A 27-yr-old postgraduate student was found lying at the floor of an unsealed underground dry area, where a valve-opened empty cylinder of liquid nitrogen (150 L) was connected to a cap-removed empty Dewar-flask (10 L) via a copper infusion tube. No injury was found externally or internally. There were petechiae in the bilateral conjunctivae and periorbital skin. The dry area, measuring 300×130×260 cm, had a communication to the basement of the research building by a window measuring 90×60 cm in size at 130 cm above the floor. The scene reconstruction and atmosphere gas analysis revealed that the O2 concentration at 60 cm above the base dropped to 12.0% in 3 min and 10 sec, 10.0% in 8 min and 53 sec, 6.0% in 18 min and 40 sec, and 4.2% in 20 min and 28 sec. The primary cause of death was asphyxia by evaporated liquid nitrogen.
Asphyxia; Liquid Nitrogen; Gas Analysis; Dry Area
Cell cycle progression is regulated by interactions of specific cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) at the G1-S and G2-M checkpoints and cell cycle deregulation plays a major role in carcinogenesis of human cancers.
Patients and Methods
To investigate the role of cell cycle regulators in the pathogenesis and progression of human gastric cancers, 23 cases of gastric carcinomas were examined for the expression of cyclin B1, p34cdc2, p27Kip1 and p53 by immunohistochemical methods, and gene expression was correlated with various clinicopathologic findings.
Out of 23 cases studied, cyclin B1 was diffusely expressed in 20 cases (87.0%), p34cdc2 in 14 cases (60.9%) and p53 in 12 cases (52.2%), whereas in normal gastric tissues, cyclin B1 and p34cdc2 were weakly expressed and p53 was not expressed. In contrast, p27Kip1 was expressed in only 8.7% of gastric carcinomas compared with 78.3% of normal gastric tissues. There was correlation between the expression of cyclin B1 and expression of p34cdc2 (p = 0.002), between the expression of cyclin B1 and loss of p27Kip1 (p = 0.025), and between the expression of p34cdc2 and loss of p27Kip1 (p = 0.065). In addition, expression of cyclin B1 was correlated with regional lymph node metastasis (p = 0.032).
Our results indicate that cyclin B1 and p34cdc2 are involved in the genesis or progression of gastric cancers. Furthermore, overexpression of cyclin B1 may play an important role in lymph node metastatic potential of gastric cancer. Thus, abnormal expression of cyclin B1 and CDKs, overexpression of p53 and loss of p27Kip1 expression may play important roles in human gastric carcinogenesis.
Gastric cancer; cyclin B1; p34cdc2; p27Kip1; p53
Understanding the biologic behavior of a tumor is a prerequisite for tumor registration code assignment. The aim of this report was to propose appropriate behavior codes of the International Classification of Disease Oncology 3 (ICD-O3) to rare, yet pathologically interesting hematopoietic and soft tissue tumors.
The Study Group for Hematopathology, the Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology Study Group, and the Cancer Registration Committee prepared the questionnaire containing provisional behavior codes of selected diseases.
In situ lesions of mantle cell and follicular lymphomas, dendritic cell tumors, and neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComa), not otherwise specified were classified as malignant (-/3). The fibromatosis group, with the exception of lipofibromatosis, was proposed as benign (-/0). Lipofibromatosis and several diseases that belong to the PEComa group were proposed as uncertain malignant potential (-/1). For the hematologic and soft tissue tumors, 274 and 288 members of the Korean Society of Pathologists, respectively, provided opinions through questionnaire, and most responders showed agreement with the provisional behavior code proposed.
The determination of behavior codes for the rare diseases described in this study, especially those of the PEComa group or malignant lymphoma, could be viewed as impractical and premature, but this study provides the basis for future research on this topic.
ICD-O3; Behavior code; Hematologic malignancy; Soft tissue neoplasms
To investigate the relationships between lymph node metastasis (LNM) and expression of CD31, D2-40 and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF)-A and -C in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
Paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues of 72 patients were evaluated, which included 25 patients with thyroid nodular hyperplasia (TNH), 24 PTC patients without LNM, and 23 PTC patients with LNM. Three pathologists, who were blinded to the patient's clinical information, assessed the immunohistochemical staining results. The amount of expression was scored as high (>25% of cells stained) or low (0-25%).
A higher level of VEGF-A expression was observed in the PTC groups regardless of LNM when compared to the group with TNH (91.3%, 79.2%, 4.0%, respectively). VEGF-C expression in the PTC with LNM group was significantly higher than the other two groups (P<0.05). No difference in microvessel density (MVD) scores was observed using CD31 among the three groups. The lymphatic vessel density (LVD) score using D2-40 was significantly higher in patients having PTC with LNM than the other groups (P<0.05).
VEGF-C and D2-40 were more highly expressed in patients having PTC with LNM than in patients having PTC without LNM or in those having TNH. Analysis of VEGF-C level and LVD using D2-40 may be helpful in the diagnosis of PTC and the evaluation of LNM potential in patients with PTC.
Thyroid; Papillary carcinoma; Lymph node; Metastasis; VEGF-A; VEGF-C
Plastic bronchitis is a rare disease characterized by marked airway obstruction, via the formation of large gelatinous or rigid airway cast. In Korea, there were a few case reports with plastic bronchitis not in adults, but in children. So we report a case of an adult who was diagnosed as plastic bronchitis with eosinophilic casts, with no history of atopic and cardiac disease.
Bronchitis; Etiology; Asthma; Adult
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare malignancy arising from the antigen-presenting cells in the lymph node and extranodal tissue. We describe a 31-year-old male patient who presented with a swelling of the left parapharynx. The radiologic findings showed a 4.7×4.5×1.9 cm-sized, ill-defined mass in the left parapharyngeal space. A fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed and it showed scattered, irregular, cohesive clusters of tumor cells with a spindle-to-ovoid shape with irregular contours in a background of lymphocytes. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm was made. The surgically resected tumor was composed of elongated, ovoid or polygonal cells showing positive immunohistochemistry for CD21, CD23, and CD35. Postoperatively, the residual tumor was observed to undergo a rapidly growth. There is an overlap in the cytologic and histologic findings between FDCS of the parapharynx and other tumors. Pathologists should therefore be aware of its characteristics not only to provide an accurate diagnosis but also to recommend the appropriate clinical management.
Dendritic cell sarcoma, follicular; Extranodal; Parapharynx
The effects of exendin-4 on Sirt1 expression as a mechanism of reducing fatty liver have not been previously reported. Therefore, we investigated whether the beneficial effects of exendin-4 treatment on fatty liver are mediated via Sirt1 in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice and related cell culture models. Exendin-4 treatment decreased body weight, serum free fatty acid (FA), and triglyceride levels in HF-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Histological analysis showed that exendin-4 reversed HF-induced hepatic accumulation of lipids and inflammation. Exendin-4 treatment increased mRNA and protein expression of Sirt1 and its downstream factor, AMPK, in vivo and also induced genes associated with FA oxidation and glucose metabolism. In addition, a significant increase in the hepatic expression of Lkb1 and Nampt mRNA was observed in exendin-4-treated groups. We also observed increased expression of phospho-Foxo1 and GLUT2, which are involved in hepatic glucose metabolism. In HepG2 and Huh7 cells, mRNA and protein expressions of GLP-1R were increased by exendin-4 treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Exendin-4 enhanced protein expression of Sirt1 and phospho-AMPKα in HepG2 cells treated with 0.4 mM palmitic acid. We also found that Sirt1 was an upstream regulator of AMPK in hepatocytes. A novel finding of this study was the observation that expression of GLP-1R is proportional to exendin-4 concentration and exendin-4 could attenuate fatty liver through activation of Sirt1.
The molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the initiation and progression of breast cancers are largely unknown. This study was to analyze the cyclin B1, cdc2, p53 and p16 tumor suppressor genes in human breast cancer.
Materials and Methods
To investigate the role of cyclin B1, cdc2, p53 and p16 in the pathogenesis and progression of breast carcinomas, 98 cases of breast cancers were examined by immunohistochemical method. The correlations of cyclin B1, cdc2, p53 and p16 expression with various clinico-pathologic findings were analysed.
In the normal breast tissues, cyclin B1, cdc2 and p16 were weakly expressed, while p53 was not expressed. On the other hand, cyclin B1, cdc2, p53 and p16 were overexpressed in breast cancer, showing correlation between the expression of cyclin B1 and cdc2 and breast cancers (p=0.00). The overexpressions of cdc2 and p16 were correlated with an infiltrative tumor border pattern and this was statistically significant (p<0.05). In addition, the overexpression of cdc2 was correlated with histologic high grade carcinomas (p=0.00).
Cyclin B1 and cdc2 appeared to be involved in the genesis or progression of breast cancers. In addition, the overexpressions of p16 and p53 may play important roles in more aggressive tumor and the overexpression of cdc2 is associated with progression of tumor to a higher grade of breast carcinomas. The deranged overexpressions of cyclin B1, cdc2, p16 and p53 may play an important role in human breast carcinogenesis.
Breast carcinoma; cyclin B1; cdc2; p16; p53; overexpression; prognosis
Because adipose tissue is highly vascularized, modifying adipose tissue vasculature may provide a novel method for reducing body fat. A peptide sequence that elicits apoptosis of endothelium in white fat potently reduced body weight. We sought to determine how inhibiting adipose tissue vasculature changes key aspects of energy balance regulation and the neuroendocrine system that maintains energy balance.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Lean and obese mice or rats were treated with proapoptotic peptide for 4 or 27 days. Daily energy intake and expenditure were measured in mice on a low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) and in rats on a HFD. A conditioned taste aversion test was performed to assess whether proapoptotic peptide produces visceral illness. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and proopiomelanocoritin (POMC) mRNA expression and plasma leptin levels were evaluated.
Proapoptotic peptide completely reversed HFD-induced obesity in mice and reduced body weight in mice and rats on a HFD but not in those on a LFD. Fat loss occurred with no change of energy expenditure but reduced food intake that occurred without signs of illness and despite reduced circulating leptin and reduced hypothalamic POMC gene expression, indicating that the decrease in food intake is independent of the action of leptin.
These experiments provide compelling evidence for a previously unknown relationship between the status of adipose tissue vasculature and the regulation of food intake.
This study was performed in order to assess whether acute stress can increase mast cell and enterochromaffin (EC) cell numbers, and proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expression in the rat colon. In addition, we aimed to investigate the involvement of corticotrophin-releasing factor in these stress-related alterations. Eighteen adult rats were divided into 3 experimental groups: 1) a saline-pretreated non-stressed group, 2) a saline-pretreated stressed group, and 3) an astressin-pretreated stressed group. The numbers of mast cells, EC cells, and PAR2-positive cells were counted in 6 high power fields. In proximal colonic segments, mast cell numbers of stressed rats tended to be higher than those of non-stressed rats, and their PAR2-positive cell numbers were significantly higher than those of non-stressed rats. In distal colonic segments, mast cell numbers and PAR2-positive cell numbers of stressed rats were significantly higher than those of non-stressed rats. Mast cell and PAR2-positive cell numbers of astressin-pretreated stressed rats were significantly lower than those of saline-pretreated stressed rats. EC cell numbers did not differ among the three experimental groups. Acute stress in rats increases mast cell numbers and mucosal PAR2 expression in the colon. These stress-related alterations seem to be mediated by release of corticotrophin-releasing factor.
Corticotropin-releasing Factor; Enterochromaffin Cells; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Mast cells; Receptor, PAR-2; Stress
A wide range of evidence points to a role for GLP-1 to regulate food intake. Anorectic effects of GLP-1 are most apparent when the peptide is administered directly into the central nervous system (CNS), but suppression of food intake has also been noted in some cases with peripheral administration. It is unclear which GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1r) population mediates the effects of plasma GLP-1, although direct actions to activate CNS neurons have been demonstrated. More recently several groups have demonstrated that GLP-1 can activate peripheral nerves in the hepatic portal vein to regulate glucose metabolism. To test the hypothesis that GLP-1 receptors on nerve terminals in the hepatic portal affect feeding behavior, we compared the effects of direct infusions into hepatic portal and jugular veins in rats. Jugular GLP-1 decreased food intake at doses as low as 10 μg from 0.5-4 hours into the dark cycle, whereas portal GLP-1 decreased food intake only at the highest dose tested (100 μg). The blockade of endogenous GLP-1 action before or during eating by infusing dH-Ex, GLP-1 receptor antagonist, into either jugular or portal vein did not cause any change in food intake during either the dark or light cycles. Taken together, these data suggest that while peripheral GLP-1 may be involved in the regulation of food intake, the key GLP-1 receptors are unlikely to be those associated with vagal afferent nerves innervating the hepatic portal vein.
OBJECTIVE—Ingested glucose is detected by specialized sensors in the enteric/hepatoportal vein, which send neural signals to the brain, which in turn regulates key peripheral tissues. Hence, impairment in the control of enteric-neural glucose sensing could contribute to disordered glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the cells in the brain targeted by the activation of the enteric glucose-sensing system.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We selectively activated the axis in mice using a low-rate intragastric glucose infusion in wild-type and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor knockout mice, neuropeptide Y–and proopiomelanocortin–green fluorescent protein–expressing mice, and high-fat diet diabetic mice. We quantified the whole-body glucose utilization rate and the pattern of c-Fos positive in the brain.
RESULTS—Enteric glucose increased muscle glycogen synthesis by 30% and regulates c-Fos expression in the brainstem and the hypothalamus. Moreover, the synthesis of muscle glycogen was diminished after central infusion of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1Rc) antagonist Exendin 9-39 and abolished in GLP-1Rc knockout mice. Gut-glucose–sensitive c-Fos–positive cells of the arcuate nucleus colocalized with neuropeptide Y–positive neurons but not with proopiomelanocortin-positive neurons. Furthermore, high-fat feeding prevented the enteric activation of c-Fos expression.
CONCLUSIONS—We conclude that the gut-glucose sensor modulates peripheral glucose metabolism through a nutrient-sensitive mechanism, which requires brain GLP-1Rc signaling and is impaired during diabetes.
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a rare group of heritable mechanobullous disorders that are characterized by blistering and scarring of the skin and mucosae and these lesions are induced by minor trauma, DEB is also associated with nail dystrophy. DEB can be inherited either in an autosomal recessive or dominant fashion. Regardless of the mode of inheritance, DEB is caused by defects of the ultrastructural entity known as the anchoring fibril, which results in separation of the sublamina densa. Recessive DEB (RDEB) is classified into Hallopeau-Siemens and non-Hallopeau-Siemens. We herein report on a case of non-Hallopeau-Siemens RDEB and there was no family history of this malady, and we present the clinical, histological and electron microscopy findings.
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa; Non-Hallopeau-Siemens
Although germline mutations of met proto-oncogene on human chromosome 7q31-34 have been known as useful molecular markers of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the expression of MET, a product of met proto-oncogene, has not been fully studied in sporadic RCC, along with its clinical significance. We investigated the expression of MET by immunohistochemistry in 182 cases of renal neoplasm encompassing 145 RCC, 25 urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis, and 12 oncocytomas. MET was diffusely and strongly expressed in 90% of papillary RCC, all collecting duct carcinomas, and 92% of urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis. On the contrary, clear cell RCC, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytomas were negative or focally positive for MET expression. In clear cell RCC, MET expression was positively correlated with high nuclear grade, presence of infiltrative growth, tumoral necrosis, papillary architecture, sarcomatoid component, tumoral involvement of the renal pelvis or ureter, involvement of the calyx, and lymphatic invasion. In conclusion, diffuse and strong expression of MET in papillary RCC and collecting duct carcinoma might be helpful in discriminating from the other subtypes of RCC with tubular or papillary growth. In case of MET expression observed in clear cell RCC, it might correlate with those clinicopathological parameters implying aggressive behavior.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Neoplasms; Kidney; Immunohistochemistry
Prednisone or prednisolone are the mainstay drug treatments for autoimmune hepatitis in children. However, long-term use of corticosteroid is associated with the risk of steroid-induced toxicities, and this situation requires newer immuno-suppressive agents for the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis, especially in growing children. An 11-yr-old Korean girl with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis discontinued prednisolone due to toxicities, i.e., hirsutism, buffalo hump, and skin striae, and remained clinical and biochemical remission under replacement of deflazacort and ursodeoxycholic acid combination therapy. A follow-up liver biopsy after 19 months of deflazacort and ursodeoxycholic acid treatment showed histologic remission.
Hepatitis, Autoimmune; deflazacort; Child
Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused by ingestion of raw fish infected with anisakid larvae. Endoscopic changing patterns of submucosal lesions in chronic gastric anisakiasis have not been known yet. Here we report 4 cases of suspected gastric anisakiasis which were improved during follow-up periods without surgical treatment. The patients presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after consuming raw marine fish, and visited our gastroenterology outpatient department. Their endoscopic findings showed firm and yellowish submucosal masses accompanied with eccentric erosions. Histologic findings showed severe eosinophilic infiltrations. In blood tests, peripheral eosinophil counts and total IgE levels were elevated. We believed that all cases were caused by larval anisakid infections. The submucosal mass lesions disappeared during the follow-up periods of 2 to 4 mo.
Anisakis; parasite; submucosal tumor; stomach; case report
Purpose: To investigate the difference of in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes, we compared maturation, fertilization, development, and maternal gene expression from both in vitro and in vivo grown mouse oocytes.
Methods: The preantral follicles isolated from 12-day-old mice were cultured on Transwell-COL membrane inserts. After culture, maturation, fertilization, and developmental rates were assessed. RT-PCR (reverse transcription—polymerase chain reaction) was performed to examine the expression of β-actin, GDF-9, and IGF-II in matured oocytes.
Results: No difference in the nuclear maturation was detected between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes, but the mean oocyte diameter of the in vitro group was smaller than that of the in vivo group. The fertilization rate was significantly lower in the in vitro group than in the in vivo group (p < 0.05). The capacities of in vitro grown oocyte to cleave and develop to blastocysts were significantly lower than those of the in vivo grown oocytes (p < 0.001). Moreover, blastocyst of in vitro group had fewer total cells than those of in vivo group (p < 0.05). In regards to the expression of genes in mature oocytes, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) expression was similar between the two groups, but β-actin was significantly reduced in the in vitro group compared to the in vivo group. Particularly, the expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) was not found in the in vitro grown oocytes.
Conclusions: These results showed that in vitro grown oocytes did not have the same developmental capacity as in vivo grown oocytes. We assume that the aberrant expression of maternal-derived genes in the in vitro grown oocytes may cause the poor embryo viability.
Gene expression; in vitro; maturation; mouse; preantral follicle
We report a case of huge pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with multilocular cysts in a 38-yr-old male patient. The lobectomy specimen of the left lower lobe showed a large multilocular cystic mass, 11.5 × 10 cm in size. The mass had thin-walled, variable-sized cysts and areas of solid cartilaginous small nodules in the interstitium, which occupied the superior segment and the upper portion of the basal segment. There was no connection with bronchus or vessel. Microscopically, the cysts and cleft-like spaces were lined by ciliated columnar epithelium and the solid components were composed of cartilage, myxohyalinized connective tissue, and adipose tissue. Also seen were foci of calcification within the sclerotic stroma.
Hamartoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cysts
Collagenous gastritis, a counterpart of collagenous colitis, is an extremely rare disorder. The first case of collagenous gastritis in a Korean boy in his pre-teens who had been receiving treatment for refractory iron deficiency anemia has been reported. The patient had been suffering from intermittent abdominal pain, recurrent blood-tinged vomiting and poor oral intake. The gastric endoscopy revealed diffuse cobble-stone appearance of the mucosa with easy touch bleeding throughout the stomach but no abnormalities in the esophagus, duodenum, and colon. Pathologic examination of the gastric biopsies from the antrum, body and cardia showed a subepithelial collagen deposition with entrapped dilated capillaries, moderate infiltrates of lymphoplasma cells and eosinophils of the lamina propria, and marked hypertrophy of the muscularis mucosa. The collagen deposition appeared as discontinuous bands with focally irregular extension into the deeper part of the antral mucosa. It measured up to 150 µm. Helicobacter pylori infection was not detected. The biopsies from the duodenum, esophagus and colon revealed no pathologic abnormalities.
Gastritis; Gastritis, Collagenous; Child; Endoscopy
A rare human case of gastroenteritis and eosinophilic ascites associated with gastric trichuriasis is described. The patient was a 32-yr-old woman who was working in a farm near Pohang, Korea. She complained of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. Endoscopic examination found focal linear hyperemia on the mucosa of the stomach antrum, and endoscopic biopsy confirmed eosinophilic inflammation of the mucosa and submucosa of the stomach, terminal ileum, and cecum. The biopsy specimen of the stomach included a female Trichuris trichiura which was covered by many inflammatory cells on its surface. Ascites and intestinal wall thickening was found by CT scan, and Douglas pouch centesis aspirated bloody ascites which included many eosinophils. She was medicated with prednisolone and albendazole and cured. She is the first case of eosinophilic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and ascites associated with trichuriasis in the stomach.