Recent studies have suggested a relationship of the increased circulating adipokines and inflammatory cytokine, and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objective of this study was to identify adiposity-related factors that reflect MetS in order to establish early intervention targets. We performed a cross-sectional study which included 108 MetS subjects and 91 controls. Blood adiponectin, leptin, vascular-, and intercellular adhension molecules (VCAM, ICAM), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. The correlation analysis indicated that the MetS score (sum of the number of MetS risk factors) had an inverse relationship with adiponectin (p < 0.0001), and positive correlations with leptin (p < 0.05), ICAM (p < 0.01), MCP1 (p < 0.05), oxLDL (p < 0.05), TNF-α (p < 0.0001), IL-6 (p < 0.05) and hsCRP (p < 0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, plasma triglyceride (TG) was independently associated with adiponectin, ICAM and TNF-α with the standardized β coefficients of -0.213, 0.197, and 0.193, respectively. Plasma HDL-cholesterol was independently associated with ICAM and hsCRP with the standardized β coefficients of -0.150 and -0.173. Adiponectin, TNF-α, and hsCRP were the most proximate markers reflecting MetS. Among MetS components, TG and HDL-cholesterol concentrations displayed the relationship with inflammatory markers measured in this study.
Metabolic syndrome; Adiposity; Adipokines; Inflammatory cytokines; Abdominal fat
Little data exists on metabolic syndrome (MetS) related with intake, especially for the South Korean. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for nutritional assessment in the population with MetS in South Korea. Randomly selected female participants, mean age 21.9 years (n = 38) were invited to answer the FFQ twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2) over a nine-month interval and to complete twelve-day diet records (DR) during the months between in South Korea. The correlation coefficients for nutrient intake between FFQ1 and FFQ2 varied from 0.253 (niacin) to 0.573 (cholesterol), and the energy intake-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from 0.187 for protein to 0.662 for iron. The energy intake-adjusted and de-attenuated correlation coefficients for comparison of FFQ1 and the DRs ranged between 0.277 (vitamin B1) and 0.768 (fiber), and between 0.229 (zinc) and 0.859 (fat) for comparison of DRs with FFQ2. The percentages of study subjects classified into the same quartiles in both the DRs and FFQ1 ranged from 15.8% (vitamin B6) to 47.4% (calcium), and for the same quartiles in DRs and FFQ2 from 13.2% (vitamin B1) to 44.7% (potassium). The FFQ has reasonably good validity and reproducibility. Further research is needed for an assessment of reproducibility and validation of present FFQ in the subjects with MetS.
Metabolic syndrome; food frequency questionnaire; Korean adults; validity; reproducibility
The elevated level of circulating estradiol increases the risk of breast tumor development. To gain further insight into mechanisms involved in their actions, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) to initiate and/or promote abnormal cell growth, and of α- or γ-tocopherol to inhibit this process. MCF-10A, human breast epithelial cells were incubated with 0.1 µM 4-OHE2, either with or without 30 µM tocopherols for 96 h. 4-OHE2 caused the accumulation of intracellular ROS, while cellular GSH/GSSG ratio and MnSOD protein levels were decreased, indicating that there was an oxidative burden. 4-OHE2 treatment also changed the levels of DNA repair proteins, BRCA1 and PARP-1. γ-Tocopherol suppressed the 4-OHE2-induced increases in ROS, GSH/GSSG ratio, and MnSOD protein expression, while α-tocopherol up-regulated BRCA1 and PARP-1 protein expression. In conclusion, 4-OHE2 increases oxidative stress reducing the level of proteins related to DNA repair. Tocopherols suppressed oxidative stress by scavenging ROS or up-regulating DNA repair elements.
Breast cancer; DNA damage; 4-hydroxyestradiol; oxidative stress; tocopherol
To estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use, investigate the related factors associated with DS use among preschoolers and support the adequate nutrition.
We conducted a questionnaire survey of mothers of children aged between 1 and 6 years who visited pediatric clinics in 3 Korean cities (Jeonju, Suncheon, Jeongeup) between October and November 2012 at Presbyterian Medical Center. The responses from 929 questionnaires were analyzed.
Approximately 45.1% of the preschoolers used DS in the past month. The following factors were associated with greater use of DS: older age (p<0.001), whether or not the preschoolers attended kindergarten (p<0.001), higher mother's concern about the nutritional facts (p<0.001), whether or not the mother use DS (p<0.001), whether or not the mother counsel with a doctor or pharmacist about DS use (p<0.001). Vitamin·mineral supplements (77.5%) were the most commonly used DS among the preschoolers, followed by ginseng (49.3%) and probiotics (25.6%). Additionally, of the DS users, 95.9% gave DS to their healthy children. Of the users and non-users, 97.6% and 62.2%, respectively, indicated that they would like to have their children take DS. The information on DS was obtained from family or friends in 48.2% of the DS users and from doctors in only 6.1%.
Approximately half of the preschoolers in our study used DS, which might not have been medically indicated for most of them. Therefore, the role of professionals in counseling on desirable diet behaviors and DS use for preschoolers is warranted.
Dietary supplements; Preschool; Energy intake
We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety.
Fruit and vegetables (FV); educational level
Hepatic steatosis is common in obese individuals with hyperinsulinemia and is an important hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Sterol regulatory binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a master regulator of lipogenic gene expression in the liver. Hyperinsulinemia induces transcription of SREBP-1c via activation of liver X receptor (LXR) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Cilostazol is an antiplatelet agent that prevents atherosclerosis and decreases serum triglyceride levels. However, little is known about the effects of cilostazol on hepatic lipogenesis. Here, we examined the role of cilostazol in the regulation of SREBP-1c transcription in the liver. The effects of cilostazol on the expression of SREBP-1c and its target genes in response to insulin or an LXR agonist (T0901317) were examined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis on cultured hepatocytes. To investigate the effect of cilostazol on SREBP-1c at the transcriptional level, transient transfection reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were performed. Cilostazol inhibited insulin-induced and LXR-agonist-induced expression of SREBP-1c and its downstream targets, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, in cultured hepatocytes. Cilostazol also inhibited activation of the SREBP-1c promoter by insulin, T0901317 and Sp1 in a luciferase reporter assay. EMSA analysis showed that cilostazol inhibits SREBP-1c expression by repressing the binding of LXR and Sp1 to the promoter region. These results indicate that cilostazol inhibits insulin-induced hepatic SREBP-1c expression via the inhibition of LXR and Sp1 activity and that cilostazol is a negative regulator of hepatic lipogenesis.
cilostazol; lipogenesis; LXR; Sp1; SREBP-1c
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is highly expressed in gastrointestinal cancers and has an anti-apoptotic function. The roles of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis and how it functions in these processes remain elusive. We investigated the function of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells as an experimental system. Our results showed that OLFM4 had no positive effect on cell viability or cell cycle progression in B16F10 cells. However, it significantly suppressed the tumorigenicity of B16F10 cells, i.e., intradermal primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. OLFM4 also suppressed the migration and invasion of B16F10 cells in vitro. For further insight into the mechanisms underlying OLFM4-mediated suppression of tumor progression, we examined the effect of OLFM4 on the expression of integrin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), both of which are involved in tumor progression. Overexpression of OLFM4 clearly reduced the expression levels of integrin α1, integrin α4, integrin α5, integrin α6, and MMP9. Moreover, forced expression of MMP9 attenuated the inhibitory activity of OLFM4 on migration and invasiveness. Our findings provide the experimental evidence that OLFM4 may function as a tumor suppressor and an anti-metastatic gene during tumor progression.
B16F10 cells; cancer; metastasis; OLFM4; tumor growth
This study examined the effects of corn gluten (CG) and its hydrolysate consumptions on weight reduction in rats fed a high-fat diet. Eight-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calorie as fat) for 4 weeks. They were then randomly divided into four groups and fed the isocaloric diets with different protein sources for 8 weeks. The protein sources were casein (control group), intact CG (CG group), CG hydrolysate A (CGHA group, 30% of protein as peptides and 70% as free amino acids) and CG hydrolysate P (CGHP group, 93% of protein as peptides and 7% as free amino acids). Body weight gain, adipose tissue weights, nitrogen balance, absorptions of energy, protein and fat, lipid profiles in plasma, liver and feces and hepatic activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were assessed. The CGHA diet had the highest amount of BCAAs, especially leucine, and most of them existed as free amino acid forms. The CGHA group showed significant weight reduction and negative nitrogen balance. Protein absorption and apparent protein digestibility in the CGHA group were significantly lower than those in other groups. Adipose tissue weights were the lowest in the CGHA group. Activity of CPT tended to be higher in the CGHA group than in other groups and those of FAS, ME and G6PDH were significantly lower in the CGHA group than in other groups. In conclusion, the CGHA diet which had relatively high amounts of free amino acids and BCAAs, especially leucine, had a weight reduction effect by lowering adipose tissue weight and the activities of FAS, ME and G6PDH in experimental animals, but it seemed to be a negative result induced by lowering protein absorption, increasing urinary nitrogen excretion and protein catabolism.
Corn gluten hydrolysate; weight reduction; dietary free amino acids; BCAAs; leucine
The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 ± 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats.
Chlorella vulgaris; cadmium excretion; metallothionein; Sprague-Dawley rats
The aim of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic effect of chlorella in 6 week-old type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK, n=30) rats and 6 week-old normal Wistar (n=30) rats. Animals were randomly assigned to 3 groups respectively, and were fed three different experimental diets containing 0%, 3% or 5% (w/w) chlorella for 8 weeks. In diabetic GK rats, the insulinogenic-indices were not significantly different among the groups. The concentrations of fasting plasma glucagon and hepatic triglyceride, and the insulin/glucagon ratios of the GK-3% chlorella and GK-5% chlorella groups were significantly lower than those of the GK-control group. The HOMA-index and the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin of the GK-3% chlorella and GK-5% chlorella groups were slightly lower than those of the GK-control group. In normal Wistar rats, the insulinogenic-indices were not significantly different among the normal groups, but that of the Wistar-5% chlorella group was slightly higher than the other groups. The concentrations of fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin, and the HOMA-index of the Wistar-5% chlorella group were a little higher, and the fasting plasma glucagon concentration and the insulin/glucagon ratio of the Wistar-5% chlorella group were significantly higher than those of the Wistar-control and Wistar-3% chlorella groups. In conclusion, this study shows that the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was not affected by the intake of chlorella, which could be beneficial, however, in improving insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic GK and normal Wistar rats.
Chlorella; glucagon; Goto-kakizaki rat; insulin; insulin sensitivity
This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal and urinary Cd excretions were remarkably increased in Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Thus, cadmium retention ratio and absorption rate were decreased in the Cd exposed chlorella groups. Urinary and serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance were not changed in experimental animals. In addition, metallothionein (MT) synthesis in tissues was increased by Cd administration. The Cd-exposed chlorella groups indicated lower MT concentration compared to the Cd-exposed groups. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not changed by dietary chlorella and Cd administration. According to the results above, this study could suggest that Cd toxicity can be alleviated by increasing Cd excretion through feces. Therefore, when exposed to Cd, chlorella is an appropriate source which counteracts heavy metal poisoning, to decrease the damage of tissues by decreasing cadmium absorption.
Chlorella; cadmium; excretion; heavy metal; metallothionein (MT)
This study was designed to determine whether acute fructose or sucrose administration at different levels (0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg body weight) might affect oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. In OGTT, there were no significant differences in glucose responses between acute fructose- and sucrose-administered groups. However, in normal rats, the AUCs of the blood glucose response for the fructose-administered groups tended to be lower than those of the control and sucrose-administered groups. The AUCs of the lower levels fructoseor sucrose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those of higher levels fructose- or sucrose-administered groups. In type 2 diabetic rats, only the AUC of the lowest level of fructose-administered (0.05 g/kg body weight) group was slightly smaller than that of the control group. The AUCs of fructose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those of the sucrose-administered groups, and the AUCs of lower levels fructose-administered groups tended to be smaller than those fed higher levels of fructose. We concluded from this experiment that fructose has tendency to be more effective in blood glucose regulation than sucrose, and moreover, that smaller amount of fructose is preferred to larger amount. Specifically, our experiments indicated that the fructose level of 0.05 g/kg body weight as dietary supplement was the most effective amount for blood glucose regulation from the pool of 0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg and 0.4 g/kg body weights. Therefore, our results suggest the use of fructose as the substitute sweetener for sucrose, which may be beneficial for blood glucose regulation.
Fructose; sucrose; oral glucose tolerance test
This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (p<0.05). Serum TG, serum total cholesterol, liver total lipid and liver total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (p<0.05). Fecal total lipid, TG and total cholesterol excretions were significantly higher in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (p<0.05). These results suggest that Chlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.
Chlorella vulgaris; serum lipids; high fat diet; Wistar rats
Defects of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are related to many diseases and tumors. However, only a few studies have examined hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as related to these processes. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression and extent of autophagy and ER stress-related markers in HCC and their influence on clinical characteristics and prognosis for each protein.
The expression of autophagy-related markers (LC3 and Beclin-1) and ER stress-related markers (GRP78 and CHOP) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissues from completely resected specimens of 190 HCC patients. Their influence on clinicopathologic features and prognosis were evaluated using the chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Correlations of each protein were determined by Spearman's correlation analysis.
LC3 expression was not correlated with TNM, BCLC stage, or Edmonson-Steiner grading, whereas it was correlated with longer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.039) and tended to be related with longer time to recurrence (TTR) (p=0.068) although it did not show statistical significance. Multivariate analysis indicated that LC3 expression was a significantly independent prognostic factor of OS (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80; p-value=0.009) and TTR (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33–0.90; p=0.017). Expression of LC3 in advanced stages of TNM (III) (p=0.045) and Edmonson-Steiner Grades (III and IV) (p=0.043) was correlated with longer survival, but not in the early stages. A positive correlation was not observed between the expression of autophagy-related markers and ER stress-related markers.
Our results suggest that the expression and extent of LC3 might be a strong prognostic factor of HCC, especially in patients with surgical resection.
This study aimed to examine whether a dose-response relationship exists between psychological distress and types of physical activity (total, occupational, and leisure-time). The study subjects (233 men and 313 women) were recruited for a study on cardiovascular disease in the Yangpyeong community located in South Korea. The type and characteristics of physical activity were measured with a modified version of the Stanford 5 city project's questionnaire by well-trained interviewers using a standard protocol. The Psychological Well-being Index-Short Form was used to assess psychological distress. Both the intensity and duration of time in either total physical activity or occupational physical activity (OPA) were not related to the distress score. However, a long duration of time (1 hr/day) in severely intensive (≥6 metabolic equivalent) OPA was related to a high distress score in men (14.1 for none vs. 19.7, p-for-trend=0.005), even after the adjustment for leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). A long duration in time (1 hr/day) in LTPA was related to a lower distress score in men independent of their OPA (16.7 for none vs. 13.1, p-for-trend=0.02). In conclusion, the dose-response relationship of physical activity on psychological distress appeared to differ among the different types of activities. The type of activity may be an important determinant of whether physical activity produces psychological benefits.
Motor Activity; Distress; Dose-Response Relationship
There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability.
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults.
Materials and Methods
The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort), which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES). A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women) aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index.
We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80th percentile value of cIMT (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009), and especially in elderly men (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021). We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV.
Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk.
Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007–2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45–0.84) and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49–0.88) in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41–0.85) and MetS (0.67, 0.47–0.96) in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03–2.01) and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00–1.98) in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54–0.89) in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women.
Obesity may be the consequence of various environmental or genetic factors, which may be highly correlated with each other. We aimed to examine whether grandmaternal and maternal obesity and environmental risk factors are related to obesity in daughters. Daughters (n = 182) recruited from female students, their mothers (n = 147) and their grandmothers (n = 67) were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the daughter's obesity and maternal, grandmaternal, and environmental factors. Maternal heights of 161-175cm (OD: 8.48, 95% CI: 3.61-19.93) and 156-160 cm (2.37, 1.14-4.91) showed positive associations with a higher height of daughter, compared to those of 149-155 cm. Mothers receiving a university or a higher education had a significant OR (3.82, 1.27-11.50) for a higher height of daughter compared to those having a low education (elementary school). Mother having the heaviest weight at current time (59-80 kg, 3.78, 1.73-8.28) and the heaviest weight at 20 years of age (51-65 kg, 3.17, 1.53-6.55) had significant associations with a higher height of daughters, compared to those having the lightest weight at the same times. There was no association between the height, weight, and BMI of daughters and the characteristics and education of her grandmothers. In conclusion, although genetic factors appear to influence the daughter's height more than environmental factors, the daughter's weight appears to be more strongly associated with individual factors than the genetic factors.
Trans generational; body mass index; daughter; mother; grandmother
Agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and glucokinase activators (GKA) act as antidiabetic agents by their ability protect beta cells, and stimulate insulin secretion. Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses aggravate type 2 diabetes by causing beta cell loss. It was shown that GLP-1R agonists protect beta cells from oxidative and ER stresses. On the other hand, little is known regarding how GKAs protect beta cells. We hypothesized that GKAs protect beta cells by mechanisms distinct from those underlying GLP-1R agonist and tested our hypothesis by comparing the molecular effects of exenatide, a GLP-1R agonist, and piragliatin, a GKA, on INS-1 cells under oxidative and ER-induced stresses.
Beta cells were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce oxidative stress and with palmitate or thapsigargin (Tg) to induce ER stress respectively, and the effects of exenatide and piragliatin on these cells were investigated by: a) characterizing the kinases involved employing specific kinase inhibitors, and b) by identifying the differentially regulated proteins in response to stresses with proteomic analysis.
Exenatide protected INS-1 cells from both ER and STZ-induced death. In contrast, piragliatin rescued the cells only from STZ-induced stress. Akt activation by exenatide appeared to contribute to its protective effects of beta cells while enhanced glucose utilization was the contributing factor in the case of piragliatin. Also, exenatide, not piragliatin, blocked changes in proteins 14-3-3β, ε and θ, and preserved the 14-3-3θ levels under the ER stress. Isoform-specific modifications of 14-3-3, and the reduction of 14-3-3θ, commonly associated with beta cell death were assessed.
Exenatide and piragliatin exert distinct effects on beta cell survival and thus on type 2 diabetes. This study which confirmed our hypothesis is also the first to observe specific modulation of 14-3-3 isoform in stress-induced beta cell death associated with progressive deterioration of type 2 diabetes.
The emerging role of endothelial inflammation in diabetes has stimulated research interest in the effects of nutrition on related indices. In the current study we investigated whether the nutrient composition of dietary formula as reflected in glycemic index (GI) may be predictive of postprandial endothelial inflammation in non-diabetic subjects. A double-blinded, randomized, crossover study was conducted in non-diabetic subjects (n = 8/group). Each subject consumed three types of diabetes-specific dietary formulas (high-fiber formula [FF], high-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) formula [MF] and control formula [CF]) standardized to 50 g of available carbohydrates with a 1-week interval between each. The mean glycemic index (GI) was calculated and 3-hour postprandial responses of insulin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), nitrotyrosine (NT) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured. The MF showed the lowest mean GI and significantly low area under the curve (AUC) for insulin (P = 0.038), but significantly high AUCs for sICAM-1 (P < 0.001) and FFA (P < 0.001) as compared to the CF and FF. The FF showed intermediate mean GI, but significantly low AUC for NT (P < 0.001) as compared to the CF and MF. The mean GI was not positively correlated to any of the inflammatory markers evaluated, and in fact negatively correlated to changes in FFA (r = -0.473, P = 0.006). While the MF with the lowest GI showed the highest values in most of the inflammatory markers measured, the FF with intermediate GI had a modest beneficial effect on endothelial inflammation. These results suggest that nutrient composition of dietary formula as reflected in the GI may differently influence acute postprandial inflammation in non-diabetic subjects.
Diabetes-specific dietary formula; glycemic index; endothelial inflammation
Benign schwannoma is the most common neurogenic tumor in the mediastinum. Mediastinal benign schwannomas are most often asymptomatic and rarely accompanied by bloody pleural effusion. In the clinical analysis of 7 cases of pulmonary schwannomas, pleural effusion, and blood invasion were evident in 3 patients with malignant schwannoma. Herein, we report a rare case of giant, benign schwannoma presented with total collapse of right lung by massive, bloody pleural effusion.
Neurilemmoma; Pleural Effusion
Adiponectin directly protects against cardiac remodeling. Despite this beneficial effect, most epidemiological studies have reported a negative relationship between adiponectin level and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). However, a positive relationship has also been reported in subjects at high risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Based on these conflicting results, we hypothesized that the relationship between serum adiponectin level and LVMI varies with the risk of LVH.
A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed on 1414 subjects. LVMI was measured by echocardiography. Log-transformed adiponectin levels (Log-ADPN) were used for the analysis.
Serum adiponectin level had a biphasic distribution (an increase after a decrease) with increasing LVMI. Although Log-ADPN did not correlate with LVMI, Log-ADPN was modestly associated with LVMI in the multivariate analysis (β = 0.079, p = 0.001). The relationship between adiponectin level and LVMI was bidirectional according to the risk of LVH. In normotensive subjects younger than 50 years, Log-ADPN negatively correlated with LVMI (r = −0.204, p = 0.005); however, Log-ADPN positively correlated with LVMI in ≥50-year-old obese subjects with high arterial stiffness (r = 0.189, p = 0.030). The correlation coefficient between Log-ADPN and LVMI gradually changed from negative to positive with increasing risk factors for LVH. The risk of LVH significantly interacted with the relationship between Log-ADPN and LVMI. In the multivariate analysis, Log-ADPN was associated with LVMI in the subjects at risk of LVH; however, Log-ADPN was either not associated or negatively associated with LVMI in subjects at low risk of LVH.
Adiponectin level and LVMI are negatively associated in subjects at low risk of LVH and are positively associated in subjects at high risk of LVH. Therefore, the relationship between adiponectin and LVMI varies with the risk of LVH.
We investigated whether obesity, physical activity, and calorie intake are associated with the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer.
We enrolled 1125 women (age, 18–65 years) into a human papillomavirus cohort study established from 2006 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and to assess whether body mass index (BMI), height, weight, total calorie intake, and physical activity were associated with the risks of CIN and cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer risk was positively associated with BMI and inversely associated with physical activity. When compared with women with a normal BMI (18.5–23 kg/m2), the multivariate ORs (95% CIs) for those overweight (23–25 kg/m2) and mild obesity (≥25 kg/m2) were 1.25 (0.79–2.00) and 1.70 (1.10–2.63), respectively. When compared with women with the lowest tertile of physical activity (<38.5 MET-hours/week), the ORs (95% CIs) for cervical cancer were 0.95 (0.61–1.48) and 0.61 (0.38–0.98) for women with medium physical activity (38.5–71.9 MET-hours/week) and those with high physical activity (72 MET-hours/week), respectively (p for linear trend = 0.03). The CIN2/3 risk was inversely associated with physical activity after adjustment for confounders. Compared with women with low physical activity (< 38.5 MET-hours/week), the ORs (95% CIs) for CIN2/3 were 0.64 (0.40–1.01) and 0.58 (0.36–0.93) for the medium and high physical activity groups, respectively (p for linear trend = 0.02). Total calorie intake was not statistically associated with the risks of CIN and cervical cancer after adjustment for confounders.
Our results indicate that in addition to screening for and treatment of CIN, recommendations on the maintenance of an appropriate BMI with an emphasis on physical activity could be an important preventive strategy against the development of cervical cancer.