Takju is a Korean alcoholic beverage made from rice, and is brewed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise training and moderate Takju consumption on learning ability in 6-week old Sprague-Dawley male rats. The rats were treated with exercise and alcohol for 4 weeks in six separate groups as follows: non-exercised control (CC), exercised control (EC), non-exercised consuming ethanol (CA), exercised consuming ethanol (EA), non-exercised consuming Takju (CT), and exercised consuming Takju (ET). An AIN-93M diet was provided ad libitum. Exercise training was performed at a speed of 10 m/min for 15 minutes per day. Ethanol and Takju were administered daily for 6-7 hours to achieve an intake of about 10 ml after 12 hours of deprivation, and, thereafter, the animals were allowed free access to deionized water. A Y-shaped water maze was used from the third week to understand the effects of exercise and alcohol consumption on learning and memory. After sacrifice, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight changes during the experiment were not significantly different among the groups. AChE activity was not significantly different among the groups. The number of errors for position reversal training in the maze was significantly smaller in the EA group than that in the CA and ET groups, and latency times were shorter in the EA group than those in the CC, EC, CT, and ET groups. The latency difference from the first to the fifth day was shortest in the ET group. The exercised groups showed more errors and latency than those of the non-exercised groups on the first day, but the data became equivalent from the second day. The results indicate that moderate exercise can increase memory and learning and that the combination of exercise and Takju ingestion may enhance learning ability.
Takju intake; exercise training; water maze; AChE; learning ability
Poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a mucilaginous and biodegradable compound produced by Bacillus subtilis from fermented soybeans, and is found in the traditional Korean soy product, cheongkukjang. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of γ-PGA from a food source on the concentration of the neurotransmitter GABA and its metabolic precursor glutamate in diet-induced obese rats. Eight-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were used. The rats were divided into two groups and obesity was induced by providing either a 10% control fat or 45% high fat diet for 5 weeks. The rats were then blocked into 6 groups and supplemented with a 0.1% γ-PGA diet for 4 weeks. After sacrifice, brain and serum GABA and glutamate concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. The rats fed the high fat diet had significantly increased body weights. γ-PGA supplementation significantly increased serum concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the control fat diet groups while this effect was not found in the high fat groups. In the brain, glutamate concentrations were significantly higher in the γ-PGA supplemented groups both in rats fed the normal and high fat diets than in the no γ-PGA controls. GABA concentrations showed the same tendency. The results indicated that γ-PGA intake increased GABA concentrations in the serum and brain. However, the effects were not shown in obese rats.
Poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA); glutamate; γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) occur as late complications of cytotoxic therapy. This study reviewed clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of patients with t-MN at a single institution in Korea.
The study subjects included 39 consecutive patients diagnosed with t-MN. Each subject's clinical history of previous diseases, treatments, and laboratory data was reviewed, including cytogenetics. The primary diagnosis was hematologic malignancy in 14 patients and solid tumor in 25 patients.
Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML, 66.7%) was found to be more common than therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS). Primary hematologic malignancies that were commonly implicated included mature B-cell neoplasm and acute leukemia. Breast cancer was the most common primary solid tumor. The mean time interval from cytotoxic therapy initiation to t-MN detection was 49 months. Chromosomal aberrations were observed in 35 patients, and loss of chromosome 5, 7, or both accounted for 41% of all cases. Balanced rearrangements occurred in 13 patients; these patients showed shorter latency intervals (mean, 38 months) than patients with loss of chromosome 5 or 7 (mean, 61 months).
In this study, we determined the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of Korean patients with t-MN. Although our results were generally consistent with those of previous reports, we found that t-MN resulting from de novo leukemia was common and that t-AML was more common than t-MDS at presentation. Multi-institutional studies involving a larger number of patients and additional parameters are required to investigate the epidemiology, genetic predisposition, and survival rate of t-MN in Korea.
Therapy-related neoplasms; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Acute myeloid leukemia; Cytogenetics; Korea
The aims of this study were to estimate the incidences of BCR/ABL, MLL, TEL/AML1 rearrangements, and p16 deletions in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), to identify new abnormalities, and to demonstrate the usefulness of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We performed G-banding analysis and FISH using probes for BCR/ABL, MLL, TEL/AML1 rearrangements, and p16 deletions on 65 childhood ALL patients diagnosed and uniformly treated at a single hospital. Gene rearrangements were identified in 73.8% of the patients using the combination of G-banding and FISH, while the chromosomal abnormalities were identified in 49.2% using G-banding alone. Gene rearrangements were disclosed by FISH in 24 (72.7%) of 33 patients with normal karyotype or no mitotic cell in G-banding. Among the gene rearrangements detected by FISH, the most common gene rearrangement was p16 deletion (20.3%) and the incidences of others were 14.1% for TEL/AML1, 11.3% for MLL, and 1.8% for BCR/ABL translocations. Infrequent or new aberrations such as AML1 amplification, MLL deletion, ABL deletion, and TEL/AML1 fusion with AML1 deletion were also observed. We established the rough incidences of gene rearrangements in childhood ALL, found new abnormalities and demonstrated the diagnostic capability of interphase FISH to identify cryptic chromosome aberrations.
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute; Childhood; Gene Rearrangements
In CD5 positive (CD5+) mature B-cell lymphomas, newly recognized CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been characterized by aggressive features. We studied twenty-five cases with CD5+ lymphomas involving bone marrow. Eleven cases were diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, six cases were diagnosed as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and three cases with morphologic characteristics of MCL and without both the cyclin D1 expression and IGH/CCND1 rearrangement were unclassifiable. The remaining five cases, showing large to medium-sized lym-phoid cells with prominent nucleoli and a moderate amount of cytoplasm, were diagnosed as DLBCL. Five DLBCL cases were positive for CD5, CD20, surface immuno-globulin, but negative for CD23. Patients with CD5+ DLBCL showed a high age of onset (median, 68 yr) and two patients expired one month after the diagnosis. Since CD5+ DLBCL forms a distinct subgroup of DLBCL, a study of CD5 expression in DLBCL would be helpful to predict prognosis and to determine future therapeutic strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on de novo CD5+ DLBCL in Koreans.
Antigens, CD5; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic; Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell; Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Diffuse
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most abundant COX-2–derived prostaglandin found in colorectal cancer, promotes tumor cell proliferation and survival via multiple signaling pathways. However, the role of PGE2 in tumor hypoxia is not well understood. Here, we show a synergistic effect of PGE2 and hypoxia on enhancing ANGPTL4 expression and that elevation of ANGPTL4 promotes colorectal cancer growth. PGE2 induces ANGPTL4 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, hypoxia induces one of the PGE2 receptors, namely EP1. Activation of EP1 enhances ANGPTL4 expression, whereas blockage of EP1 by its antagonist inhibits PGE2 induction of ANGPTL4 under hypoxic conditions. Importantly, over-expression of ANGPTL4 promotes cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. In addition, treatment with ANGPTL4 recombinant protein increases colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation through effects on STAT1 signaling. The MAPK and Src pathways mediate ANGPTL4-induced STAT1 expression and activation. These results are relevant to human disease since we found that the expression of ANGPTL4 and STAT1 are elevated in 50% of human colorectal cancers tested and there is a positive correlation between COX-2 and ANGPTL4 as well STAT1 expression in colorectal carcinomas. Collectively, these findings suggest that PGE2 plays an important role in promoting cancer cell proliferation via ANGPTL4 under hypoxic conditions.
PGE2; hypoxia; ANGPTL4; colorectal cancer; proliferation
Although DNA methylation is one of the critical ways for silencing tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes during tumor initiation and progression, the mechanisms underlying DNA methylation in cancer remain unclear. Here we show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) silences certain tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes via DNA methylation to promote tumor growth. These findings uncover a previously unrecognized role for PGE2 in the promotion of tumor progression.
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cruciferous vegetable, and its leaves have antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extracts from radish leaves on hypertension in 11-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each on the basis of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were treated with oral administration of radish leaf extract (0, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight [bw], respectively) for 5 weeks. Six Wistar rats were used as normotensive controls. The amount of the radish leaf extract had no effect on body weight. The SBP of the SHRs showed a decreasing trend with the consumption of the radish leaf extract. In the third week, the SBP of the group fed 90 mg extract/kg bw reduced from 214 mmHg to 166 mmHg and was significantly lower than that of the normotensive and hypertensive controls. The extract did not show a significant effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the serum, kidney, and lung. The extract increased the concentration of NO in serum and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase in red blood cells (RBCs). The serum concentrations of Na+ and K+ were not significantly different between all groups. However, the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ increased; the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ for the normotensive and hypertensive controls were not different. Urinary excretion of Na+ was higher in the normotensive Wistar rats than in the SHRs, while that of K+ was not significantly different. These findings indicate that consumption of radish leaves might have had antihypertensive effects in SHRs by increasing the serum concentration of NO and fecal concentration of Na+ and enhancing antioxidant activities.
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaf ethyl acetate extract; spontaneous hypertension; ACE; antioxidant enzyme activity
MYC rearrangement, a characteristic cytogenetic abnormality of Burkitt lymphoma and several subsets of other mature B-cell neoplasms, typically involves an immunoglobulin gene partner. Herein, we describe a case of precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia harboring a MYC rearrangement with a novel non-immunoglobulin partner locus. The patient was a 4-yr-old Korean boy with ALL of the precursor B-cell immunophenotype. At the time of the second relapse, cytogenetic analyses revealed t(4;8)(q31.1;q24.1) as a clonal evolution. The MYC rearrangement was confirmed by FISH analysis. He died 3 months after the second relapse without achieving complete remission. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of MYC rearrangement with a non-immunoglobulin partner in precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia.
Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; MYC gene rearrangement; Non-immunoglobulin partner
This experimental study verified the effect of adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) on the healing of ischemic colonic anastomoses in rats.
ASCs were isolated from the subcutaneous fat tissue of rats and identified as mesenchymal stem cells by identification of different potentials. An animal model of colonic ischemic anastomosis was induced by modifying Nagahata's method. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (10-week-old, 370 ± 50 g) were divided into two groups (n = 30 each): a control group in which the anastomosis was sutured in a single layer with 6-0 polypropylene without any treatment and an ASCtreated group (ASC group) in which the anastomosis was sutured as in the control group, but then ASCs were locally transplanted into the bowel wall around the anastomosis. The rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7. Healing of the anastomoses was assessed by measuring loss of body weight, wound infection, anastomotic leakage, mortality, adhesion formation, ileus, anastomotic stricture, anastomotic bursting pressure, histopathological features, and microvascular density.
No differences in wound infection, anastomotic leakage, or mortality between the two groups were observed. The ASC group had significantly more favorable anastomotic healing, including less body weight lost, less ileus, and fewer ulcers and strictures, than the control group. ASCs augmented bursting pressure and collagen deposition. The histopathological features were significantly more favorable in the ASC group, and microvascular density was significantly higher than it was in the control group.
Locally-transplanted ASCs enhanced healing of ischemic colonic anastomoses by increasing angiogenesis. ASCs could be a novel strategy for accelerating healing of colonic ischemic risk anastomoses.
Colonic anastomosis; Ischemia; Anastomotic healing; Adipose-tissue-derived stem cell; Angiogenesis
Hereditary thrombophilia (HT) is a major risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary embolism (iPE) and shows different prevalence among ethnic groups. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of HT in Korean patients with iPE were investigated.
Materials and Methods
Patients with PE on computed tomography (CT) scan were recruited, and those with malignancy were excluded. Patients were divided into iPE and provoked PE (pPE) groups. The presence of HT in the iPE group was assessed by DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene in patients who had low levels of natural anticoagulants. The clinical characteristics of iPE with HT (iPE/HT+) were compared with those of iPE without HT (iPE/HT-) and pPE.
Out of 161 patients, 84 patients had iPE and 77 patients had pPE. Among 54 patients in the iPE group whose coagulation profiles were tested, 28 patients were diagnosed with HT (51.9%; 28/54). Compared with the iPE/HT- and pPE groups, the iPE/HT+ group showed the highest proportion of male patients (71.4%; p<0.001); the youngest mean age (44±14 years; p<0.001); and the highest frequencies for history of venous thromboembolism (64.3%; p<0.001), concurrent deep vein thrombosis (75.0%; p=0.021), and adverse clinical outcomes (42.9%, p<0.001). Protein C deficiency was the most common HT. On molecular genetic tests, causative mutation was identified in 13 patients.
In this study of Korean patients, about half of the patients with iPE had HT. Patients with iPE and HT were mostly young males with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), previous venous thromboembolism (VTE), and frequent adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, Korean patients with iPE should be tested for HT.
Pulmonary embolism; hereditary thrombophilia; protein C deficiency; Korea
Mutations in the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α gene (CEBPA) are found in 5-14% of the patients with AML and have been associated with a favorable clinical outcome. In this study, we aimed to assess the frequencies and characteristics of mutations in CEBPA. Between 2006 and 2009, CEBPA mutations were assessed using archival DNA samples obtained from 30 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with AML with a normal karyotype at our institution. CEBPA mutations were detected using direct sequencing analyses. These mutations were detected and described with reference to GenBank Accession No. NM_004364.3. In our series, CEBPA mutations were detected in 4 patients (13.3%). These mutations occurred as double mutations in all 4 patients. Among the 8 mutant alleles, 5 were novel (c.179_180dupCG, c.50_53delGCCA, c.178_182delACGTinsTTT, c.243_244insGTCG, and c.923_924insCTC). The frequency of occurrence of CEBPA mutations in Korean patients with AML is comparable to that in previous reports. Long-term follow-up data from a larger series of patients with comprehensive molecular profiling are needed to delineate the prognostic implications.
CEBPA; Mutation; Acute myeloid leukemia; Normal Karyotype; Korea
The aim of this study is to ascertain the relationship between ingestion of raw cow liver and Toxocara canis infection. A total of 150 apparently healthy adults were divided into 2 groups; 1 group consisted of 86 adults with positive results of Toxocara ELISA, and the other group of 64 adults with negative results. One researcher collected the history of ingestion of raw cow liver within 1 year and recent history of keeping dogs. Among 86 seropositive adults for T. canis, 68 (79.1%) had a recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that a recent ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs were related to an increased risk of toxocariasis (odds ratios, 4.4 and 3.7; and 95% confidence intervals, 1.9-10.2 and 1.2-11.6, respectively). A recent history of ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs was significantly associated with toxocariasis.
Toxocara canis; toxocariasis; visceral larva migrans; liver; food-borne helminthiasis
Rapid freeze-quench (RFQ) trapping of short-lived reaction intermediates for spectroscopic study plays an important role in the characterization of biological reactions. Recently there has been considerable effort to achieve submillisecond reaction deadtimes. We present here a new, robust, high-velocity microfluidic mixer that enables such rapid freeze-quenching. It is a based on the mixing method of two impinging jets commonly used in reaction injection molding (RIM) of plastics. This method achieves efficient mixing by inducing chaotic flow at relatively low Reynolds numbers (Re =140). We present the first mathematical simulation and microscopic visualization of mixing in such RFQ micromixers, the results of which show that the impinging solutions efficiently mix within the mixing chamber. These tests, along with a practical demonstration in a RFQ setup that involves copper wheels, show this new mixer can in practice provide reaction deadtimes as low as 100 microseconds.
There is an increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in cardiomyocytes during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. This leads to oxidative DNA damage and activation of nuclear repair enzymes such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 activation promotes DNA repair under normal conditions. However, excessive activation of PARP-1 leads to cell death. Here we report that PARP-1 enzymatic activity is directly inhibited by minocycline, and we propose that one mechanism of minocycline cardioprotection is due to PARP-1 inhibition. Using cultured adult rat cardiac myocytes, we evaluated the mechanism of minocycline protection in which PARP-1 activation was induced by simulated ischemia/reperfusion (sI/R) injury using oxygen-glucose deprivation. We found an increase in reactive oxygen species production, PARP-1 activation, and PARP-1-mediated cell death after sI/R. Cell death was significantly reduced by the PARP inhibitors DPQ (10 μM) and PJ-34 (500 nM), or by minocycline (500 nM). Cellular NAD+ depletion and poly(ADP-ribose) formation, which are biochemical markers of PARP-1 activation, were also blocked by minocycline. Finally, sI/R led to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which was prevented by minocycline. Therefore, we propose that the protective effect of minocycline on cardiac myocyte survival is due to inhibition of PARP-1 activity.
Mitochondria; PARP-1; ischemia; ischemia/reperfusion; oxidative injury
Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare coagulopathy caused by autoantibodies to coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Most patients with AHA have been previously healthy; however, a variety of morbidities have been associated with the condition including pregnancy. A 40-yr-old woman visited our institution with extensive hematoma on the right hip area. Her medical history revealed no personal or familial history of bleeding diathesis. Her coagulation tests showed markedly prolonged aPTT (117 sec), markedly decreased level of FVIII activity (0.4%) and high-titer FVIII inhibitor (77 BU). Collectively, she was diagnosed as having postpartum AHA and was treated with bypassing agents and corticosteroids. Her aPTT was normalized on the 174th postpartum day and FVIII inhibitor showed negative conversion on the 224th postpartum day. This is the first case of postpartum AHA with high-titer FVIII inhibitor in Korea. Timely diagnosis and management can reduce morbidity and mortality of this potentially life-threatening condition.
Acquired hemophilia A; Postpartum; Factor VIII inhibitor; Korea
In this study, we investigated the effects of the ethanol extract of aerial parts of Raphanus sativus L. (ERL) on breast cancer cell proliferation and gene expression associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in the presence or absence of various concentrations (100, 200, or 300 µg/mL) of ERL. ERL significantly decreased cell proliferation after 48 h of incubation (P < 0.05). The protein and mRNA expression of ErbB2 were decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The protein expression of ErbB3 was decreased significantly at an ERL concentration of 300 µg/mL (P < 0.05), and mRNA expression of ErbB3 was decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The protein expression of Akt was decreased significantly at the ERL concentration of 200 µg/mL (P < 0.05), and the protein expression of pAkt was decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of Akt was decreased significantly at the ERL concentration of 200 µg/mL ERL (P < 0.05). The protein and mRNA expression of Bax were increased significantly at ERL concentrations of 200 µg/mL or higher (P < 0.05). The protein expression of Bcl2 was increased significantly at ERL concentrations of 100 µg/mL or higher (P < 0.05), and mRNA expression of Bcl2 was increased significantly at an ERL concentration of 300 µg/mL (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that Raphanus sativus, L. inhibits cell proliferation via the ErbB-Akt pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells.
Raphanus sativus L. ethanol extract; epidermal growth factor receptor; apoptosis; cell proliferation; MDA-MB-231 cell
Fibrin-related markers (FRM) such as fibrin monomer (FM) and D-dimer (DD) are considered useful biological markers for the diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, no studies on the diagnostic performance of different FRMs have been published in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of FM for DIC in comparison with DD.
The reference limit of FM was determined based on plasma sample data obtained from 210 control individuals. To evaluate diagnostic performance, FM data from the plasma samples of 139 patients with DIC-associated diseases were obtained for DIC scoring. FM was measured by immunoturbidimetry using STA-LIATEST FM (Diagnostica Stago, France). Patients were classified according to the DIC score as non-DIC, non-overt DIC, or overt DIC. ROC curve analyses were performed.
The reference limit in the control individuals was determined to be 7.80 µg/mL. Patients with DIC-associated diseases were categorized as non-DIC (N=43), non-overt DIC (N=80), and overt DIC (N=16). ROC curve analyses showed that the diagnostic performance of FM was comparable to DD in both non-overt DIC and overt DIC (P=0.596 and 0.553, respectively). In addition, FM had higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value than DD for differentiating overt DIC from non-DIC.
This study demonstrated that the diagnostic performance of FM for DIC was comparable to DD. FM might be more sensitive and more specific than DD in the diagnosis of overt DIC, but not non-overt DIC.
Area under the curve (AUC); Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC); D-dimer (DD); Fibrin monomer (FM); Fibrin-related marker (FRM); ROC
Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases in which misfolding of extracellular proteins is the pathogenic factor. Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is the most common form of amyloidosis, and the causative proteins in AL are the immunoglobulin light chains produced by clonal plasma cells. Hemorrhagic events, ranging from mild subcutaneous hemorrhage to life-threatening bleeding, account for a significant proportion of morbidities and mortality in AL patients. Deficiency of factor X from deposition into amyloid fibrils has been reported to be the most common acquired factor deficiency in AL. We herein report 2 patients with acquired factor X deficiency in AL. A 55-yr-old woman with AL had a prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) of 2.51 International Normalized Ratio (INR) and 75.1 sec, respectively, which were corrected on mixing with normal plasma. Factor X activity was markedly decreased at 5%. The other patient was a 67-yr-old man with AL with a PT of 1.63 INR and an aPTT of 50.3 sec, which were corrected on mixing with normal plasma. Factor X activity was decreased at 17%. Neither of the patients had apparent hemorrhagic manifestations. Identification of acquired factor deficiency and timely coagulation tests are needed in the diagnostic workup and management in AL.
Amyloidosis; Factor X deficiency; Korea
Most cancer vaccines induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to tumor-associated antigens (TAA). Killing of tumor cells occurs through TAA-specific CTL-mediated cytolysis. Here we show that one preventive followed by two therapeutic immunizations with an attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-based vaccine eradicates all metastases and almost the entire primary tumor in the syngeneic, aggressive mouse breast tumor model 4T1. We provide strong evidence that this is due to the combined result of direct kill by Listeria infecting the tumors cells, and by CTL responses against Listeria antigens. We demonstrated by electron microscopy (EM) that LM expressing truncated lysteriolysinO (LLO) and amino acid fragment 311-660 of TAA Mage-b (LM-LLO-Mage-b311-660) and the control strain LM-LLO infect tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro data indicate that tumor cell death occurs through activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, both resulting in the production of high ROS levels. Since both LM-LLO and LM-LLO-Mage-b311-660 showed equally strong efficacies in vivo we concluded that LM-LLO was crucial and Mage-b of less importance. We found strong CTL responses to LM-LLO in the spleen, and depletion of CD8 T cells in vivo resulted in significant tumor re-growth (52%) in LM-LLO-vaccinated mice, indicating that LM-LLO-specific CTL indeed partially contributed to tumor cell kill in vivo. This dual mode of action of a Listeria-based vaccine has not been described before and may provide new directions in the development of more effective vaccines against metastatic breast cancer.
Listeria monocytogenes; LysteriolysinO; NADPH oxidase; ROS; metastases; 4T1 model
Human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1, also known as NEDD9 or Cas-L) is a scaffolding protein that is implicated in regulating diverse cellular processes, such as cellular attachment, motility, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we identify HEF1 as a novel hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulated gene and reveal that HEF1 mediates hypoxia-induced migration of colorectal carcinoma cells. HEF1 is highly expressed in cultured colorectal carcinoma cells exposed to hypoxia and in the hypoxic areas of human colorectal cancer specimens. Moreover, our data demonstrates that HIF-1α mediates the effects of hypoxia on induction of HEF1 expression via binding to a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) of the HEF1 promoter in CRC cells. Importantly, the induction of HEF1 expression significantly enhances hypoxia-stimulated HIF-1α transcriptional activity by modulating the interaction between HIF-1α and its transcriptional cofactor p300. Inhibition of HEF1 expression also reduced the levels of hypoxia-inducible genes, including those that regulate cell motility. Cell migration was reduced dramatically following knockdown of HEF1 expression under hypoxic conditions. Thus, this positive feedback loop may contribute to adaptive responses of carcinoma cells in encountering hypoxia during cancer progression.
Human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1); hypoxia; HIF-1α; colorectal cancer; carcinoma cell migration
Sirtuins (Sirt), a family of nicotinamide adenine nucleotide (NAD) dependent deacetylases, are implicated in energy metabolism and life span. Among the known Sirt isoforms (Sirt1-7), Sirt3 was identified as a stress responsive deacetylase recently shown to play a role in protecting cells under stress conditions. Here, we demonstrated the presence of Sirt3 in neurons, and characterized the role of Sirt3 in neuron survival under NMDA-induced excitotoxicity.
To induce excitotoxic injury, we exposed primary cultured mouse cortical neurons to NMDA (30 µM). NMDA induced a rapid decrease of cytoplasmic NAD (but not mitochondrial NAD) in neurons through poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation. Mitochondrial Sirt3 was increased following PARP-1 mediated NAD depletion, which was reversed by either inhibition of PARP-1 or exogenous NAD. We found that massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced under this NAD depleted condition mediated the increase in mitochondrial Sirt3. By transfecting primary neurons with a Sirt3 overexpressing plasmid or Sirt3 siRNA, we showed that Sirt3 is required for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity.
This study demonstrated for the first time that mitochondrial Sirt3 acts as a prosurvival factor playing an essential role to protect neurons under excitotoxic injury.
Among 155 clinical respiratory isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in Korea, 6 (3.9%) isolates had reduced levofloxacin susceptibility (MICs ≥ 0.5 µg/mL). These six isolates had no significant quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE. This phenomenon suggests that neither evolution nor spread of any significant QRDRs mutations in clinical isolates occurred in Korea. Therefore, continued surveillance is necessary to observe the evolution of antibiotic-resistance and take measures to avoid the spread of drug-resistant clones.
Haemophilus influenzae; levofloxacin; quinolone; drug resistance; DNA gyrase; DNA topoisomerases; Type II
To understand the function of edges in perception of moving objects, we defined four questions to answer. Is the focus point in visual motion detection of a moving object: (1) the body or the edge of the object, (2) the leading edge or trailing edge of the object, (3) different in scotopic, mesopic and photopic luminance levels, or (4) different for colored objects? We measured the Optomotor Response (OMR) and Edge Triggering Response (ETR) of goldfish. We used a square and sine wave patterns with black and red stripes and a square wave pattern with black and grey stripes to generate OMR's and ETR's in the goldfish. When we used black and red stripes, the black leading edges stimulated an ETR under scotopic conditions, red leading edges stimulated an ETR under photopic conditions, and both black and red leading edges stimulated an ETR under mesopic luminance levels. For black and gray stripes, only black leading edges stimulated an ETR in all three light illumination levels. We observed less OMR and ETR results using the sine wave pattern compared to using the square wave pattern. From these results, we deduced that the goldfish tend to prefer tracking the leading edge of the pattern. The goldfish can also detect the color of the moving pattern under photopic luminance conditions. We decided that ETR is an intriguing factor in OMR, and is suitable as a method of behavioral measurement in visual system research.
Optomotor response; Goldfish; Edge; Leading; Motion detection
To visualize tumor angiogenesis using the MRI contrast agent, Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGF receptor 2 antibody conjugate, with a 4.7-Tesla MRI instrument in a mouse model.
Materials and Methods
We designed a tumor angiogenesis-targeting T1 contrast agent that was prepared by the bioconjugation of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) antibody. The specific binding of the agent complex to cells that express VEGFR2 was examined in cultured murine endothelial cells (MS-1 cells) with a 4.7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Angiogenesis-specific T1 enhancement was imaged with the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate using a CT-26 adenocarcinoma tumor model in eight mice. As a control, the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-rat immunoglobulin G (Gd-DTPA-anti-rat IgG) was imaged with a tumor model in eight mice. Statistical significance was assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Tumor tissue was examined by immunohistochemical analysis.
The Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate showed predominant binding to cultured endothelial cells that expressed a high level of VEGFR2. Signal enhancement was approximately three-fold for in vivo T1-weighted MR imaging with the use of the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as compared with the Gd-DTPA-rat IgG in the mouse tumor model (p < 0.05). VEGFR2 expression in CT-26 tumor vessels was demonstrated using immunohistochemical staining.
MR imaging using the Gd-DTPA-anti-VEGFR2 antibody conjugate as a contrast agent is useful in visualizing noninvasively tumor angiogenesis in a murine tumor model.
Magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent; Molecular Imaging; Angiogenesis; Bioconjugation