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1.  P2X7 Receptor Expression in Coexistence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(1):30-35.
Background
This study was aimed at investigating the relation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) expression with the clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) coexisting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT).
Methods
We examined 170 patients (84, PTC with HT; 86, PTC without HT). P2X7R expression was examined by immunohistochemical methods. The staining intensity and patterns were evaluated and scored using a semi-quantitative method.
Results
The PTC with HT group was more likely to contain women and had less extrathyroid extension, lymph node (LN) metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, and recurrence than the PTC without HT group. Patients positive for P2X7R had significantly higher frequencies of lymphovascular invasion, extrathyroid extension, LN metastasis, and absence of HT. As shown by multivariate analysis, the expression of P2X7R was significantly higher if HT was absent and extrathyroid extension was present. In the PTC with HT group, the expression of P2X7R was significantly higher in patients with tumor multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, and extrathyroid extension. In the PTC without HT group, the expression of P2X7R was significantly higher in women and those having tumor multifocality.
Conclusions
Coexistence of PTC with HT is associated with good prognostic factors, and P2X7R expression in PTC was correlated with poor prognostic factors and the absence of HT.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.1.30
PMCID: PMC3950232  PMID: 24627692
Hashimoto Disease; Thyroid cancer, papillary; Receptors, purinergic P2X7
2.  Histopathologic Predictors of Lymph Node Metastasis and Prognosis in Tonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinoma 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(3):203-210.
Background
Risk factors for lymph node metastasis in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) need to be established to determine the degree of surgery required to achieve high curative rates. However, little is known currently about the histopathological features predicting prognosis, specifically in TSCC.
Methods
This study included 53 patients who underwent surgical resection with neck dissection. Clinicopathological factors investigated included age, gender, alcohol use, tobacco consumption, tumor stage, adjacent structure involvement, cell differentiation, squamous dysplasia, in situ carcinoma associated with primary invasive cancer, carcinoma in situ skip lesions, necrosis, invasive front, depth of invasion, and lymphatic, muscle, or perineural invasion.
Results
Contralateral cervical metastasis was associated with higher T stages and soft palate invasion. Lymphatic and muscle invasion were associated with ipsilateral cervical metastasis. Advanced T stage, invasion to the base of tongue, and skip lesions were associated with decreased disease-free survival. Advanced T stage and skip lesions were associated with worse overall survival.
Conclusions
Advanced T stage and soft palate invasion may predict a high risk of contralateral nodal metastasis. T stage and skip lesion are worse prognostic factors in TSCC and should be commented in pathology reports.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.3.203
PMCID: PMC3701815  PMID: 23837012
Palatine tonsil; Carcinoma, squamous cell; Prognosis; Lymph nodes; Neoplasm metastasis
3.  A Case of Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism after Taking Tadalafil 
Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5I), which is widely used to treat erectile dysfunction. Although PDE5Is have excellent safety profiles, and most of the side effects are mild, rare serious adverse events have been reported in association with PDE5Is. Thrombosis is one of those events, and a few previous reports have suggested the association of PDE5Is with thrombosis. We report the case of a 61-year-old male who developed pulmonary embolism combined with pulmonary infarction directly after taking tadalafil. Both the patient and the physician suspected tadalafil as the culprit drug, as the patient was in an otherwise healthy condition. However, after extensive evaluation, we noticed that factor VIII levels were elevated. Prior reports suggesting the association between thrombosis and PDEIs either lack complete information on coagulation factors, or show inconsistencies in their results. Physicians should operate caution prior to accepting the diagnosis of adverse drug reaction.
doi:10.4046/trd.2012.73.4.231
PMCID: PMC3492424  PMID: 23166559
Pulmonary Embolism; Pulmonary Infarction; Tadalafil; Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors; Factor VIII
4.  Different metastatic pattern according to the KRAS mutational status and site-specific discordance of KRAS status in patients with colorectal cancer 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:347.
Background
We evaluated the association between a KRAS mutational status and various clinicopathologic features including the metastatic pattern in patients with metastatic or recurrent colorectal cancer (MRCRC). The concordance rates of the KRAS status between primary tumor sites and paired metastatic organs were also analyzed.
Methods
The KRAS mutational status in codons 12, 13, and 61 from formalin-fixed sections of both primary tumors and related metastases was determined by sequencing analysis. One hundred forty-three Korean patients with MRCRC with available tissues (resection or biopsy) from both primary tumors and related metastatic sites were consecutively enrolled.
Results
The KRAS mutation rate was 52.4% (75/143) when considering both the primary and metastatic sites. When the relationship between the KRAS status and initial metastatic sites at the time of diagnosis of MRCRC was analyzed, lung metastasis was more frequent as the initial metastatic site in patients with the KRAS mutation than in patients without the KRAS mutation (45.3% vs. 22.1%; P = 0.003). However, liver (37.3% vs. 70.6%; P < 0.001) or distant lymph node metastases (6.7% vs. 19.1%; P = 0.025) were less frequent as the initial metastatic organ in patients with the KRAS mutation than in patients without the KRAS mutation. The discordance rate of KRAS mutational status between primary and paired metastatic sites other than the lung was 12.3% (13/106). Compared with primary tumor sites, the KRAS discordance rate was significantly higher in matched lung metastases [32.4% (12/37)] than in other matched metastatic organs (P = 0.005).
Conclusions
Organs initially involved by distant metastasis were different according to the KRAS mutational status in MRCRC patients. The concordance rate (87.7%) of the KRAS mutation status at metastatic sites other than the lung was generally high compared with primary tumor sites; however, lung metastasis had a high rate of KRAS discordance (32.4%).
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-347
PMCID: PMC3488475  PMID: 22876814
KRAS mutation; Lung metastasis; Discordance; Colorectal cancer
5.  Hyaline Vascular Castleman Disease Involving Renal Parenchyma and a Lymph Node: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(1):79-82.
Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative lesion that is predominantly found in the mediastinum. Retroperitoneal and pararenal localizations are very rare. We describe a 36-year-old man with a hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving renal parenchyma and a paraaortic lymph node. Most reported renal Castleman disease was plasma cell type with systemic symptoms. Herein, we report the first Korean case of the hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving the renal parenchyma and the paraaortic lymph node simultaneously.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2012.46.1.79
PMCID: PMC3479711  PMID: 23109983
Kidney; Hyaline vascular type, Multicentric; Giant lymph node hyperplasia
6.  Hematological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy on cytopenia 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2011;46(4):253-257.
Background
The aim of this study is to investigate the hematological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the risk factors for cytopenia, and the effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on cytopenia.
Methods
Medical records of patients treated for HIV at the Seoul National University Hospital from January 2005 to March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. To determine the impact of HIV itself, we excluded HIV patients who had other conditions that could have resulted in hematological manifestations. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for cytopenia.
Results
A total of 621 cases were investigated, and after exclusion, data of 472 patients were analyzed. The frequency of cytopenia was anemia, 3.0% (14/472); neutropenia, 10.0% (47/472); thrombocytopenia, 2.4% (12/472); lymphopenia, 25.7% (121/470); isolated cytopenia, 11.2% (53/472); and bicytopenia, 2.1% (10/472). The leading risk factor for cytopenia identified by multivariate logistic regression methods was AIDS status at initial presentation. After HAART, cytopenia was reversed in the majority of patients (thrombocytopenia, 100%; neutropenia, 91.1%; and anemia, 84.6%).
Conclusion
This study isolated the impact of HIV infection alone on hematologic manifestations and confirmed that these changes were reversible by HAART. Control of the HIV infection will have the main role in the management of hematological manifestations of the virus.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.4.253
PMCID: PMC3259517  PMID: 22259631
HAART; Hematologic manifestations; HIV infection; Risk factor
7.  Triple negativity and young age as prognostic factors in lymph node-negative invasive ductal carcinoma of 1 cm or less 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:557.
Background
Whether a systemic adjuvant treatment is needed is an area of controversy in patients with node-negative early breast cancer with tumor size of ≤1 cm, including T1mic.
Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and pathology data of all consecutive patients with node-negative T1mic, T1a, and T1b invasive ductal carcinoma who received surgery between Jan 2000 and Dec 2006. The recurrence free survival (RFS) and risk factors for recurrence were identified.
Results
Out of 3889 patients diagnosed with breast cancer, 375 patients were enrolled (T1mic:120, T1a:93, T1b:162). Median age at diagnosis was 49. After a median follow up of 60.8 months, 12 patients developed recurrences (T1mic:4 (3.3%), T1a:2 (2.2%), T1b:6 (3.7%)), with a five-year cumulative RFS rate of 97.2%. Distant recurrence was identified in three patients. Age younger than 35 years (HR 4.91; 95% CI 1.014-23.763, p = 0.048) and triple negative disease (HR 4.93; 95% CI 1.312-18.519, p = 0.018) were significantly associated with a higher rate of recurrence. HER2 overexpression, Ki-67, and p53 status did not affect RFS.
Conclusions
Prognosis of node-negative breast cancer with T1mic, T1a and T1b is excellent, but patients under 35 years of age or with triple negative disease have a relatively high risk of recurrence.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-557
PMCID: PMC2966467  PMID: 20946688
8.  A Case of Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor Diagnosed in a Young Female Patient 
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a very rare malignancy. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman who suffered from dyspepsia and abdominal pain for 2 months. We performed an endoscopic biopsy of the duodenal mass and diagnosed her disease as desmoplastic small round cell tumor using immunohistochemical staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Because the mass invaded the pancreas and superior mesenteric vein as well as duodenum and the disease was disseminated to liver and peritoneum, she received palliative chemotherapy using vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and etoposide. The maximal response to chemotherapy was stable disease. The patient expired 9 months after diagnosis.
doi:10.4143/crt.2009.41.4.233
PMCID: PMC2802845  PMID: 20057970
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor; Fluorescence in situ hybridization; Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; Chemotherapy

Results 1-8 (8)