Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) is an in vitro phenomenon of EDTA-induced platelet aggregation at room temperature. This phenomenon consists of platelet clumping due to anti-platelet antibodies in blood anticoagulated with EDTA. It has been reported in patients with various diseases, including sepsis, multiple myeloma, acute myocardial infarction and breast cancer. Since unrecognized EDTA-PTCP may lead to inappropriate treatment, it should always be considered as a possible cause in patients with low platelet counts. This study identified a case of transient EDTA-PTCP in a patient with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the stomach. In the present study, a 50-year-old male presented with epigastric pain and a weight loss of 15 kg. The patient presented with EDTA-PTCP and was diagnosed with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the stomach. Following systemic chemotherapy, the tumor showed a marked regression and the EDTA-PTCP disappeared. The mechanism by which this occurred is not clear but an association of EDTA-PTCP with neuroendocrine carcinoma is strongly suggested.
pseudothrombocytopenia; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; neuroendocrine carcinoma
We describe here a patient who obtained a good analgesic effect with high-dose fentanyl patches for controlling cancer pain. A 52-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of severe cancer pain that was 7/10 on a numeric rating scale (NRS). He had been diagnosed with locally advanced cholangiocarcinoma 3 months previously. We prescribed weak opioids and an antidepressant, but his pain was not relieved. We introduced strong opioids (transdermal fentanyl patches for the background pain and a short-acting opioid for the breakthrough pain) and his pain was tolerable on 250 µg/hr of fentanyl patches for 3 months. With time, however, his pain intensity became worse and this reached up to 8/10 to 9/10 on the NRS. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed, which did not relieve his pain. We increased gradually the dose of transdermal fentanyl to 1,050 µg/hr (20 patches). At this dose, the patient was mentally alert, with good pain control (NRS 2/10 to 3/10) and no exacerbation of side effects. To the best of our knowledge, we report here on the highest dose of transdermal fentanyl that has been successfully used for treating a patient suffering from visceral cancer pain.
Fentanyl; Neoplasms; Pain; Cholangiocarcinoma
Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline version 1.0 (RECIST 1.0) was proposed as a new guideline for evaluating tumor response and has been widely accepted as a standardized measure. With a number of issues being raised on RECIST 1.0, however, a revised RECIST guideline version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) was proposed by the RECIST Working Group in 2009. This study was conducted to compare CT tumor response based on RECIST 1.1 vs. RECIST 1.0 in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
We reviewed 61 AGC patients with measurable diseases by RECIST 1.0 who were enrolled in other clinical trials between 2008 and 2010. These patients were retrospectively re-analyzed to determine the concordance between the two response criteria using the κ statistic.
The number and sum of tumor diameters of the target lesions by RECIST 1.1 were significantly lower than those by RECIST 1.0 (P<0.0001). However, there was excellent agreement in tumor response between RECIST 1.1 and RECIST 1.0 (κ=0.844). The overall response rates (ORRs) according to RECIST 1.0 and RECIST 1.1 were 32.7% (20/61) and 34.5% (20/58), respectively. One patient with partial response (PR) based on RECIST 1.0 was reclassified as stable disease (SD) by RECIST 1.1. Of two patients with SD by RECIST 1.0, one was downgraded to progressive disease and the other was upgraded to PR by RECIST 1.1.
RECIST 1.1 provided almost perfect agreement with RECIST 1.0 in the CT assessment of tumor response of AGC.
Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guideline version 1.0 (RECIST 1.0); Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors guideline version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1); gastric cancer; tumor response
Primary duodenal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is very rare, and little is known about its clinical course or effective treatment. We describe a case of primary duodenal MALT lymphoma that was resistant to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication and regressed after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (CVP). A 71-year-old woman was referred to our department because of epigastric pain and dyspepsia. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed an irregular mucosal nodular lesion with ulceration extending from the bulb to the second portion of the duodenum. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen disclosed low-grade MALT lymphoma composed of atypical lymphoid cells with lymphoepithelial lesion. Abdominal CT scans revealed 0.5 to 1.5 cm lymph nodes in the peritoneal cavity, suggestive of lymph node metastasis. We successfully eradicated H. pylori but did not see signs of remission. We administered systemic CVP chemotherapy every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of CVP, the patient achieved complete remission and was followed up without recurrence for about a year.
MALT lymphoma; Duodenum; Helicobacter pylori; Chemotherapy
We report a case of Cushing syndrome secondary to adrenal adenoma presenting with hypertension and oligohydramnios during pregnancy. The tumor was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging at 28 week 3 day weeks of pregnancy and was removed surgically at 29 week 1 day weeks of gestation. After surgery, hypertension subsided and amniotic fluid volume returned to normal range. The gravid woman subsequently delivered a healthy infant at term.
Adrenocortical adenoma; Adrenalectomy; Cushing syndrome; Oligohydramnios; Pregnancy
To present the author's experience with various treatment methods of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) and to determine effective treatment methods of GLM.
Fifty patients who were diagnosed with GLM were classified into five groups based on the initial treatment methods they underwent, which included observation (n = 8), antibiotics (n = 3), steroid (n = 13), drainage (n = 14), and surgical excision (n = 12). The treatment processes in each group were examined and their clinical characteristics, treatment processes, and results were analyzed respectively.
Success rates with each initial treatment were observation, 87.5%; antibiotics, 33.3%; steroids, 30.8%; drainage, 28.6%; and surgical excision, 91.7%. In most cases of observation, the lesions were small and the symptoms were mild. A total of 23 patients underwent surgical excision during treatment. Surgical excision showed particularly fast recovery, high success rate (90.3%) and low recurrence rate (8.7%).
The clinical course of GLM is complex and the outcome of each treatment type are variable. Surgery may play an important role when a lesion is determined to be mass-forming or appears localized as an abscess pocket during breast examination or imaging study.
Breast; Granulomatous mastitis; Treatment; Excision
The purpose of this retrospective study is to investigate the effect of posterior tibial slope (PTS) on clinical results in total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKA).
Materials and Methods
We analyzed 801 knees in 768 patients who underwent TKA using a cruciate-retaining prosthesis for osteoarthritis from July 2003 to July 2009. PTS was measured on simple X-ray films and patients were divided into 5 groups, according to the change in PTS that was calculated by subtracting the preoperative from the postoperative PTS: group 1, >3°; group 2, 3° to 1°; group 3, 1° to -1°; group 4, -1° to -3°; and group 5, <-3°. We analyzed the correlations between the change in PTS and clinical results, such as Knee Society knee score, Knee Society functional score, Feller patella score, Kujala score, visual analog scale score, range of motion, and complications.
There was no statistically significant intergroup difference; however, Feller patella score and Kujala score were significantly different in groups 2 and 3. There were no complications, such as progressive loosening of implants, fractures of polyethylene inserts and wears.
Clinically meaningful improvement was observed in all patients after TKA. Groups 2 and 3 (3° to -1°) showed significant improvement compared to the other groups.
Total knee replacement; Arthroplasty; Knee; Posterior tibial slope
IBTR! 2.0 is a web-based nomogram that predicts the 10-year ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate after breast-conserving therapy. We validated this nomogram in Korean patients.
The nomogram was tested for 520 Korean patients, who underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy. Predicted and observed 10-year outcomes were compared for the entire cohort and for each group, predefined by nomogram-predicted risks: group 1, <3%; group 2, 3% to 5%; group 3, 5% to 10%; group 4, >10%.
In overall patients, the overall 10 year predicted and observed estimates of IBTR were 5.22% and 5.70% (p=0.68). In group 1, (n=124), the predicted and observed estimates were 2.25% and 1.80% (p=0.73), in group 2 (n=177), 3.95% and 3.90% (p=0.97), in group 3 (n=181), 7.14% and 8.80% (p=0.42), and in group 4 (n=38), 11.66% and 14.90% (p=0.73), respectively.
In a previous validation of this nomogram based on American patients, nomogram-predicted IBTR rates were overestimated in the high-risk subgroup. However, our results based on Korean patients showed that the observed IBTR was higher than the predicted estimates in groups 3 and 4. This difference may arise from ethnic differences, as well as from the methods used to detect IBTR and the healthcare environment. IBTR! 2.0 may be considered as an acceptable nomogram in Korean patients with low- to moderate-risk of in-breast recurrence. Before widespread use of this nomogram, the IBTR! 2.0 needs a larger validation study and continuous modification.
Breast neoplasms; Nomograms; Radiotherapy; Recurrence; Validation studies
We previously established a congenic mouse strain with TALLYHO/Jng (TH) donor segment on chromosome 6 in a C57BL/6 (B6) background that harbors an obesity quantitative trait locus, tabw2. The B6.TH-tabw2 congenic mice developed increased adiposity that became exacerbated upon feeding a high fat-high sucrose (HFS) diet. To fine map the tabw2, in this study we generated and characterized subcongenic lines with smaller TH donor segments.
We fixed four subcongenic lines, with maximum size of donor segment retained in the lines ranging from 10.8 – 92.5 Mb. For mapping, all the subcongenic mice, along with B6.TH-tabw2 congenic and B6-homozygous control mice were fed either chow or HFS diets, and their post-mortem fat pads were weighed. Mice were also characterized for energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio, locomotor activity, and food intake. As previously reported, B6.TH-tabw2 congenic mice showed a significantly larger fat mass than controls on both diets. On chow, a subcongenic line retaining the distal region of the TH donor congenic interval exhibited significantly larger fat mass than B6-homozygous controls, and comparable that to B6.TH-tabw2 congenic mice. Two nested subcongenic lines within that region suggested that the effect of tabw2 on obesity could be attributed to at least two subloci. On HFS diets, on the other hand, all the subcongenic mice had significantly larger fat mass than controls without genotype differences, but none of them had fat mass as large as the original congenic mice. This possibly implicates that further genetic complexity involves in the effect of tabw2 on diet-induced obesity. Significantly reduced locomotor activity was exhibited in B6.TH-tabw2 congenic and subcongenic mice compared to controls when animals were fed HFS diets. B6.TH-tabw2 congenic mice, but not subcongenic mice, also had significantly increased food intake on HFS diets.
It appears that at least two subloci explaining the tabw2 effect under chow feeding map to the distal region of the congenic interval, whereas the diet-induced obesity mediated by tabw2 is attributed to more complex genetic mechanism.
The available research work on types of treatment and the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in older Korean patients is insufficient. Henceforth, this report assessed treatment patterns and the relationship between chemotherapy and survival in elderly Korean breast cancer patients.
We identified women over 55 years of age diagnosed with breast cancer from the period 1995 to 2006. Clinicopathologic features and treatment methods were compared for three groups divided on the basis of age: 55 to 59 years, 60 to 69 years, and over 70 years old. The effects of chemotherapy on survival were compared overall and individually for each group.
A total of 832 patients over 55 years of age were included in the present investigation. No statistical differences were observed between the three age groups in clinicopathologic features including tumor size, grade, and stage. However, patients in the elderly group received mastectomy more often when compared to the younger groups (p<0.001). In contrast, there was a decline in radiation treatment and chemotherapy with older age (p<0.001). Overall, patients who received chemotherapy had a significantly increased breast cancer specific survival and overall survival rate when compared to the non-chemotherapy groups (p=0.022). Among the estrogen receptor positive group, no statistical significance was achieved in the survival benefit of chemotherapy. However, in estrogen receptor-negative patients, overall, the chemotherapy groups showed a better survival rate than the non-chemotherapy patients and a similar trend was observed in each age group except in the group comprising of 70 years old patients.
This study describes the survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in Korean patients over 55 years of age, especially in hormone receptor-negative patients. Hence, based on the results of the present report and considering the similarity of clinicopathologic features between age groups, it is proposed that age alone should not be a determinant factor of treatment methods.
Aged; Breast; Carcinoma; Chemotherapy; Survival
Invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) is a very rare and distinct morphological variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), characterized by nuclear atypia and pleomorphism contrasted with the cytologic uniformity of ILC. This study evaluated clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of IPLC compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 35 patients with IPLC and 6,184 patients with IDC, not otherwise specified. We compared the clinicopathologic characteristics, relapse-free survival (RFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) of patients who were surgically treated between January 1997 and December 2010.
Patients with IPLC presented at an older age with larger tumor size, worse histologic grade, higher rates of N3 stage, more multifocal/multicentric tumors, and more nipple-areolar complex involvement than those of patients with IDC. During the follow-up period, the IPLC group experienced five cases (14.3%) of disease recurrence and three cases (8.6%) of disease specific mortality compared with 637 cases (10.4%) of recurrence and 333 cases (5.4%) of disease specific mortality in the IDC group. Univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method revealed that the IPLC group showed a significantly poorer prognosis than that of the IDC group (RFS, p=0.008; DSS, p<0.001). However, after adjusting for clinicopathologic factors, a multivariate analysis showed no statistical differences in RFS (p=0.396) and DSS (p=0.168) between the IPLC and the IDC groups.
Our data suggest that patients with IPLC present with poor prognostic factors such as large tumor size, poor histologic grade and advanced stage at diagnosis. These aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics may result in poor clinical outcomes. Although our study could not link IPLC histology to poor prognosis, considering the aggressive characteristics of IPLC, early detection and considerate treatment, including proper surgical and adjuvant intervention, could be helpful for disease progression and survival.
Breast; Lobular carcinoma; Prognosis
We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of the modified FOLFIRI regimen in frail or elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). We reviewed 24 frail [Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of 2] or elderly (65 years or over) patients with AGC who received the modified FOLFIRI regimen as salvage chemotherapy. Patients received irinotecan 150 mg/m2 and leucovorin (LV) 100 mg/m2 as a 2 h intravenous infusion, followed by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 2,000 mg/m2 as a 46 h continuous infusion. Among the 24 patients, 18 (75%) had an ECOG PS of 2, and 11 (45.8%) were aged 65 years or over. A total of 113 cycles were conducted, with a median number of 4 cycles per patient. A total of 3 patients achieved partial response (PR) and 8 demonstrated stable disease (SD). On an intent-to-treat basis, the overall response rate (RR) was 12.5% and the disease control rate (PR and SD) was 45.8%. The median time to progression (TTP) was 2 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9–2.1 months] and the median overall survival (OS) was 5.4 months (95% CI, 4.1–6.7 months). Grade 3–4 hematological toxicities, including neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia, were observed in 6 (25%), 4 (16.7%) and 1 (4.2%) patients, respectively. Additionally, 3 (12.5%) patients developed febrile neutropenia, of which 1 succumbed to pneumonia. Grade 3–4 gastrointestinal toxicities, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and mucositis, were observed in 3 (12.5%), 2 (8.3%), 1 (4.2%) and 1 (4.2%) patients, respectively. In conclusion, the modified FOLFIRI regimen as salvage chemotherapy for AGC patients over 65 years of age or with a poor PS was effective and acceptable. These results suggest that this regimen may be an effective option for frail or elderly patients with AGC.
advanced gastric cancer; FOLFIRI; elderly; poor performance status
We report a case of a man who developed duodenal bleeding caused by direct hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invasion, which was successfully treated with endoscopic ethanol injection. A 57-year-old man with known HCC was admitted for melena and exertional dyspnea. He had been diagnosed with inoperable HCC a year ago. Urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed two widely eroded mucosal lesions with irregularly shaped luminal protruding hard mass on the duodenal bulb. Argon plasma coagulation and Epinephrine injection failed to control bleeding. We injected ethanol via endoscopy to control bleeding two times with 14 cc and 15 cc separately without complication. Follow-up EGD catched a large ulcer with necrotic and sclerotic base but no bleeding evidence was present. He was discharged and he did relatively well during the following periods. In conclusion, Endoscopic ethanol injection can be used as a significantly effective and safe therapeutic tool in gastrointestinal tract bleeding caused by HCC invasion.
Endoscopic treatment; Ethanol injection; Duodenal bleeding; Hepatocellular carcinoma
Numerous animal and clinical investigations have pointed to a potential role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in conditions of expanded fat mass. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We used a transgenic mouse model overexpressing renin in the liver (RenTgMK) to examine the effects of chronic activation of RAS on adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Hepatic overexpression of renin resulted in constitutively elevated plasma angiotensin II (four- to six-fold increase vs. wild-type, WT). Surprisingly, RenTgMK mice developed glucose intolerance despite low levels of adiposity and insulinemia. The transgenics also had lower plasma triglyceride levels. Glucose intolerance in transgenic mice fed a low-fat diet was comparable to that observed in high-fat fed WT mice. These studies demonstrate that overexpression of renin and associated hyperangiotensinemia impair glucose tolerance in a diet-dependent manner and further support a consistent role of RAS in the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin resistance, independent of changes in fat mass.
adipose tissue; renin-angiotensin system; insulin resistance; angiotensin II
The frequency of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) is increasing, and the types of reconstruction used are diverse. Adjuvant chemotherapy is a life-saving intervention in selected high-risk breast cancer patients. The aim of our study was to determine how IBR and type of reconstruction affect the timing of the initiation of chemotherapy.
We obtained data from female breast cancer patients treated by mastectomy with IBR (IBR group) and without IBR (mastectomy only group) who received adjuvant chemotherapy between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. We retrospectively collected data including patient characteristics, disease characteristics, treatment details, and treatment outcomes from our institutional electronic patient database and medical treatment records. The reconstruction types were categorized as deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and tissue expander/implant (TEI).
In total, 595 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 43 underwent mastectomy with IBR (IBR group) and 552 patients did not undergo reconstruction (mastectomy only group). There was significant difference in the timing of the initiation of chemotherapy between the two groups (p<0.0001). There were no cases of delays of more than 12 weeks. In the IBR group, 20 patients received TEI, 9 patients were treated by the insertion DIEP flaps, and 14 patients were treated by LD flaps. There were no significant differences in the timing of chemotherapy according to the type of reconstruction (p=0.095).
IBR delays the initiation of chemotherapy, but does not lead to omission or significant clinical delay in chemotherapy. Further, the type of reconstruction does not affect the timing of chemotherapy.
Adjuvant chemotherapy; Breast neoplasms; Breast reconstruction
This study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of modified FOLFOX-6 regimen in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients with poor performance status (PS). From January 2005 to August 2010, 23 AGC patients with poor PS who received mFOLFOX-6 as first-line chemotherapy were reviewed. Patients received 100 mg/m2 oxaliplatin and 100 mg/m2 leucovorin (LV) as a 2-h intravenous infusion on day 1, followed by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at 2000 mg/m2 as a 46-h continuous infusion. A total of 22 patients received more than 3 cycles of chemotherapy and were evaluable for tumor response. Seven patients achieved partial response, giving an overall response rate of 31.8%. The median time to progression and overall survival were 3.5 and 9.2 months, respectively. Grade 3–4 hematological toxicities were noted: neutropenia in four patients (17.4%), anemia in two (8.7%) and thrombocytopenia in one (4.3%). Two patients developed febrile neutropenia and one of these patients succumbed to sepsis. Grade 3–4 gastrointestinal toxicities, such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were observed in less than 10% of patients. Peripheral neuropathy was observed in 9 patients (39.1%). In conclusion, the mFOLFOX-6 regimen for AGC patients with poor PS was effective with acceptable toxicity. Our results suggest that this regimen may be an effective option for these patients.
advanced gastric cancer; modified FOLFOX-6; poor performance status
Recently, several clinicians have reported the advantages of simplicity and cosmetic satisfaction of absorbable mesh insertion. However, there is insufficient evidence regardint its long-term outcomes. We have investigated the surgical complications and postoperative examination from the oncologic viewpoint.
Materials and Methods
From February 2008 to March 2009, 34 breast cancer patients underwent curative surgery with absorbable mesh insertion in Samsung Medical Center. Patient characteristics and follow up results including complications, clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively investigated.
The mean age of the study population was 50.1±8.9 years old (range 31-82) with a mean tumor size of 3±1.8 cm (range 0.8-10.5), and the excised breast tissue showed a mean volume of 156.1±99.8 mL (range 27-550). Over the median follow-up period of 18±4.6 months (range 3-25), mesh associated complications, including severe pain or discomfort, edema, and recurrent fluid collection, occurred in nine patients (26.5%). In three cases (8.8%), recurrent mastitis resulted in mesh removal or surgical intervention. In the postoperative radiologic survey, the most common finding was fluid collection, which occurred in five patients (16.1%), including one case with organizing hematoma. Fat necrosis and microcalcifications were found in three patients (9.7%).
Absorbable mesh insertion has been established as a technically feasible, time-saving procedure after breast excision. However, the follow-up results showed some noticeable side effects and the oncologic safety of the procedure is unconfirmed. Therefore, we suggest that mesh insertion should be considered only in select cases and should be followed-up carefully.
Breast neoplasms; mastectomy; segmental; absorbable implants
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of mitomycin-C (MMC) and S-1 as third-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) showing resistance to irinotecan- and oxaliplatin-containing regimens. Patients were recruited into the study from January 2009 and 10 patients were enrolled for 10 months. However, since no patients had shown a response by 10 months, the study was terminated early according to the protocol. MMC 7 mg/m2 was administered intravenously on day 1 every 6 weeks in the first 4 cycles. S-1 was administered twice daily at 35 mg/m2, within 1 h of meals on days 1–14. Following a rest for 7 days, S-1 was administered again on days 22–35, followed by a 7-day rest. A total of 14 cycles were delivered for 10 patients. All 10 patients were assessable for response. A total of 3 patients (30%) had stable disease and the remaining 7 showed disease progression. With a median follow-up of 7 months, the median overall survival was 10.5 months. Grade 3–4 myelotoxicities included neutropenia in two patients, anemia in two and thrombocytopenia in one. Grade 1–2 nausea and vomiting developed in 5 patients. One patient experienced grade 3 diarrhea. Grade 1–2 hand-foot syndrome occurred in 4 patients. In conclusion, the combination of MMC and S-1 as third-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced CRC appears to be well tolerated but has poor activity.
colorectal cancer; mitomycin-C; S-1
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes in humans and is closely associated with dyslipidemia and obesity that magnifies the mortality and morbidity related to T2D. The genetic contribution to human T2D and related metabolic disorders is evident, and mostly follows polygenic inheritance. The TALLYHO/JngJ (TH) mice are a polygenic model for T2D characterized by obesity, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose uptake and tolerance, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia.
In order to determine the genetic factors that contribute to these T2D related characteristics in TH mice, we interbred TH mice with C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The parental, F1, and F2 mice were phenotyped at 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of age for 4-hour fasting plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose levels and body, fat pad and carcass weights. The F2 mice were genotyped genome-wide and used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. We also applied a genetical genomic approach using a subset of the F2 mice to seek candidate genes underlying the QTLs. Major QTLs were detected on chromosomes (Chrs) 1, 11, 4, and 8 for hypertriglyceridemia, 1 and 3 for hypercholesterolemia, 4 for hyperglycemia, 11 and 1 for body weight, 1 for fat pad weight, and 11 and 14 for carcass weight. Most alleles, except for Chr 3 and 14 QTLs, increased phenotypic values when contributed by the TH strain. Fourteen pairs of interacting loci were detected, none of which overlapped the major QTLs. The QTL interval linked to hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia on distal Chr 1 contains Apoa2 gene. Sequencing analysis revealed polymorphisms of Apoa2 in TH mice, suggesting Apoa2 as the candidate gene for the hyperlipidemia QTL. Gene expression analysis added novel information and aided in selection of candidates underlying the QTLs.
We identified several genetic loci that affect the quantitative variations of plasma lipid and glucose levels and obesity traits in a TH × B6 intercross. Polymorphisms in Apoa2 gene are suggested to be responsible for the Chr 1 QTL linked to hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Further, genetical genomic analysis led to potential candidate genes for the QTLs.
Genetic factors are strongly involved in the development of obesity, likely through the interactions of susceptibility genes with obesigenic environments, such as high-fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets. Previously, we have established a mouse congenic strain on C57BL/6 J background, carrying an obesity quantitative trait locus (QTL), tabw2, derived from obese diabetic TALLYHO/JngJ mice. The tabw2 congenic mice exhibit increased adiposity and hyperleptinemia, which becomes exacerbated upon feeding HFS diets. In this study, we conducted genome-wide gene expression profiling to evaluate differentially expressed genes between tabw2 and control mice fed HFS diets, which may lead to identification of candidate genes as well as insights into the mechanisms underlying obesity mediated by tabw2. Both tabw2 congenic mice and control mice were fed HFS diets for 10 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age, and total RNA was isolated from liver and adipose tissue. Whole-genome microarray analysis was performed and verified by real-time quantitative RT–PCR. At False Discovery Rate adjusted P < 0.05, 1026 genes were up-regulated and 308 down-regulated in liver, whereas 393 were up-regulated and 187 down-regulated in adipose tissue in tabw2 congenic mice compared to controls. Within the tabw2 QTL interval, 70 genes exhibited differential expression in either liver or adipose tissue. A comprehensive pathway analysis revealed a number of biological pathways that may be perturbed in the diet-induced obesity mediated by tabw2.
Gene expression profiles; QTL; Congenics; Diet-induced obesity; Mice
We performed multicenter study to define clinical characteristics of noncutaneous melanomas and to establish prognostic factors patients who received curative resection.
Of the 141 patients who were diagnosed of non-cutaneous melanoma at 4 institutions in Korea between June 1992 and May 2005, 129 (91.5%) satisfied the selection criteria.
Of the 129 noncutaneous melanoma patients, 14 patients had ocular melanoma and 115 patients had mucosal melanoma. For mucosal melanoma, anorectum was the most common anatomic site (n = 39, 30.2%) which was followed by nasal cavity (n = 30, 23.3%), genitourinary (n = 21, 16.3%), oral cavity (n = 14, 10.9%), upper gastrointestinal tract (n = 6, 4.7%) and maxillary sinus (n = 5, 3.9%) in the order of frequency. With the median 64.5 (range 4.3-213.0) months follow-up, the median overall survival were 24.4 months (95% CI 13.2-35.5) for all patients, and 34.6 (95% CI 24.5-44.7) months for curatively resected mucosal melanoma patients. Adverse prognostic factors of survival for 87 curatively resected mucosal melanoma patients were complete resection (R1 resection margin), and age > 50 years. For 14 ocular melanoma, Survival outcome was much better than mucosal melanoma with 73.3% of 2 year OS and 51.2 months of median OS (P = .04).
Prognosis differed according to primary sites of noncutaneous melanoma. Based on our study, noncutaneous melanoma patients should be treated differently to improve survival outcome.
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a common benign bone disorder of an unclear etiology. It is known that FD can appear without an increased FDG uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). However, there are also several reports that FD showed increased FDG uptake and this mimicked malignant bone involvement on FDG-PET. Herein we describe a case of biopsy-proven FDG-PET positive FD in a patient with intestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). A 45-year-old woman was diagnosed with intestinal NHL, which was removed by right hemicolectomy. After the operation, the FDG-PET/CT scan showed hypermetabolic activity in the right transverse process of the T10 vertebra. The patient then received a total of 6 cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy every 3 weeks. After completion of the planned chemotherapy, the 2nd FDG-PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake (SUVmax=6.0 g/mL) of the previous bone lesion. The MR images revealed a T1-hypointense lesion with sharp borders in the same region, and this showed homogenous contrast enhancement on the fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. After the radiologic studies were carefully reviewed, the bone lesion was assumed to be benign such as FD. We performed bone biopsy and the histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of FD. In conclusion, bone lesions with FDG uptake need to be carefully interpreted when evaluating patients with known malignancy.
Fibrous dysplasia; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; FDG-PET
To determine the effects of new breast cancer treatments and to provide a baseline for monitoring the development of breast cancer in Korean women, we conducted an analysis at our institution to determine long-term clinicopathological features, survival rates, and prognostic factors.
Materials and Methods
This study retrospectively analyzed 2,403 patients between Sep 1994 and Dec 2002, who underwent breast cancer surgery at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. Demographic data, pathologic records and surgical records were collected.
After a median follow-up duration of 121.9 (range: 2-158.1) months, the 5-year disease free survival (DFS) was 82.8% and the 10-year DFS was 74.7%. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 89.4% and 82.9%, respectively. Using multivariate analyses, we determined that the nodal status (p < 0.001), angioinvasion (p < 0.001), positive PR (p < 0.001), and C-erb-B2 (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for OS. The frequency of breast conserving surgery was 33.9% before Dec 1999, and increased up to 44.1% by year Dec 2002.
Most of the prognostic variables and clinical characteristics of the Korean breast cancer patients were similar to those reported for Western populations. However, the age distribution in Korean patients seemed to be different from that in patients from Western countries.
Breast cancer; survival; disease free survival; breast conserving surgery
Background. The adipose tissue
renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass and may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism. Methods and results. A panel of mouse models including mice lacking angiotensinogen, Agt (Agt-KO), mice expressing Agt solely in adipose tissue (aP2-Agt/Agt-KO), and mice overexpressing Agt in adipose tissue (aP2-Agt) was studied. Total body weight, epididymal fat pad weight, and circulating levels of leptin, insulin, and resistin were significantly decreased in Agt-KO mice, while plasma adiponectin levels were increased. aP2-Agt mice exhibited increased adiposity and
plasma leptin and insulin levels compared to wild type (WT) controls. Angiotensinogen and type I Ang II receptor protein levels were also elevated in kidney of aP2-Agt mice. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that alterations in
adipose RAS activity significantly impact both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.
To examine the immunohistochemical alterations associated with the histological dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinomas, we performed staining for HBME-1, high molecular weight cytokeratin (HCK), CK 19, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and E-cadherin (E-CD) on 125 various types of thyroid carcinomas. The HBME-1 staining was strong and diffuse in follicular carcinoma (FC), papillary carcinoma (PC), and poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC), while it was rare in undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) as well as in benign lesions. Strong, diffuse staining for CK19 and HCK was predominantly found in PC, and these markers were not much found in other carcinomas. TTF-1 uniformly stained the tumor cells of all cases of PC, FC and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HC) and 42% of the PDC, while there was only focal staining in one case of the UC. Compared to the strong, diffuse reactivity in the benign lesions, E-CD staining was noted in 67% of PC, 80% of FC, 83% of HC, 58% of PDC and none of the UC. These results suggest that HBME-1 may be a marker for well-differentiated carcinomas while CK19 and HCK are phenotypic markers for papillary carcinoma. The loss or reduced expression of TTF-1 and E-CD may be markers for dedifferentiation.
HBME-1 antigen; Keratin; thyroid nuclear factor 1; Cadherins; Thyroid Neoplasms