylprednisolone.
Background.
Dexamethasone-induced hiccup (DIH) is an underrecognized symptom in patients with cancer, and little information is available about its treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of methylprednisolone rotation as treatment and to confirm the male predominance among those with cancer who experienced DIH during chemotherapy.
Methods.
Persons with cancer who experienced hiccups during chemotherapy treatment and who were receiving treatment with dexamethasone were presumed to have DIH. The following algorithmic practice was implemented for antiemetic corticosteroid use: rotation from dexamethasone to methylprednisolone in the next cycle and dexamethasone re-administration in the second cycle of chemotherapy after recognition of hiccups to confirm DIH. All other antiemetics except corticosteroid remained unchanged. Patients (n = 40) were recruited from eight cancer centers in Korea from September 2012 to April 2013. Data were collected retrospectively.
Results.
Hiccup intensity (numeric rating scale [NRS]: 5.38 vs. 0.53) and duration (68.44 minutes vs. 1.79 minutes) were significantly decreased after rotation to methylprednisolone, while intensity of emesis was not increased (NRS: 2.63 vs. 2.08). Median dose of dexamethasone and methylprednisolone were 10 mg and 50 mg, respectively. Thirty-four (85%) of 40 patients showed complete resolution of hiccups after methylprednisolone rotation in the next cycle. Of these 34 patients, 25 (73.5%) had recurrence of hiccups after dexamethasone re-administration. Compared with baseline values, hiccup intensity (NRS: 5.24 vs. 2.44) and duration (66.43 minutes vs. 22.00 minutes) were significantly attenuated after dexamethasone re-administration. Of the 40 eligible patients, 38 (95%) were male.
Conclusion.
DIH during chemotherapy could be controlled without losing antiemetic potential by replacing dexamethasone with methylprednisolone. We also identified a male predominance of DIH. Further prospective studies are warranted.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2013-0224
PMCID: PMC3825309  PMID: 24107973
Dexamethasone; Hiccup; Methylprednisolone; Corticosteroids
2.  Hesperidin Suppresses Melanosome Transport by Blocking the Interaction of Rab27A-Melanophilin 
Biomolecules & Therapeutics  2013;21(5):343-348.
We investigated the inhibitory effects of hesperidin on melanogenesis. To find melanosome transport inhibitor from natural products, we collected the structural information of natural products from Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) and performed pharmacophore-based in silico screening for Rab27A and melanophilin (MLPH). Hesperidin did not inhibit melanin production in B16F10 murine melanoma cells stimulated with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and also did not affect the catalytic activity of tyrosinase. But, hesperidin inhibited melanosome transport in melanocyte and showed skin lightening effect in pigmented reconstructed epidermis model. Therefore, we suggest that hesperidin is a useful inhibitor of melanosome transport and it might be applied to whitening agent.
doi:10.4062/biomolther.2013.032
PMCID: PMC3825197  PMID: 24244821
Hesperidin; Melanosome transport; Rab27A; Melanophilin; Pigmented reconstructed epidermis model
3.  Screening of Tissue-Specific Genes and Promoters in Tomato by Comparing Genome Wide Expression Profiles of Arabidopsis Orthologues 
Molecules and Cells  2012;34(1):53-59.
Constitutive overexpression of transgenes occasionally interferes with normal growth and developmental processes in plants. Thus, the development of tissue-specific promoters that drive transgene expression has become agriculturally important. To identify tomato tissue-specific promoters, tissue-specific genes were screened using a series of in silico-based and experimental procedures, including genome-wide orthologue searches of tomato and Arabidopsis databases, isolation of tissue-specific candidates using an Arabidopsis microarray database, and validation of tissue specificity by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and promoter assay. Using these procedures, we found 311 tissue-specific candidate genes and validated 10 tissue-specific genes by RT-PCR. Among these identified genes, histochemical analysis of five isolated promoter::GUS transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis plants revealed that their promoters have different but distinct tissue-specific activities in anther, fruit, and root, respectively. Therefore, it appears these in silico-based screening approaches in addition to the identification of new tissue-specific genes and promoters will be helpful for the further development of tailored crop development.
doi:10.1007/s10059-012-0068-4
PMCID: PMC3887779  PMID: 22699756
orthologue search; promoter; tissue-specific gene; tomato
4.  Compression of the Main Pancreatic Duct by the Intrapancreatic-Replaced Common Hepatic Artery 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2013;14(3):412-415.
We describe a unique case of a patient who presented with a linear, transverse, and incidentally-detected main pancreatic duct dilatation that was caused by the intrapancreatic-replaced common hepatic artery, detected on the MDCT, MRCP and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. We believe this case to be the first of its kind reported in the literature.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.3.412
PMCID: PMC3655293  PMID: 23690706
Compression; Main pancreatic duct; Intrapancreatic common hepatic artery
5.  Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:657.
Background
Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants—making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars.
Results
We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: ‘Vital’, ‘Maroussia’, and ‘Sympathy’ and Rosa rugosa Thunb. , respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Plant Ontology (PO) terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat) terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach) and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes.
Conclusions
In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a comprehensive genetic resource which can be used to better understand rose flower development and to identify candidate genes for important phenotypes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-657
PMCID: PMC3527192  PMID: 23171001
6.  Phase I trial of capecitabine plus everolimus (RAD001) in patients with previously treated metastatic gastric cancer 
Purpose
Everolimus is a novel inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, which is aberrantly activated in cancer cell. We conducted a phase I study of capecitabine plus everolimus (RAD001) in refractory gastric cancer patients.
Methods
Patients with metastatic gastric cancer and progression after prior chemotherapy were eligible. Four dose levels were planned as follows: Level 1, 5 mg bid/day of everolimus (D1-D21) and 500 mg/m2 bid/day of capecitabine (D1-14); Level 2, 5 mg bid/day of everolimus (D1-D21) and 750 mg/m2 bid/day of capecitabine (D1-14); Level 3, 5 mg bid/day of everolimus (D1-D21) and 1000 mg/m2 bid/day of capecitabine (D1-14); and Level 4, 10 mg bid/day of everolimus (D1-D21) and 1000 mg/m2 bid/day of capecitabine (D1-14). Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression, patient refusal, or any serious adverse event.
Results
Fifteen patients were enrolled in this study between November 2009 and April 2010. Fifteen patients were enrolled (median age, 50 years; men, 9). Six patients had received two previous chemotherapy regimens; six patients had three previous chemotherapy regimens before the study treatment. Thus, the majority of patients were heavily pretreated. The dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 infection, grade 3 mucositis, and grade 3 hyperglycemia and hyponatremia. After a median follow-up duration of 5.6 months (range, 2.3–8.1 months), median PFS was 1.8 months (95% CI, 0.8–2.8 months). The maximum best change observed was a 28.7% decrease in sum of longest diameters when compared with baseline.
Conclusions
The combination of capecitabine and everolimus showed satisfactory toxicity profile and modest clinical benefit in patients with refractory gastric cancer. The recommended dose of capecitabine and everolimus was 650 mg/m2 twice daily and 5 mg twice daily, respectively.
doi:10.1007/s00280-011-1653-5
PMCID: PMC3123695  PMID: 21526353
Gastric cancer; Everolimus; Capecitabine
7.  Primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL: a descriptive analysis of clinical features and treatment outcomes 
Annals of Hematology  2011;90(12):1391-1398.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) constitutes most primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL), whereas T-cell, low-grade and Burkitt’s lymphomas (BL) are rarely encountered. Due to the paucity of cases, little is known about the clinical features and treatment outcomes of PCNSL other than DLBCL. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with PCNSL other than DLBCL. Fifteen patients, newly diagnosed with PCNSLs other than DLBCL between 2000 and 2010, were included. The male to female ratio was 0.67:1 with a median age of diagnosis of 31 years (range 18–59). Pathologic distributions were as follows: peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; n = 7), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL; n = 1), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL; n = 2), Burkitt’s lymphoma (n = 1), other unspecified (T-cell lineage, n = 2; B-cell lineage, n = 2). Thirteen patients (87%) showed Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS) 1–2. The remaining two were one PTCL patient and one Burkitt’s lymphoma patient. Of the nine patients with T-cell lymphoma, five (56%) had multifocal lesions, and one (20%) with LPL of the five patients with B-cell lymphoma showed a single lesion. Leptomeningeal lymphomatosis was identified in two patients (one with Burkitt’s lymphoma and one with unspecified B-cell lymphoma). Two patients (22%) with T-cell lymphoma died 7.7 and 23.3 months later, respectively, due to disease progression, despite HD-MTX-based therapy. Six patients with T-cell lymphoma (6/9, 66.7%) and four patients with low-grade B-cell lymphoma (4/5, 80%) achieved complete response and have survived without relapse (Table 3). One patient with Burkitt’s lymphoma showed poor clinical features with ECOG PS 3, deep structure, multifocal, and leptomeningeal lymphomatosis, and died 7.6 months after the initiation of treatment. In comparison with previously reported DLBCLs (median OS 6.4 years, 95% CI 3.7–9.1 years), T-cell lymphoma showed equivocal or favorable clinical outcomes and low-grade B-cell lymphomas, such as MZBCL and LPL, had a good prognosis. However, primary CNS Burkitt’s lymphoma presented poor clinical outcomes and showed a comparatively aggressive clinical course. In conclusion, primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL occurred more in younger patients and showed a generally good prognosis, except for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Further research on treatment strategies for Burkitt’s lymphoma is needed.
doi:10.1007/s00277-011-1225-0
PMCID: PMC3210363  PMID: 21479535
Primary CNS lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
8.  A Phase II Study of Leucovorin, 5-FU and Docetaxel Combination Chemotherapy in Patients with Inoperable or Postoperative Relapsed Gastric Cancer 
Purpose
To estimate the effect and toxicity of bimonthly low-dose leucovorin (LV) and fluorouracil (5-FU) bolus plus continuous infusion(LV5FU2) with docetaxel combination chemotheraphy in patients with inoperable or postoperative relapsed gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
Total 27 patients are enrolled in this study. LV 20 mg/m2 (bolus), 5FU 400 mg/m2 (bolus), 5-FU 600 mg/m2 (24-hour continuous infusion) on day 1, 2, 15, and 16, docetaxel 60 mg/m2 (1-hour infusion) on day 15 every 4 weeks.
Results
Total of 141 cycles were administered and response rate were 36.8% with 2 complete response (10.5%) and 5 partial response (26.3%) in 19 evaluable patients. The median response duration is 8.1 months (95% CI, 4.0~12.1). The median progression-free survival time is 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.0~8.5) and the median overall survival time is 11.9 months (95% CI, 4.8~19.1). The grade 3-4 toxcity of neutropenia (24.8%) and anemia (11.3%), neutropenic fever (2.8%) is observed. The grade 1 toxcity of injection site reaction is observed all patients and the grade 1-2 toxcity of alopecia is observed 60%.
Conclusions
LV5FU2 with docetaxel combination chemotheraphy is effective and tolerable in patients with inoperable or postoperative relapsed gastric cancer.
doi:10.4143/crt.2008.40.1.11
PMCID: PMC2699084  PMID: 19688059
Docetaxel; Fluorouracil; Stomach neoplasms

Results 1-8 (8)