High-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for young patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, the response rates after ASCT are often unsatisfactory. We performed a pilot study by using bortezomib-melphalan as conditioning regimen for ASCT in Korean patients with MM.
The conditioning regimen consisted of administration of intravenous infusion of bortezomib 1.0 mg/m2 on days -4 and -1 and melphalan 50 mg/m2 (day -4) and 150 mg/m2 (day -1). In this study, we enrolled 6 newly diagnosed patients and 2 patients with relapse.
The disease status of the 6 newly diagnosed patients at ASCT was as follows: 1 complete remission (CR), 1 very good partial remission (VGPR), and 4 partial remissions (PRs). The disease status of the 2 relapsed patients at ASCT was PR. All patients except 1 showed adequate hematologic recovery after ASCT. The median time for the absolute neutrophil counts to increase over 500/mm3 was 13 days (range, 10-19 days). Six patients with VGPR or PR at the time of transplantation showed an improvement in response to CR after ASCT. The patients were followed up without any maintenance treatment after ASCT except 1 patient who died during ASCT. During the follow-up period, CR was maintained in 3 newly diagnosed patients, but the other 4 patients, including 2 newly diagnosed patients, relapsed.
Conditioning regimen consisting of bortezomib and melphalan may be effective for ASCT in MM; however, the feasibility of this regimen should be further evaluated in large study populations.
Multiple myeloma; Bortezomib; Melphalan
AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma).
METHODS: The records of 64 patients treated between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. For Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive patients (n = 31), chemotherapy or H. pylori eradication therapy was the initial treatment. In patients with failure after H. pylori eradication, RT was performed. For H. pylori-negative patients (n = 33), chemotherapy or RT was the first-line treatment. The median RT dose was 36 Gy. The target volume included the entire stomach and the perigastric lymph node area.
RESULTS: All of the patients completed RT without interruption and showed complete remission on endoscopic biopsy after treatment. Over a median follow-up period of 39 mo, the 5-year local control rate was 89%. Salvage therapy was successful in all relapsed patients. Secondary malignancies developed in three patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 94%. No patient presented symptoms of moderate-to-severe treatment-related toxicities during or after RT.
CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALToma who experience failure of H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative.
Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Radiation therapy; Treatment response
Non-typhoidal Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that can cause gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and subsequent focal infections. Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is problematic, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Any anatomical site can be affected by this pathogen via hematogenous seeding and may develop local infections. However, cervical lymphadenitis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella species is rarely reported. Herein, we have reported a case of cervical lymphadenitis caused by group D non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with lymphoma.
Lymphadenitis; Salmonella; Lymphoma
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), EBV-positive systemic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (STLPD) of childhood, and chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection may develop after primary EBV infection. This study reviewed the clinicopathological spectrum of EBV-associated T- and natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, including STLPD and CAEBV infection, with an analysis of T-cell clonality.
Clinicopathological features of seven patients with EBV-associated HLH or STLPD and 12 patients with CAEBV infection were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining and a T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement study were performed.
STLPD and EBV-positive HLH showed significantly overlapping clinicopathological findings. One patient with STLPD and one patient with EBV-positive HLH demonstrated moderate to severe atypia of the infiltrating lymphocytes, whereas the remaining patients lacked significant atypia. Twelve patients had CAEBV infection, four of whom suffered mosquito-bite hypersensitivity, five showed NK lymphocytosis, and one suffered hydroa vacciniforme. Infiltrating lymphocytes were predominantly small and devoid of atypia. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was found in seven of 11 patients. Monoclonality was detected in three (50%) of the six patients with successful TCR gene analysis.
EBV-positive HLH and STLPD share similar clinicopathological findings and may constitute a continuous spectrum of acute EBV-associated T- or NK-cell proliferative disorders. The distinction of EBV-positive T-cell LPD from EBV-positive HLH may be difficult during routine diagnoses because of the technical limitations of clonality assessment.
Epstein-Barr virus infections; Lymphoma, T-cell; Killer cells, natural; Lymphoproliferative disorders; Clonality
EGFR dysregulation occurs in both smoking-related and non-smoking-related NSCLC. In non-smoking-related NSCLC, dysregulation results primarily from mutation of EGFR while in smoking-related NSCLC the molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Activation of EGFR is associated with auto-phosphorylation of the receptor (p-EGFR) and has been shown in vitro to result in upregulation of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2). We sought to determine the relationship between activated EGFR (p-EGFR) and COX-2 in vivo and whether these are associated with clinical outcome in smoking-related NSCLC.
The expression of p-EGFR, EGFR, and COX-2 was studied by immunohistochemistry in 77 surgically-resected stage I/II non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from smokers. EGFR mutational status was determined by sequencing exons 18–21. Correlation of expression with clinical outcome and other biomarkers, including Ki-67 and microvessel density (MVD), was also examined.
One tumor sample had EGFR mutation (L858R). EGFR overexpression, defined as membranous staining in more than 10% of cancer cells, was found in 37 patients (48.1%). Cytoplasmic staining of p-EGFR in at least 5% of cancer cells was found in 22 of 77 (28.6%) of tumor samples. Forty-five patients (58.4%) showed COX-2 overexpression (cytoplasmic granular staining in more than 10% of cancer cells). Expression of p-EGFR was significantly associated with COX-2 overexpression (p = 0.047), and showed a modest relationship with EGFR overexpression and high Ki-67 (p = 0.087, and 0.092, respectively). COX-2 overexpression also had a significant association with high Ki-67 expression (p = 0.011). No other significant associations were found with Ki-67 or MVD. Expression of p-EGFR was significantly related with a short disease free survival (p = 0.045) but not overall survival. However, neither EGFR nor COX-2 overexpression was associated with prognosis (p > 0.05).
In smoking-related NSCLC, activation of EGFR as reflected by receptor autophosphorylation is significantly associated with COX-2 overexpression and high proliferative activity in lung cancer cells. p-EGFR may better predict increased malignant potential and worse prognosis of early stage NSCLC than EGFR overexpression alone. Therapeutic strategies targeting both EGFR and COX-2 may be needed in smoking-related NSCLC.
lung cancer; epidermal growth factor receptor; cyclo-oxygenase; survival
Pseudomembranous necrotizing bronchial aspergillosis (PNBA) is a rare form of invasive aspergillosis with a very poor prognosis. The symptoms are non-specific, and the necrotizing plugs cause airway obstruction. Atelectasis and respiratory failure can be the initial manifestations. Recently, we treated an immunocompromised patient with PNBA, who presented with a sudden onset of atelectasis and acute respiratory failure. There were no preceding signs except for a mild cough and one febrile episode. Bronchoscopy revealed PNBA, and Aspergillus nidulans was cultured from the bronchial wash.
Aspergillosis; Pneumonia; Neutropenia
Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is a subtype of lymphoma that is derived from NK cells. It is considered as an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma because of frequent relapses and resistance to treatment. Relapsed NK/T-cell lymphoma often follows a fulminant course that is refractory to conventional chemotherapy treatment.
Several patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma showed long-term survival in spite of frequent relapses. Thus, the medical records of patients diagnosed with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma from 1995 to 2007 were reviewed and assessed.
Of the 140 cases reviewed, 6 were selected (4.29%). Each of these patients had a minimum of 3 relapses or disease progression during the follow-up period, and their median overall survival was 66 months (range, 42-89 months). They were grouped according to the atypical clinical behavior observed: (1) repeated relapses or progression (≥3 times) during follow-up; and (2) long-term survival of more than 40 months, as the longest overall survival median was previously considered at approximately 40 months. The clinicopathological and laboratory characteristics of these patients were similar to those of other extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma patients. However, 5 of the studied cases involved relatively lower expression of the proliferation-related antigen Ki-67 (<40-50%), indicating less proliferative activity. Clinically, they showed delayed relapse for at least 20 months after the initial complete remission.
Our observations suggest that the clinical behavior of some extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma patients differs from the typical clinical course.
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma; Relapse; Survival; Indolent
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive T-cell lymphomas with poor treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether lymphopenia at diagnosis would have an adverse effect on survival in patients with PTCL-NOS treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy.
A total of 118 patients with PTCL-NOS treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy from 4 Korean institutions were included.
Thirty-six patients (30.5%) had a low absolute lymphocyte count (ALC, < 1.0 × 109/L) at diagnosis. Patients with lymphopenia had shorter overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates compared with patients with high ALCs (P = 0.003, P = 0.012, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high-intermediate/high-risk International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores and lymphopenia were both associated with shorter OS and PFS. Treatment-related mortality was 25.0% in the low ALC group and 4.8% in the high ALC group (P = 0.003). In patients considered high-intermediate/high-risk based on IPI scores, lymphopenia was also associated with shorter OS and PFS (P = 0.002, P = 0.001, respectively).
This study suggests that lymphopenia could be an independent prognostic marker to predict unfavorable OS and PFS in patients with PTCL-NOS treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy and can be used to further stratify high-risk patients using IPI scores.
peripheral T-cell lymphoma; not otherwise specified; lymphopenia; international prognostic index; prognostic factor
Primary intestinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous disease with regard to anatomic and histologic distribution. Thus, analyses focusing on primary intestinal NHL with large number of patients are warranted.
We retrospectively analyzed 581 patients from 16 hospitals in Korea for primary intestinal NHL in this retrospective analysis. We compared clinical features and treatment outcomes according to the anatomic site of involvement and histologic subtypes.
B-cell lymphoma (n = 504, 86.7%) was more frequent than T-cell lymphoma (n = 77, 13.3%). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was the most common subtype (n = 386, 66.4%), and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) was the second most common subtype (n = 61, 10.5%). B-cell lymphoma mainly presented as localized disease (Lugano stage I/II) while T-cell lymphomas involved multiple intestinal sites. Thus, T-cell lymphoma had more unfavourable characteristics such as advanced stage at diagnosis, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was significantly lower than B-cell lymphoma (28% versus 71%, P < 0.001). B symptoms were relatively uncommon (20.7%), and bone marrow invasion was a rare event (7.4%). The ileocecal region was the most commonly involved site (39.8%), followed by the small (27.9%) and large intestines (21.5%). Patients underwent surgery showed better OS than patients did not (5-year OS rate 77% versus 57%, P < 0.001). However, this beneficial effect of surgery was only statistically significant in patients with B-cell lymphomas (P < 0.001) not in T-cell lymphomas (P = 0.460). The comparison of survival based on the anatomic site of involvement showed that ileocecal regions had a better 5-year overall survival rate (72%) than other sites in consistent with that ileocecal region had higher proportion of patients with DLBCL who underwent surgery. Age > 60 years, performance status ≥ 2, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, Lugano stage IV, presence of B symptoms, and T-cell phenotype were independent prognostic factors for survival.
The survival of patients with ileocecal region involvement was better than that of patients with involvement at other sites, which might be related to histologic distribution, the proportion of tumor stage, and need for surgical resection.
intestine; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; prognosis; histopathology
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) constitutes most primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL), whereas T-cell, low-grade and Burkitt’s lymphomas (BL) are rarely encountered. Due to the paucity of cases, little is known about the clinical features and treatment outcomes of PCNSL other than DLBCL. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with PCNSL other than DLBCL. Fifteen patients, newly diagnosed with PCNSLs other than DLBCL between 2000 and 2010, were included. The male to female ratio was 0.67:1 with a median age of diagnosis of 31 years (range 18–59). Pathologic distributions were as follows: peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; n = 7), marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL; n = 1), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL; n = 2), Burkitt’s lymphoma (n = 1), other unspecified (T-cell lineage, n = 2; B-cell lineage, n = 2). Thirteen patients (87%) showed Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS) 1–2. The remaining two were one PTCL patient and one Burkitt’s lymphoma patient. Of the nine patients with T-cell lymphoma, five (56%) had multifocal lesions, and one (20%) with LPL of the five patients with B-cell lymphoma showed a single lesion. Leptomeningeal lymphomatosis was identified in two patients (one with Burkitt’s lymphoma and one with unspecified B-cell lymphoma). Two patients (22%) with T-cell lymphoma died 7.7 and 23.3 months later, respectively, due to disease progression, despite HD-MTX-based therapy. Six patients with T-cell lymphoma (6/9, 66.7%) and four patients with low-grade B-cell lymphoma (4/5, 80%) achieved complete response and have survived without relapse (Table 3). One patient with Burkitt’s lymphoma showed poor clinical features with ECOG PS 3, deep structure, multifocal, and leptomeningeal lymphomatosis, and died 7.6 months after the initiation of treatment. In comparison with previously reported DLBCLs (median OS 6.4 years, 95% CI 3.7–9.1 years), T-cell lymphoma showed equivocal or favorable clinical outcomes and low-grade B-cell lymphomas, such as MZBCL and LPL, had a good prognosis. However, primary CNS Burkitt’s lymphoma presented poor clinical outcomes and showed a comparatively aggressive clinical course. In conclusion, primary CNS lymphoma other than DLBCL occurred more in younger patients and showed a generally good prognosis, except for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Further research on treatment strategies for Burkitt’s lymphoma is needed.
Primary CNS lymphoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
We hypothesized that methotrexate (MTX) normalizes the increased permeability of the blood-tumor barrier and thus reduces the accessibility of rituximab (RTX) to central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Here, we evaluated the combinational treatment capability of RTX and MTX using an alternative treatment schedule against CNS lymphoma. We developed a CNS lymphoma animal model that closely mimics the morphological and molecular characteristics of human CNS lymphoma by injecting Raji human Burkitt lymphoma cells into the brains of immune-compromised mice and tested a novel combinational treatment schedule by which penetration of RTX was not influenced by MTX administration. RTX was conjugated with Alexa Fluor 680, and its distribution in the brain was analyzed by in vivo imaging. When MTX treatment was followed by a 3-day post RTX administration, RTX was scarcely distributed in the brain, and there were only modest statistically insignificant therapeutic effects compared with the control mice which received sham injections. In contrast, RTX administration followed by a 3-day post MTX treatment showed significantly increased distribution of RTX and significantly reduced tumor volume in the brain. Collectively, our data demonstrate that RTX can be successfully combined with MTX using an alternative treatment schedule that allows increased distribution of RTX in CNS lymphoma.
central nervous system lymphoma; methotrexate; rituximab; combination therapy; mouse model
The breast is a rare extranodal site of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and primary breast lymphoma (PBL) has been arbitrarily defined as disease localized to one or both breasts with or without regional lymph nodes involvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and breast involvement, and to find the criteria of PBL reflecting the outcome and prognosis.
We retrospectively analyzed data from 68 patients, newly diagnosed with DLBCL and breast involvement at 16 Korean institutions between January 1994 and June 2009.
Median age at diagnosis was 48 years (range, 20-83 years). Forty-three (63.2%) patients were PBL according to previous arbitrary criteria, sixteen (23.5%) patients were high-intermediate to high risk of international prognostic index. The patients with one extranodal disease in the breast (OED) with or without nodal disease were 49 (72.1%), and those with multiple extranodal disease (MED) were 19 (27.9%). During median follow-up of 41.5 months (range, 2.4-186.0 months), estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 53.7 ± 7.6%, and overall survival (OS) was 60.3 ± 7.2%. The 5-year PFS and OS was significantly higher for patients with the OED group than those with the MED group (5-year PFS, 64.9 ± 8.9% vs. 27.5 ± 11.4%, p = 0.001; 5-year OS, 74.3 ± 7.6% vs. 24.5 ± 13.0%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, MED (hazard ratio [HR], 3.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-12.2) and fewer than four cycles of systemic chemotherapy with or without local treatments (HR, 4.47; 95% CI, 1.54-12.96) were independent prognostic factors for worse OS. Twenty-five (36.8%) patients experienced progression, and the cumulative incidence of progression in multiple extranodal sites or other than breasts and central nervous system was significantly different between the OED group and the MED group (5-year cumulative incidence, 9.7 ± 5.4% vs. 49.0 ± 15.1%, p = 0.001).
Our results show that the patients included in OED group, reflecting different treatment outcome, prognosis and pattern of progression, should be considered as PBL in the future trial. Further studies are warranted to validate our suggested criteria.
To gain insight into the differential mechanism of gene promoter hypermethylation in acute and chronic leukemia, we identified the methylation status on one part of 5'CpG rich region of 8 genes, DAB2IP, DLC-1, H-cadherin, ID4, Integrin α4, RUNX3, SFRP1, and SHP1 in bone marrows from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Also, we compared the methylation status of genes in AML and CML using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The frequencies of DNA methylation of ID4, SFRP1, and SHP1 were higher in AML patients compared to those in CML patients. In contrast, no statistical difference between AML and CML was detected for other genes such as DLC-1, DAB2IP, H-cadherin, Integrin α4, and RUNX3. Taken together, these results suggest that these methylation-controlled genes may have different roles in AML and CML, and thus, may act as a biological marker of AML.
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute; Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive; DNA Methylation
Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Although MCD pathogenesis is unclear, studies have suggested that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) may be associated with the disorder. Recent reports have identified MCD cases without viral infection. A 43-year-old woman presented to our hospital for fever and myalgia of 6 months' duration. The complete blood count revealed an elevated leukocyte count (15.1×103/µL) and a decreased hemoglobin level of 10.0 g/dL. The C-reactive protein level was elevated at 276.5 mg/L. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans revealed bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no evidence of HHV-8, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or Mycobacterium infection. Histologic evaluation of a lymph node biopsy from the left axilla yielded a diagnosis of MCD. Cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) were administered for a total of 4 cycles. The patient's fever and lymphadenopathy resolved after the course of chemotherapy. She has been in complete remission for 24 months at this writing. As previously reported, this case report suggests that MCD can develop without viral infection. CHOP chemotherapy may be an effective treatment option for newly diagnosed MCD patients.
Chemotherapy; Human herpes virus 8; Multicentric Castleman disease
The outcomes of the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have been shown to be improved by the administration of plasma exchange. However, treatment options are currently limited for cases refractory to plasma exchange. The autoantibodies that block the activity of ADAMTS13 have been demonstrated to play a role in the pathogenesis of TTP; therefore, high-dose immunoglobulin, which can neutralize these autoantibodies, may be useful for refractory TTP. However, successful treatment with high-dose immunoglobulin for TTP refractory to plasma exchange and corticosteroids has yet to be reported in Korea. Herein, we describe a refractory case which was treated successfully with high-dose immunoglobulin. A 29-year-old male diagnosed with TTP failed to improve after plasma exchange coupled with additional high-dose corticosteroid therapy. As a salvage treatment, we initiated a 7-day regimen of high-dose immunoglobulin (400 mg/kg) infusions, which resulted in a complete remission, lasting up to the last follow-up at 18 months. High-dose immunoglobulin may prove to be a useful treatment for patients refractory to plasma exchange; it may also facilitate recovery and reduce the need for plasma exchange.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Plasma Exchange; Glucocorticoids; Immunoglobulin
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocytes, and it is widely used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, its use has been implicated in HBV reactivation that's related with the immunosuppressive effects of rituximab. Although the majority of reactivations occur in hepatitis B carriers, a few cases of reactivation have been reported in HBsAg negative patients. However, reactivation in an HBsAg negative/HBsAb positive patient after rituximab treatment has never been reported in Korea. We present here an HBsAg-negative/HBsAb-positive 66-year-old female who displayed reactivation following rituximab plus CHOP chemotherapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. While she was negative for HBsAg at diagnosis, her viral status was changed at the time of relapse as follows: HBsAg positive, HBsAb negative, HBeAg positive, HBeAb negative and an HBV DNA level of 1165 pg/ml. Our observation suggests that we should monitor for HBV reactivation during rituximab treatment when prior HBV infection or occult infection is suspected, and even in the HBsAg negative/HBsAb positive cases.
Rituximab; Hepatitis B virus; Lymphoma
The growth inhibitory effects of four retinoic acid (RA) derivatives, 9-cis RA, 13-cis RA, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) were compared. In addition, the effects of various combinations of these four agents were examined on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell-lines, and on the expressions of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) on these cells. At the clinically achievable concentration of 1 µM, only 4-HPR inhibited the growths of H1299 and H460 cells-lines. However, retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) expression was up-regulated on H460 and H1299 cells treated with 1 µM of ATRA, 13-cis RA, or 9-cis RA. All NSCLC cell lines showed growth inhibition when exposed sequentially to 1 µM ATRA and 0.1 µM 4-HPR. In particular, sequential treatment with 1 µM ATRA or 13-cis RA and 4-HPR markedly inhibited H1703 cell growth; these cells exhibited no basal RARβ expression and were refractory to 4-HPR. However, in NSCLC cell lines that expressed RARβ, the expressional levels of RARβ were up-regulated by ATRA alone and by sequential treatment with ATRA and 4-HPR. 4-HPR was found to be the most active of the four agents in terms of NSCLC growth-inhibition. Moreover, sequential treatments with ATRA or 13-cis RA followed by 4-HPR were found to have synergistic growth-inhibitory effects and to regulate RAR expression.
Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma; Retinoids; Chemoprevention; Fenretinide; Receptors; Retinoic Acid
We report a case of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), which was initially suspected as a result of bone marrow involvement of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Persistent anemia without an obvious cause was observed in a 47-yr-old man diagnosed with relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The bone marrow study showed only erythroid hypoplasia without the evidence of bone marrow involvement with lymphoma cells, thus PRCA was suggested. However, parvovirus infection was excluded as a potential cause of PRCA because of negative IgM anti-parvovirus B19 antibody and negative parvovirus PCR in the serum. Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of bone marrow was suggested by in situ hybridization with EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) that showed a strong positive expression in bone marrow cells. Thus, PRCA was thought to be associated with latent EBV infection in bone marrow cells. Although the finding of unexplained anemia is a possible predictor of bone marrow involvement with lymphoma cells, PRCA as a result of a viral infection including EBV should be considered in lymphoma patients. This is the first report of the occurrence of PRCA associated with latent EBV infection in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Red-Cell Aplasia; Epstein-Barr Virus; Lymphoma
Tumor cells are known to express hypoxia-related proteins such as glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1). These hypoxia-induced changes may allow tumor cells to survive under sustained hypoxic microenvironments, and the surviving tumor cell under hypoxia may develop a more aggressive phenotype and so result in a poor prognosis.
Materials and Methods
The Glut-1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and its association with the prognosis was assessed in 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.
The Glut-1 expression was diffuse with a membranous pattern, and the median percentage of Glut-1 positive tumor cells was 60% (range: 0.0~90.0%). A high Glut-1 expression (the percentage of positive tumor cells ≥ the median value, 60%) was associated with the location of primary lesion, lymph node metastasis status and disease stage (p<0.05). The expression of Glut-1 was correlated with the Ki-67 expression (r=0.406, p=0.001). Microvessel density, as represented by CD31 staining, was also correlated with the Glut-1 expression although its significance is weak (r=0.267, p=0.039). On the univariate analysis, the group with a high Glut-1 expression showed poorer overall survival than the group with a low Glut-1 expression (p<0.05). However, the Glut-1 expression failed to show any independent prognostic significance on the multivariate analysis.
The expression of Glut-1 may be useful for predicting the prognosis and determining the treatment strategy for the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.
Tumor hypoxia; Glucose transporter-1; Squamous cell carcinoma; Tongue
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells can be induced to differentiate into hematopoietic precursor cells via two methods: the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) and co-culture with mouse bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. In this study, the above two methods have been combined by co-culture of human ES-cell-derived EBs with human BM stromal cells. The efficacy of this method was compared with that using EB formation alone. The undifferentiated human ES cell line SNUhES3 was allowed to form EBs for two days, then EBs were induced to differentiate in the presence of a different serum concentration (EB and EB/high FBS group), or co-cultured with human BM stromal cells (EB/BM co-culture group). Flow cytometry and hematopoietic colony-forming assays were used to assess hematopoietic differentiation in the three groups. While no significant increase of CD34+/CD45- or CD34+/CD38- cells was noted in the three groups on days 3 and 5, the percentage of CD34+/CD45- cells and CD34+/CD38- cells was significantly higher in the EB/BM co-culture group than in the EB and EB/high FBS groups on day 10. The number of colony-forming cells (CFCs) was increased in the EB/BM co-culture group on days 7 and 10, implying a possible role for human BM stromal cells in supporting hematopoietic differentiation from human ES cell-derived EBs. These results demonstrate that co-culture of human ES-cell-derived EBs with human BM stromal cells might lead to more efficient hematopoietic differentiation from human ES cells cultured alone. Further study is warranted to evaluate the underlying mechanism.
Embryonic stem cells; embryoid body; differentiation