Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by isochromosome 12p and tissue-limited mosaic tetrasomy 12p. In this study, we diagnosed three pediatric patients who were suspicious of having PKS using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and FISH analyses performed on peripheral lymphocytes. Patients 1 and 2 presented with craniofacial dysmorphic features, hypotonia, and a developmental delay. Array CGH revealed two to three copies of 12p in patient 1 and three copies in patient 2. FISH analysis showed trisomy or tetrasomy 12p. Patient 3, who had clinical features comparable to those of patients 1 and 2, was diagnosed by using FISH analysis alone. Here, we report three patients with mosaic tetrasomy 12p. There have been only reported cases diagnosed by chromosome analysis and FISH analysis on skin fibroblast or amniotic fluid. To our knowledge, patient 1 was the first case diagnosed by using array CGH performed on peripheral lymphocytes in Korea.
Pallister-Killian syndrome; Isochromosome 12p; Tetrasomy 12p; Array CGH
Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic testing of tuberculosis (TB) is a tremendous unmet need. In this study, four urinary mycobacterial antigens were identified through two independent approaches using IgG capture and immunodepletion methods. Among these, ModC was validated by a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. As expected, the biomarkers elevated the clinical validity of TB diagnosis when combined with preexisting markers.
Recent studies have identified a high prevalence of the MYD88 L265P mutation in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) cases, whereas low frequencies have been observed in other B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs).
We evaluated the sensitivity of the mutant enrichment 3'-modified oligonucleotide (MEMO)-PCR technique, a new detection method. We examined the MYD88 L265P mutation in a series of Korean patients with LPL/WM and other B cell NHLs in bone marrow aspirates, using the MEMO-PCR technique.
The sensitivity of MEMO-PCR was estimated to be approximately 10-16.7%. MYD88 L265P was detected in 21 of 28 LPL cases (75%) and only three of 69 B cell NHL cases (4.3%).
Although MEMO-PCR had relatively low sensitivity, we confirmed the high prevalence of the MYD88 L265P mutation in Korean LPL patients. Our study suggests the diagnostic value of MYD88 L265P for differentiating B-cell NHLs.
Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma; MYD88 L265P; Aspirate; MEMO-PCR
Development of effective therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), which play a major role in drug resistance and disease recurrence, is critical to improve cancer treatment outcomes. The current investigation was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of the combination treatment of Hsp90 inhibitor and SIRT1 inhibitor in inhibiting the growth of chemo-resistant stem-like cells isolated from human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. Inhibition of SIRT1 by use of SIRT1 siRNA or SIRT1 inhibitors (amurensin G and EX527) effectively potentiated sensitivity of Hsp90 inhibitors (17-AAG and AUY922) in CD44high K562 stem-like cells expressing high levels of CSC-related molecules including Oct4, CD34, β-catenin, c-Myc, mutant p53 (mut p53), BCRP and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as well as CD44. SIRT1 depletion caused significant down-regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)/heat shock proteins (Hsps) as well as these CSC-related molecules, which led to the sensitization of CD44high K562 cells to Hsp90 inhibitor by SIRT1 inhibitor. Moreover, 17-AAG-mediated activation of HSF1/Hsps and P-gp-mediated efflux, major causes of Hsp90 inhibitor resistance, was suppressed by SIRT1 inhibitor in K562-CD44high cells. Our data suggest that combined treatment with Hsp90 inhibitor and SIRT1 inhibitor could be an effective therapeutic approach to target CSCs that are resistant to current therapies.
Hsp90 inhibitor; K562; CD44; SIRT1 inhibitor; multidrug resistance; cancer stem-like cells
The clinical usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal diseases (LMD) in non-Hodgkin lymphomas has been suggested in previous studies but needs to be further validated. With this regards, we evaluated the use of FCM for LMD in a series of Korean patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
FCM and cytomorphology were conducted using samples obtained from clinically suspected LMD patients, follow-up LMD patients, and those with high risk of developing tumorigenic diseases. We then compared results of FCM and cytomorphology. In total, 55 and 47 CSF samples were analyzed by FCM and cytomorphology, respectively.
Of the samples analyzed, 25.5% (14/55) and 12.8% (6/47) were positive by FCM and cytomorphology, respectively. No samples were determined as negative by FCM but positive by cytomorphology. Seven patients were positive only by FCM and negative by cytomorphology, and six among them were clinically confirmed to have LMD either by follow-up cytomorphology or imaging study.
We observed a high detection rate of tumor cells by FCM compared with cytomorphology. FCM study can be useful in early sensitive detection of LMD.
Flow cytometry; CSF; Leptomeningeal diseases
The effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors as anticancer agents was limited in multidrug-resistant (MDR) human cancer cells due to induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) such as Hsp70/Hsp27 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux. In the present study, we showed that resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors of MDR human cancer cells could be overcome with SIRT1 inhibition. SIRT1 knock-down or SIRT1 inhibitors (amurensin G and EX527) effectively suppressed the resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors (17-AAG and AUY922) in several MDR variants of human lymphoblastic leukemia and human breast cancer cell lines. SIRT1 inhibition down-regulated the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and subsequently Hsps and facilitated Hsp90 multichaperone complex disruption via hyperacetylation of Hsp90/Hsp70. These findings were followed by acceleration of ubiquitin ligase CHIP-mediated mutant p53 (mut p53) degradation and subsequent down-regulation of P-gp in 17-AAG-treated MDR cancer cells expressing P-gp and mut p53 after inhibition of SIRT1. Therefore, combined treatment with Hsp90 inhibitor and SIRT1 inhibitor could be a more effective therapeutic approach for Hsp90 inhibitor-resistant MDR cells via down-regulation of HSF1/Hsps, mut p53 and P-gp.
Hsp90 inhibitor; MDR; SIRT1; P-gp; Hsp70
Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ6-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ5-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES) under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible.
A propylene cross-bridged macrocyclic
chelator with two phosphonate
pendant arms (PCB-TE2P) was synthesized from cyclam. Various properties
of the synthesized chelator, including Cu-complexation, Cu-complex
stability, 64Cu-radiolabeling, and in vivo behavior, were
studied and compared with those of a previously reported propylene
cross-bridged chelator (PCB-TE2A).
Bifunctional chelator; propylene cross bridge; phosphonate pendant arms; radiopharmaceuticals
Immunotherapy approaches for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have met with limited success. It has been postulated that a low mutation load may lead to a paucity of T cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, it is also possible that while neoantigens are present, an effective immune response cannot be generated due to an immune suppressive TME. To discern whether targetable neoantigens exist in PDAC, we performed a comprehensive study using genomic profiles of 221 PDAC cases extracted from public databases. Our findings reveal that: (a) nearly all PDAC samples harbor potentially targetable neoantigens; (b) T cells are present but generally show a reduced activation signature; and (c) markers of efficient antigen presentation are associated with a reduced signature of markers characterizing cytotoxic T cells. These findings suggest that despite the presence of tumor specific neoepitopes, T cell activation is actively suppressed in PDAC. Further, we identify iNOS as a potential mediator of immune suppression that might be actionable using pharmacological avenues.
Bone marrow biopsies are routinely performed for staging patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In addition to histomorphological studies, ancillary tools may be needed for accurate diagnosis. We investigated the clinical utility of multiparameter flow cytometric examination of bone marrow aspirates.
A total of 248 bone marrow specimens from 232 patients diagnosed with B-cell NHL were examined. Monoclonal antibodies directed against CD19, CD20, CD10 (or CD5), and κ and λ immunoglobulins were used. Multi-stage sequential gating was performed to select specific cells of interest, and the results were compared with bone marrow histology.
The concordance rate between histomorphology and flow cytometry was 91.5% (n=227). Eight cases (3.2%) were detected by flow cytometry alone and were missed by histomorphology analysis, and 6 of these 8 cases showed minimal bone marrow involvement (0.09-2.2%). The diagnosis in these cases included large cell lymphoma (n=3), mantle cell lymphoma (n=3), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (n=2). Thirteen cases were histopathologically positive and immunophenotypically negative, and the diagnoses in these cases included diffuse large cell lymphoma (n=7), T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (n=2), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive large B-cell lymphoma (n=1), follicular lymphoma (n=1), MALT lymphoma (n=1), and unclassifiable lymphoma (n=1).
Multi-color flow cytometry can be a useful method for assessing bone marrow in staging NHL and also plays a complementary role, especially in detecting small numbers of lymphoma cells.
Bone marrow; Immunophenotyping; Flow cytometry; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
In the present study, the soft agar clonogenicity and the susceptibility of clonogenic cancer cells to natural killer (NK) cells were compared between primary colon cancer cells (KM12C) and metastatic colon cancer cells (KM12L4a and KM12SM) to determine whether the metastatic cancer cells consisted of more cancer stem-like cells and were resistant to NK cell-mediated lysis. The majority of colon cancer cells were positive for putative cancer stem cell markers, including CD44, CD133 and EpCAM, with the exception of KM12C cells, of which only ~55% were positive for CD133. In addition, the expression levels of sex determining region Y-box 2, Nanog and octamer-binding transcription factor 4, which are essential for maintaining self-renewal, were higher in KM12L4a and KM12SM compared with that in KM12C cells. Consistently, an increased clonogenicity of KM12L4a and KM12SM compared with KM12C cells in soft agar was observed. The expression levels of NKG2D ligands, including major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence A/B and UL16 binding protein 2, and of death receptor 5 were significantly higher in KM12L4a and KM12SM than in KM12C cells. Furthermore, the results indicated an increased susceptibility of KM12L4a and KM12SM to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in comparison with KM12C cells. These results indicated that metastatic colon cancer cell populations may consist of more cancer stem-like cells, and have greater susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis compared with that of primary colon cancers.
metastatic colon cancer cells; clonogenicity; DR5; NKG2D ligands; natural killer cell-mediated lysis
Soy isoflavones are structurally similar to estrogen and bind to estrogen receptors, suggesting that they exhibit estrogenic activities; therefore, they are referred to as phytoestrogens. Fermentation may affect the bioavailability of isoflavones altering soy isoflavone glycosides in the form of aglycones. Thus, this study investigated the effects of fermented soybeans by Rhizopus oligosporus on bone metabolism in both young rats as a pilot test and in ovariectomized (ovx) old rats as a model of menopause.
In the pilot test, a total of 24 seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed one of three diets for a period of four weeks: casein, unfermented soybean product, or fermented soybean product by R. oligosporus. In the ovx rat model, 20-week-old SD rats weighing 260-290 g underwent either sham-operation (n = 10) or bilateral ovariectomy (n = 30) and were then fed the AIN-93M diet for one week. Thereafter, rats were fed sham-casein, ovx-casein, ovx-soybean, or ovx-fermented soybean diet for five weeks. After decapitation, femoral bones were isolated and preserved in 9% formalin for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone-breaking strength (BBS).
Ovx rats showed significantly increased weight gain and decreased uterine wet weight. Of particular interest, ovx rats fed fermented soybeans showed increased uterine wet weights compared to control rats. Fermented soybean diet caused a significant increase in plasma 17-β estradiol concentrations in young rats, and 17-β estradiol levels were enhanced in ovx rats to match those of sham-operated ones. Significantly lower femoral BMD and BMC were observed in ovx rats compared to sham-operated controls, whereas bone areas did not differ statistically among the groups. In addition, BBS tended to be increased in ovx rats fed soybeans and fermented soybeans.
Supplementation of fermented soybeans could have preventive and therapeutic effects against osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Fermented soybean; 17-β estradiol; bone mineral density (BMD); bone-breaking strength
Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) is a transcription factor that plays a role in normal kidney development and repression of decidualization. KLF12 is frequently elevated in esophageal adenocarcinoma and has been reported to promote gastric cancer progression. Here, we examined the role of KLF12 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Indeed, KLF12 promotes tumor growth by directly activating early growth response protein 1 (EGR1). The levels of KLF12 and EGR1 correlate synergistically with a poor prognosis. These results indicate that KLF12 likely plays an important role in CRC and could serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target.