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1.  Favorable Vocal Fold Wound Healing Induced by Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection 
Objectives
To introduce a new injection material for vocal fold diseases, which could be readily translated to clinical practice, we investigated the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection on the injured vocal fold in terms of histological recovery.
Methods
Blood samples were drawn from New Zealand White rabbits and PRP was isolated through centrifugation and separation of the samples. Using a CO2 laser, we made a linear wound in the 24 vocal fold sides of 12 rabbits and injected each wound with PRP on one vocal fold side and normal saline (NS) on the other. Morphologic analyses were conducted at 2, 4, and 12 weeks after injection, and inflammatory response, collagen deposit, and changes in growth factors were assessed using H&E and masson trichrome (MT) staining and western blot assay.
Results
PRP was prepared in approximately 40 minutes. The mean platelet concentration was 1,315,000 platelets/mm3. In morphological analyses, decreased granulation was observed in the PRP-injected vocal folds (P<0.05). However, the irregular surface and atrophic change were not difference. Histological findings revealed significant inflammation and collagen deposition in NS-injected vocal folds, whereas the PRP-injected vocal folds exhibited less (P<0.05). However, the inflammatory reaction and fibrosis were not difference. In western blot assay, increased amounts of growth factors were observed in PRP-injected vocal folds.
Conclusion
Injection of injured rabbit vocal folds with PRP led to improved wound healing and fewer signs of scarring as demonstrated by decreased inflammation and collagen deposition. The increased vocal fold regeneration may be due to the growth factors associated with PRP.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2014.7.1.47
PMCID: PMC3932349  PMID: 24587881
Vocal fold; Scar; Wound healing; Growth factor; Platelet-rich plasma
2.  Autologous Platelet-Poor Plasma Gel for Injection Laryngoplasty 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(6):1516-1523.
Purpose
To overcome the potential disadvantages of the use of foreign materials and autologous fat or collagen, we introduce here an autologous plasma gel for injection laryngoplasty. The purpose of this study was to present a new injection material, a plasma gel, and to discuss its clinical effectiveness.
Materials and Methods
From 2 mL of blood, the platelet poor serum layer was collected and heated at 100℃ for 12 min to form a plasma gel. The plasma gel was then injected into a targeted site; the safety and efficacy thereof were evaluated in 30 rats. We also conducted a phase I/II clinical study of plasma gel injection laryngoplasty in 11 unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients.
Results
The plasma gel was semi-solid and an easily injectable material. Of note, plasma gel maintains the same consistency for up to 1 year in a sealed bottle. However, exposure to room air causes the plasma gel to disappear within 1 month. In our animal study, the autologous plasma gel remained in situ for 6 months in animals with minimal inflammation. Clinical study showed that vocal cord palsy was well compensated for with the plasma gel in all patients at two months after injection with no significant complications. Jitter, shimmer, maximum, maximum phonation time (MPT) and mean voice handicap index (VHI) also improved significantly after plasma gel injection. However, because the injected plasma gel was gradually absorbed, 6 patients needed another injection, while the gel remained in place in 2 patients.
Conclusion
Injection laryngoplasty with autologous plasma gel may be a useful and safe treatment option for temporary vocal cord palsy.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.6.1516
PMCID: PMC3809861  PMID: 24142660
Plasma gel; injection; vocal cord palsy; laryngoplasty; acoustical analysis
3.  Definitive Radiation Therapy for Early Glottic Cancer: Experience of Two Fractionation Schedules 
Objectives
The authors would report the results of definitive radiation therapy (RT) for early glottic cancer by two different radiation dose schedules.
Methods
From February of 1995 till June of 2008, 157 patients with T1-2N0 glottic cancer were treated with curative RT at Samsung Medical Center. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, and there were 89 patients (56.7%) with T1a, 36 (22.9%) with T1b, and 32 (20.4%) with T2. Two different radiation dose schedules were used: 70 Gy in 35 fractions to 64 patients (40.8%, group A); and 67.5 Gy in 30 fractions to 93 patients (59.2%, group B). The median treatment durations were 50 days (range, 44 to 59 days) and 44 days (range, 40 to 67 days) in the groups A and B, respectively.
Results
The median follow-up durations were 85 and 45 months for the groups A and B. No severe late complication of RTOG grade 3 or higher was observed, and there was no difference in acute or chronic complication between the groups. Twenty-four patients experienced treatment failure: local recurrence only in 19 patients; regional recurrence only in one; combined local and regional recurrence in four; and systemic metastasis in none. The overall 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates were 84.7% and 94.8%. The disease-free survival rate in the group B was better (78.3% vs. 90.8%, P=0.031). This difference was significant only in T1 stage (83.4% vs. 94.6%, P=0.025), but not in T2 (62.7% vs. 60.6%, P=0.965). Univariate analysis showed that the tumor extent, cord mobility, T-stage, and the dose schedule had significant influence on the disease-free survival, and multivariate analysis showed that only the tumor extent and the dose schedule were associated with the disease-free survival.
Conclusion
Superior disease-free survival could be achieved by 2.25 Gy per fraction without increased toxicity over shorter RT duration, when compared with 2.0 Gy per fraction.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2012.5.2.94
PMCID: PMC3380119  PMID: 22737290
Laryngeal neoplasms; Radiotherapy; Dose fractionation
4.  Treatment Results of Major Salivary Gland Cancer by Surgery with or without Postoperative Radiation Therapy 
Objectives
This is to report treatment results of major salivary gland cancer by surgery with or without postoperative radiation therapy (PORT).
Methods
Between March 1995 and January 2006, 94 patients with primary major salivary cancer underwent curative surgical resection at Samsung Medical Center. The parotid gland was the most commonly involved (73, 77.7%), followed by the submandibular and the sublingual. Neck dissection was added in 28 patients, and PORT was individually recommended to those with risk factors. Seventy-five (79.8%) patients received PORT. PORT volume included primary tumor bed and pathologically involved regional lymphatics, and no additional effort was made for elective nodal irradiation. The median total doses were 56.0 Gy to primary site and 58.7 Gy to regional lymphatics.
Results
After median follow-up of 49 months, 21 patients had relapsed: 20 in PORT; and one in surgery alone group. As the first site of failure, distant metastasis was the most common (17 patients). Local recurrence occurred in three, and regional relapse in one. The lung was the most common site (10 patients), followed by the bone, and the brain. Five-yr disease free survival (DFS), local control, and overall survival (OS) rates were 74.4% and 94.7%, 96.0% and 100%, and 78.2% and 100% in PORT and surgery alone groups, respectively. On multivariate analysis, DFS was significantly affected by pN+ (hazard ratio [HR], 3.624; P=0.0319), while OS was by pN+ (HR, 7.138; P=0.0034) and perineural invasion (HR, 5.073; P=0.0187).
Conclusion
Based on our experience, the patients with early stage major salivary gland cancer with low risk can be effectively treated by surgery alone, and those who with risk factors can achieve excellent local and regional control by adding PORT. Omitting elective neck irradiation in patients with N0 disease seems a feasible strategy under accurate clinical evaluation. An effort is needed to decrease distant metastasis through further clinical trials.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2010.3.2.96
PMCID: PMC2896740  PMID: 20607079
Salivary gland cancer; Postoperative radiation therapy; Elective neck irradiation; Local control; Distant metastasis
5.  The Clinical Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the Evaluation of Lymph Node Metastasis in Periorbital Malignancies 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2009;10(1):1-7.
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical role of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of lymph node metastasis in periorbital malignancies, compared with CT alone.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed eighteen PET/CT and CT scans in 15 patients with biopsy-proven periorbital malignancies. We compared the diagnostic capabilities of PET/CT and CT with regard to nodal metastasis by level-by-level analysis and by N staging prediction. The reference standards were surgical pathology (n = 7) from dissected lymph node specimens and the results from radiological follow-up (n = 11, mean 20.5 months; range 10-52 months). Moreover, any changes in patient care as prompted by PET/CT were recorded and compared with treatment planning for CT alone.
Results
PET/CT had a sensitivity of 100%, while CT had a sensitivity of 57% (p = 0.03) for nodal metastasis by level-by-level analysis. PET/CT had a specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 93%, negative predictive value of 100%, and diagnostic accuracy of 98%, while the CT values for these same parameters were 97%, 89%, 82%, and 84%, respectively. PET/CT correctly predicted N staging with an accuracy of 100%, while CT was only 83% accurate (p = 0.01). Regarding the impact on patient care, the extent of surgery for regional lymph nodes and the treatment decision were modified by PET/CT in 39% of patients.
Conclusion
PET/CT could provide useful information in the management of regional lymph node metastases in patients with periorbital malignancies.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2009.10.1.1
PMCID: PMC2647179  PMID: 19182496
18F-FDG; PET/CT; Computed tomography (CT) scans; Lymphatic Metastasis; Eyelid Neoplasm
6.  Combined 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging for the Initial Evaluation of Glottic Cancer 
Objectives
The primary aim of this study was to determine whether 18F-FDG-PET/CT (PET/CT) scans provide additional diagnostic information in addition to the direct laryngoscopic examination (L/E) and contrast-enhanced CT (CT) in patients with glottic cancer during the initial evaluation.
Methods
Fifty-five consecutive patients with glottic cancer of the larynx that had L/E, CT and PET/CT were enrolled. The diagnostic value of each modality was compared for their accuracy in predicting the extent of the primary tumors on sub-site based analysis and the final tumor staging. The reference standards were either the surgical pathology findings or clinical/radiological follow-up outcome. Changes in patient care based on PET/CT results were compared with the treatment decisions based on L/E with CT.
Results
For primary tumor sub-site based analysis, the sensitivity was significantly higher for L/E (92.8%) than for PET/CT (79.4%, P=0.028). The comparisons between L/E vs. CT and CT vs. PET/CT did not reach statistical significance. As an initial tumor-staging method the L/E had a diagnostic accuracy of 76.4%, compared to 61.8% for CT and 41.8% for PET/CT. The L/E and CT were better than the PET/CT (P=0.0009 and 0.049) for the initial TNM staging. PET/CT scanning changed the clinical decision-making based on the L/E with CT results in 12.7% of cases, of whom 5.5% had no additional PET/CT related benefit.
Conclusion
The results of this study showed that PET/CT imaging added no clinical information benefit compared to the L/E and CT for the initial evaluation of patients with glottic cancer.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2008.1.1.35
PMCID: PMC2671758  PMID: 19434260
Positron emission tomography; Tomography; X-ray computed; Laryngoscopy; Laryngeal neoplasms; Glottis
7.  Sentinel Lymph Node Radiolocalization with 99mTc Filtered Tin Colloid in Clinically Node-Negative Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(5):865-870.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy by using a radiotracer lymphatic mapping technique in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, and the diagnostic value of this technique. We studied twenty patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and N0 necks. After the peritumoral injection of 99mTc filtered tin colloid preop-eratively, lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative mapping using a gamma detector were performed to localize sentinel nodes. An open biopsy of the sentinel node was followed by complete neck dissection. We identified the sentinel nodes in 19 of 20 patients (95.0%) by lymphoscintigraphy and in all (100%) by intraoperative gamma detector. In all cases, the status of the sentinel node accurately predicted the pathologic status of the neck with the false negative rate being 0%. The negative predictive value for the absence of cervical metastases was 100%. In conclusion, our radio-localization technique of sentinel nodes using 99mTc filtered tin colloid in N0 squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity is technically feasible and appears to accurately predict the presence of the occult metastatic disease.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.5.865
PMCID: PMC2721997  PMID: 17043421
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy; Lymphatic Metastasis; Mouth Neoplasms; Radionuclide Imaging

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