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1.  Primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor 
Primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor is very rare, although secondary mesenteric involvement is common, reported as 40% to 80%. And distant metastasis rate reported as 80% to 90%, when the size is larger than 2 cm. We present a case of very rare primary mesenteric carcinoid tumor showing benign character though large size. The patient visited St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea with increasing palpable abdominal mass. At laparotomy, a well encapsulated mass arising from the mesentery near the ligament of Treitz was found without any adjacent organ invasion or distant metastasis. The mass was measured as 8.2 × 7.3 cm and histopathologically benign character. At 11 months of follow up, the patient was recurrence free.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.84.2.114
PMCID: PMC3566469  PMID: 23397044
Carcinoid tumor; Mesentery; Neoplasms
2.  Intraocular Lymphoma after Cardiac Transplantation: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;14(1):122-125.
We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.1.122
PMCID: PMC3542295  PMID: 23323042
Orbit, neoplasms; Orbit, MR; Lymphoma; Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder
3.  Current Management of Testicular Cancer 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(1):2-10.
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are rare, but are the most common cancer in young men. GCTs may consist of one predominant histologic pattern or may represent a mixture of multiple histologic types. For treatment purposes, two broad categories are recognized: 1) pure seminoma and 2) others, which together are termed nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs). In general, seminoma tends to be less aggressive, to be diagnosed at an earlier stage, and to spread predictably along lymphatic channels to the retroperitoneum before spreading hematogenously to the lung or other organs. Compared with NSGCTs, seminoma is exquisitely sensitive to radiation therapy and platinum-based chemotherapy. NSGCTs are usually mixed tumors and teratoma often exists at the sites of metastasis with other GCT elements; cure often requires chemotherapy to kill the chemosensitive-components and surgery to remove the teratomatous components. The main factors contributing to excellent cure rates of GCTs are careful staging at diagnosis; adequate early treatment using chemotherapeutic combinations, with or without radiotherapy and surgery; and very strict follow-up and salvage therapy. We review several clinical studies and summarize the current trends in the management of GCTs.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.1.2
PMCID: PMC3556548  PMID: 23362440
Neoplasms; Testis; Therapeutics
4.  Cavernous Hemangiolymphangioma of the Testis without Cutaneous Hemangiomatosis in an Elderly Patient 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(11):810-812.
Hemangiolymphangioma is an extremely rare malformation of both the lymphatic and blood vessels. To date, however, there are no reports in the literature of a hemangiolymphangioma of the testis. An 84-year-old man visited our hospital for investigation of a 1-month episode of a rapidly growing mass in his right scrotum. Scrotal ultrasonography revealed a multilobulated mass with septation in the testis. Testicular tumor markers were within the normal limit. Radical orchiectomy was performed. At surgery, a red, wide-based, nodular tumor was found on the testis. Histological examination of the resected specimen showed it to be a cavernous hemangiolymphangioma. Here we report this first case of a cavernous hemangiolymphangioma of the testis without cutaneous hemangiomatosis in an elderly patient.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.11.810
PMCID: PMC3502743  PMID: 23185676
Hemangioma; Lymphangioma; Testis
5.  The Direct Anti-Cancer Effect of a Single Instillation of Epirubicin after Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(2):78-81.
Purpose
To evaluate the direct anti-cancer effect of a single instillation of epirubicin (SIE) after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) by analysis of immediate urine cytology (IUC).
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the records of 158 patients who had IUC after TURBT for NMIBC. Fifty-six patients were treated with SIE after TURBT and 102 patients were not treated with SIE. The direct anti-cancer effect of SIE was compared in the two groups according to the result of IUC. The relationship between SIE and IUC in NMIBC was analyzed by use of multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Results
The IUC-positive rate was 33.9% in the SIE group and 42.1% in the non-SIE group (p=0.005). The IUC-positive rate was lower in the SIE group than in the non-SIE group for each factor, including tumor stage, tumor grade, tumor size, tumor multiplicity, and preoperative urine cytology. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that SIE was significantly associated with a negative IUC result in patients with NMIBC (HR, 0.163) (p<0.001).
Conclusions
These results indicate the direct anti-cancer effect of SIE in patients who undergo TURBT for NMIBC.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.2.78
PMCID: PMC3285712  PMID: 22379584
Epirubicin; Neoplasms; Urinary bladder
6.  Floating Hem-o-Lok Clips in the Bladder without Stone Formation after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(1):60-62.
Hem-o-Lok clips (Weck Surgical Instruments, Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC, USA) are widely used in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy because of their easy application and secure clamping. To date, there have been some reports of intravesical migration of these clips causing urethral erosion, bladder neck contractures, and subsequent calculus formation. We report the first case of bladder migration of Hem-o-Lok clips without stone formation after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The Hem-o-Lok clips were found during urethral dilation with a guide wire for bladder neck contracture under cystourethroscopy. The Hem-o-Lok clips were floating in the bladder without stone formation and were removed by a cystoscopic procedure.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.1.60
PMCID: PMC3272559  PMID: 22323977
Prostatectomy; Robotics; Surgical instruments
7.  NAD+ Metabolism in Age-Related Hearing Loss 
Aging and Disease  2014;5(2):150-159.
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), a degenerative disorder characterized by age-dependent progressive increase in the threshold of auditory sensitivity, affects 40% of people over the age of 65, and it has emerged as an important social and public health problem. Various factors, including genetic and environmental components, are known to affect both the onset and severity of ARHL. In particular, age-dependent changes in cellular oxidative stress and inflammatory responses accompanied by altered cellular signaling and gene expression progressively affect the function of the auditory system and eventually lead to hearing impairment. Recent findings suggest that a disturbance of intracellular NAD+ levels is clinically related to the progression of age-associated disorders. Therefore, maintenance of optimal intracellular NAD+ levels may be a critical factor for cellular senescence, and thus, understanding its molecular signaling pathways would provide critical insights into the prevention and treatment of ARHL as well as other age-related diseases. In this review, we describe the role of NAD+ metabolism in aging and age-related diseases, including ARHL, and discuss a potential strategy for prevention or treatment of ARHL with a particular interest in NAD+-dependent cellular pathways.
doi:10.14336/AD.2014.0500150
PMCID: PMC3966673
Age-related hearing loss; NAD+; degenerative disorder; metabolism
8.  Capsaicin Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Renal Injury through Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 
Molecules and Cells  2014;37(3):234-240.
Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents. However, its use is limited due to its toxicity in normal tissues, including the kidney and ear. In particular, nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin is closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the heme metabolism, has been implicated in a various cellular processes, such as inflammatory injury and anti-oxidant/oxidant homeostasis. Capsaicin is reported to have therapeutic potential in cisplatin-induced renal failures. However, the mechanisms underlying its protective effects on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrated that administration of capsaicin ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction by assessing the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as well as tissue histology. In addition, capsaicin treatment attenuates the expression of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress markers for renal damage. We also found that capsaicin induces HO-1 expression in kidney tissues and HK-2 cells. Notably, the protective effects of capsaicin were completely abrogated by treatment with either the HO inhibitor ZnPP IX or HO-1 knockdown in HK-2 cells. These results suggest that capsaicin has protective effects against cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction through induction of HO-1 as well as inhibition oxidative stress and inflammation.
doi:10.14348/molcells.2014.2322
PMCID: PMC3969044  PMID: 24642709
capsaicin; cisplatin; HO-1; nephrotoxicity
9.  Improved reversibility in lithium-oxygen battery: Understanding elementary reactions and surface charge engineering of metal alloy catalyst 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4225.
Most Li-O2 batteries suffer from sluggish kinetics during oxygen evolution reactions (OERs). To overcome this drawback, we take the lesson from other catalysis researches that showed improved catalytic activities by employing metal alloy catalysts. Such research effort has led us to find Pt3Co nanoparticles as an effective OER catalyst in Li-O2 batteries. The superior catalytic activity was reflected in the substantially decreased overpotentials and improved cycling/rate performance compared to those of other catalysts. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the low OER overpotentials are associated with the reduced adsorption strength of LiO2 on the outermost Pt catalytic sites. Also, the alloy catalyst generates amorphous Li2O2 conformally coated around the catalyst and thus facilitates easier decomposition and higher reversibility. This investigation conveys an important message that understanding elementary reactions and surface charge engineering of air-catalysts are one of the most effective approaches in resolving the chronic sluggish charging kinetics in Li-O2 batteries.
doi:10.1038/srep04225
PMCID: PMC3936231  PMID: 24573326
11.  Developmental Roles of D-bifunctional Protein-A Zebrafish Model of Peroxisome Dysfunction 
Molecules and Cells  2014;37(1):74-80.
The peroxisome is an intracellular organelle that responds dynamically to environmental changes. Various model organisms have been used to study the roles of peroxisomal proteins in maintaining cellular homeostasis. By taking advantage of the zebrafish model whose early stage of embryogenesis is dependent on yolk components, we examined the developmental roles of the D-bifunctional protein (Dbp), an essential enzyme in the peroxisomal β-oxidation. The knockdown of dbp in zebrafish phenocopied clinical manifestations of its deficiency in human, including defective craniofacial morphogenesis, growth retardation, and abnormal neuronal development. Overexpression of murine Dbp rescued the morphological phenotypes induced by dbp knockdown, indicative of conserved roles of Dbp during zebrafish and mammalian development. Knockdown of dbp impaired normal development of blood, blood vessels, and most strikingly, endoderm-derived organs including the liver and pancreas - a phenotype not reported elsewhere in connection with peroxisome dysfunction. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that zebrafish might be a useful model animal to study the role of peroxisomes during vertebrate development.
doi:10.14348/molcells.2014.2300
PMCID: PMC3907007  PMID: 24552713
D-bifunctional protein; embryogenesis; model organism; peroxisome; zebrafish
12.  The Usefulness of MR Imaging of the Temporal Bone in the Evaluation of Patients with Facial and Audiovestibular Dysfunction 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2002;3(1):16-23.
Objective
To evaluate the clinical utility of MR imaging of the temporal bone in patients with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction with particular emphasis on the importance of contrast enhancement.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 179 patients [72 men, 107 women; average age, 44 (range, 1-77) years] who presented with peripheral facial palsy (n=15), audiometrically proven sensorineural hearing loss (n=104), vertigo (n=109), or tinnitus (n=92). Positive MR imaging findings possibly responsible for the patients clinical manifestations were categorized according to the anatomic sites and presumed etiologies of the lesions. We also assessed the utility of contrast-enhanced MR imaging by analyzing its contribution to the demonstration of lesions which would otherwise not have been apparent. All MR images were interpreted by two neuroradiologists, who reached their conclusions by consensus.
Results
MR images demonstrated positive findings, thought to account for the presenting symptoms, in 78 (44%) of 179 patients, including 15 (100%) of 15 with peripheral facial palsy, 43 (41%) of 104 with sensorineural hearing loss, 40 (37%) of 109 with vertigo, and 39 (42%) of 92 with tinnitus. Thirty (38%) of those 78 patients had lesions that could be confidently recognized only at contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
Conclusion
Even though its use led to positive findings in less than half of these patients, MR imaging of the temporal bone is a useful diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of those with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction. Because it was only at contrast-enhanced MR imaging that a significant number of patients showed positive imaging findings which explained their clinical manifestations, the use of contrast material is highly recommended.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2002.3.1.16
PMCID: PMC2713982  PMID: 11919474
Temporal bone, MR; Temporal bone, abnormalities; Magnetic resonance(MR), contrast enhancement
13.  Impact of Nucleotide Mutations at the HNF3- and HNF4-Binding Sites in Enhancer 1 on Viral Replication in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection 
Gut and Liver  2013;7(5):569-575.
Background/Aims
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome contains binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF) 3 and 4 in the core domain of enhancer 1 (Enh1), and mutations in this domain have a strong impact on virus replication. We aimed to identify frequent base-mutation sites in the core domain of Enh1 and to examine the impact of these mutations on viral replication.
Methods
We studied virological characteristics and genetic sequences in 387 patients with chronic hepatitis B. We evaluated functional differences associated with specific mutations within the core domain of Enh1.
Results
Mutations in the core domain were found with significant frequency in C1126 (122/387 [31.5%], the binding site for HNF3) and in C1134 (106/387 [27.4%], the binding site for HNF4). A single mutation at nt 1126 (C1126) was identified in 17/123 (13.8%), and 105/123 (85.4%) had double mutations (C1126/1134). The level of HBV DNA (log10 copies/mL) was lower in single mutants (C1126, 5.81±1.25) than in wild (6.80±1.65) and double mutants (C1126/1134, 6.81±1.54). Similarly, the relative luciferase activity of C1126 and C1126/C1134 was 0.18 and 1.12 times that of the wild-type virus, respectively.
Conclusions
Mutations in the HNF3 binding site inhibit viral replication, whereas mutations at the HNF4 binding site restore viral replication.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2013.7.5.569
PMCID: PMC3782672  PMID: 24073315
Hepatocyte nuclear factors; Hepatitis B virus; Virus replication
14.  Juxta-adrenal malignant schwannoma with lymph node metastases 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2013;7(9-10):E657-E659.
Juxta-adrenal malignant schwannoma is a very rare tumour of neural crest cell origin. A 69-year-old woman visited for proper management of incidentally detected adrenal mass as part of a dyspepsia workup. Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable and imaging results suggested a malignant adrenal mass with lymph node metastases. The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy with para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The diagnosis and its origin was confirmed by histologic and immunohistochemical studies. We report the first case of juxta-adrenal malignant schwannoma with lymph node metastases, and review the literature on this rare tumour.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.1217
PMCID: PMC3886207  PMID: 24409218
15.  Short–term effects of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy on anorectal function in rectal cancer patients: a pilot study 
Background
Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by curative surgery has gained acceptance as the therapy of choice in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, deterioration of anorectal function after long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy combined with surgery for rectal cancer is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and clinical change of anorectal function after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.
Methods
We analyzed 30 patients on whom preoperative anorectal manometry data were available both before and after chemoradiation from October 2010 to September 2011. All patients underwent long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. We compared manometric parameters between before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy.
Results
Of 30 patients, 20 were males and 10 females. The mean age was 64.9 ± 9.9 years (range, 48-82). Before nCRT, the rectal compliance was higher in patients with ulceroinfiltrative type (P = 0.035) and greater involvement of luminal circumference (P = 0.017). However, there was the tendency of increased rectal sensory threshold for desire to defecate when the patient had decreased circumferential ratio of the tumor (P = 0.099), down-graded T stage (P = 0.016), or reduced tumor volume (P = 0.063) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.
Conclusions
Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy did not significantly impair overall sphincter function before radical operation. The relationship between tumor response of chemoradiation and sensory threshold for desire to defecate may suggest that neoadjuvant chemoradiation may be helpful for defecatory function as well as local disease control, at least in the short-term period after the radiation in locally advanced rectal cancer patients.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-8-203
PMCID: PMC3766044  PMID: 23961877
Anorectal function; Neoadjuvant chemoradiation; Manometry; Rectal cancer
16.  Ureteral Penetration Caused by Drilling During Internal Pelvic Bone Fixation: Delayed Recognition 
A 49-year-old man was referred to our department with profuse serous fluid discharge from a Penrose drain after undergoing internal fixation with metal screws for multiple pelvic bone fractures. A definite ureteral penetration was identified that was orientated from the lateral to the medial aspect of the right distal ureter. The patient was surgically treated with excision of the 2-cm injured ureteral segment, end-to-end ureteroureterostomy, and double J ureteral stent placement. To our knowledge, a penetrating ureteral injury caused by bone drilling has not been reported previously in the published literature. This case shows that surgeons who do pelvic surgery, including orthopedic surgeons, should be familiar with the anatomical relationship of the ureter and its potential injuries.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.2.93
PMCID: PMC3713249  PMID: 23869275
Ureter; Drilling; Injury
17.  Is It Possible to Predict the Iron Status from an Infant's Diet History? 
Purpose
Iron deficiency remains a very common nutritional problem despite the improvement in nutrition and increased understanding of methods for its prevention. Thus, we try to create a new method for screening iron nutrition through infant nutrition history.
Methods
Among the children who visited Inha University Hospital from March 2006 to July 2012, 181 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 52 children without IDA ranging from 6 to 36 months of age were reviewed in this study. We used the age when they began to wean food, the type of sort weaning foods, the time required for successful weaning, iron content in weaning foods, and the duration of breastfeeding for scoring infant nutrition history based on a questionnaire.
Results
The mean score of the IDA group was 7.8±2.6 points, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (5.6±2.1) (p=0.000). If we set up the cutoff value at 6 points, this screening has 86.8% sensitivity and 36% specificity. In addition, as the IDA score increased, there was a falling trend of hemoglobin.
Conclusion
The IDA score does not have high specificity or high sensitivity. However, this study conveys that those patients who record a high score have low hemoglobin. Therefore, we suggest this score system for screening more IDA patients via nonpainful techniques.
doi:10.5223/pghn.2013.16.2.95
PMCID: PMC3760699  PMID: 24010113
Iron-deficiency anemia; Weaning; Breast feeding; Diet; Nutrition
18.  Conditional Deletion of Pten Leads to Defects in Nerve Innervation and Neuronal Survival in Inner Ear Development 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55609.
All cellular phenomena and developmental events, including inner ear development, are modulated through harmonized signaling networks. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is a major signaling component involved in cross talk with key regulators of development; i.e., Wnt, Notch, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Although Pten function has been studied in various systems, its role in inner ear development is poorly understood. Here, we used inner ear-specific Pten conditional knockout mice and examined the characteristics of the inner ear. In a detailed analysis of the phenotype, reduced cochlear turning and widened epithelia were observed. Phalloidin staining of sensory epithelium revealed that hair cell patterns were disturbed; i.e., additional rows of hair cells were discovered. The neural abnormality revealed a reduction in and disorganization of nerve fibers, including apoptosis at the neural precursor stage. Pten deficiency induced increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. The elevation of inhibitory glycogen synthase kinase 3β Ser9 phosphorylation (pGSK3β) was sustained until the neuronal differentiation stage at embryonic day 14.5, instead of pGSK3β downregulation. This is the first report on the influence of Pten/Akt/GSK3β signaling on the development of spiral ganglia. These results suggest that Pten is required for the maintenance of neuroblast number, neural precursors, and differentiation in the inner ear.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055609
PMCID: PMC3564925  PMID: 23393595
19.  Tumor budding as a risk factor of lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal carcinoma: a retrospective study 
BMC Surgery  2012;12:16.
Background
This study was designed to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis of early stage colorectal cancer, which was confirmed to a carcinoma that invaded the submucosa after radical resection.
Methods
In total, 55 patients revealing submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma on pathology who underwent curative radical resection at the Department of Surgery, St. Vincent’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea from January 2007 to September 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. Tumor size, depth of submucosal invasion, histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor budding, and microacinar structure were reviewed by a single pathologist. Student t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables were used for comparing the clinicopathological features between two groups (whether lymph node involvement existed or not). Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± standard error while statistical significance is accepted at P < 0.05.
Results
The mean age of 55 patients (34 males and 21 females) was 61.2 ± 9.6 years (range, 43–83). Histologically, eight (14.5%) patients had metastatic lymph node. In the univariate analysis, tumor budding (P = 0.047) was the only factor that was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. Also, the tumor budding had a sensitivity of 83.3%, a specificity of 60.5%, and a negative predictive value of 0.958 for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive T1 colorectal cancer.
Conclusions
The tumor budding seems to have a high sensitivity (83.3%), acceptable specificity (60.5%), and a high negative predictive value (0.958). A close examination of pathologic finding including tumor budding should be performed in order to manage early CRC properly.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-12-16
PMCID: PMC3469500  PMID: 22866826
Lymph node metastasis; T1 colorectal cancer; Tumor budding
20.  (E)-2-Amino-4-(3,3-dimethyl-2-oxobutyl­idene)-1-[2-(2-hy­droxy­eth­oxy)eth­yl]-6-methyl-1,4-dihydro­pyridine-3-carbo­nitrile 
In the title compound, C17H25N3O3, there are intra­molecular hydrogen bonds between an amine H atom and the ep­oxy O atom, and between a dihydro­pyridine ring H atom and the ketone O atom. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into a zigzag chain running parallel to the c axis by hydrogen bonds between the hy­droxy group and the ketone O atom. There are also weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions which link the mol­ecules into sheets lying in the bc plane.
doi:10.1107/S160053681203334X
PMCID: PMC3415012  PMID: 22904999
21.  Cisplatin ototoxicity involves cytokines and STAT6 signaling network 
Cell Research  2011;21(6):944-956.
We herein investigated the role of the STAT signaling cascade in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cisplatin ototoxicity. A significant hearing impairment caused by cisplatin injection was observed in Balb/c (wild type, WT) and STAT4−/−, but not in STAT6−/− mice. Moreover, the expression levels of the protein and mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were markedly increased in the serum and cochlea of WT and STAT4−/−, but not STAT6−/− mice. Organotypic culture revealed that the shape of stereocilia bundles and arrays of sensory hair cell layers in the organ of Corti from STAT6−/− mice were intact after treatment with cisplatin, whereas those from WT and STAT4−/− mice were highly distorted and disarrayed after the treatment. Cisplatin induced the phosphorylation of STAT6 in HEI-OC1 auditory cells, and the knockdown of STAT6 by STAT6-specific siRNA significantly protected HEI-OC1 auditory cells from cisplatin-induced cell death and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We further demonstrated that IL-4 and IL-13 induced by cisplatin modulated the phosphorylation of STAT6 by binding with IL-4 receptor alpha and IL-13Rα1. These findings suggest that STAT6 signaling plays a pivotal role in cisplatin-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ototoxicity.
doi:10.1038/cr.2011.27
PMCID: PMC3203698  PMID: 21321603
cisplatin; ototoxicity; STAT; inflammation; apoptosis
22.  A case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor originated from the greater omentum in young adult 
Inflammatory myofibroblastic (IMF) tumor is a rare solid tumor that often affects children. IMF tumors occur primarily in the lung, but the tumor may affect any organ system with protean manifestations. A 22-year-old woman was evaluated for palpable low abdominal mass that had been increasing in size since two months prior. Abdominal computed tomography showed a lobulated, heterogeneous contrast enhancing soft tissue mass, 6.5 × 5.7 cm in size in the ileal mesentery. At surgery, the mass originated from the greater omentum laying in the pelvic cavity and was completely excised without tumor spillage. Histologically, the mass was a spindle cell lesion with severe atypism and some mitosis. Immunohistochemistry for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 revealed that the lesion was an IMF tumor. Because of its local invasiveness and its tendency to recur, this tumor can be confused with a soft tissue sarcoma. Increasing physician awareness of this entity should facilitate recognition of its clinical characteristics and laboratory findings.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.6.380
PMCID: PMC3373989  PMID: 22708101
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Spindle cell tumor; ALK-1; Omental mass
23.  SRY-positive 78, XY ovotesticular disorder of sex development in a wolf cloned by nuclear transfer 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2012;13(2):211-213.
Recently, we reported the three wolves cloning with normal karyotype from somatic cells of endangered male gray wolves (Canis lupus), but one wolf had female external genitalia. In this study, we conducted further clinical, histological, and genetic analyses. This cloned wolf had a normal uterus but developed ovotestis. Through molecular analysis of the SRY gene, a mutation in the coding sequence of SRY gene could be excluded as a cause of intersexuality. This is the first report of a cloned wolf with a 78, XY ovotesticular disorder affecting sexual development characterized by bilateral ovotestes.
doi:10.4142/jvs.2012.13.2.211
PMCID: PMC3386349  PMID: 22705746
hermaphrodite; intersexuality; wolf
24.  The effect of laparoscopic surgery in stage II and III right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study 
Background
This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer.
Methods
From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve.
Results
When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS) did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS) in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P = 0.042 and P = 0.050). In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P = 0.2036) and DFS ( P = 0.2356) than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6%) was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4%) and I (12.1%) ( P = 0.013).
Conclusions
Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-89
PMCID: PMC3449202  PMID: 22594580
Laparoscopic surgery; Learning curve; Long-term outcome; Right sided colon cancer
25.  Delorme's Procedure for Complete Rectal Prolapse: Does It Still Have It's Own Role? 
Purpose
Although there are more than a hundred techniques, including the transabdominal and the perineal approaches, for the repair of the rectal prolapsed, none of them is perfect. The best repair should be chosen not only to correct the prolapse but also to restore defecatory function and to improve fecal incontinence throughout the patient's lifetime. The aim of this retrospective review is to evaluate clinical outcomes of the Delorme's procedure for the management of the complete rectal prolapse.
Methods
A total of 19 patients (13 females and 6 males) with complete rectal prolapses were treated by using the Delorme's procedure in St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, from February 1997 to February 2007. Postoperative anal incontinence was evaluated using the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score.
Results
All 19 patients had incontinence to liquid stool, solid stool, and/or flatus preoperatively. Three (15.8%) patients reported recurrence of the rectal prolapse (at 6, 18, 29 months, respectively, after the operation). Information on postoperative incontinence was available for 16 of the 19 patients. Twelve of the 16 patients (75%) reported improved continence (5 [31.3%] were improved and 7 [43.7%] completely recovered from incontinence) while 4 patients had unchanged incontinence symptoms. One (6.3%) patient who did not have constipation preoperatively developed constipation after the operation.
Conclusion
The Delorme's procedure is associated with a marked improvement in anal continence, relatively low recurrence rates, and low incidence of postoperative constipation. This allows us to conclude that this procedure still has its own role in selected patients.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.1.13
PMCID: PMC3296936  PMID: 22413077
Incontinence; Delorme's procedure; Rectal prolapse

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