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1.  Initial Experience with Magnetic Resonance-Guided Vacuum-Assisted Biopsy in Korean Women with Breast Cancer 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2014;17(3):270-278.
The aim of this study is to describe our initial experience with magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy and to determine the malignancy rate of additional lesions identified by MR only in Korean women with breast cancer.
A retrospective review identified 22 consecutive patients with breast cancer who had undergone MR-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (VAB) of MR-only identified lesions from May 2009 to October 2011.We evaluated the rate of compliance, the technical success for MR-guided VAB and the MR imaging findings of the target lesions. VAB histology was compared with surgical histology and follow-up imaging findings.
The biopsy recommendations for MR-only identified lesions were accepted in 46.8% (22/47) of patients. One of 22 procedures failed due to the target's posterior location. Among 21 MR-guided VAB procedures, the target lesions were considered as a mass in 12 cases and a nonmass enhancement in nine cases. VAB histology revealed malignancies in 14% (3/21) of cases, high-risk lesions in 24% (5/21) and benign lesions in 62% (13/21). Eleven cases (52%, 11/21) had a positive surgical correlation, and one of them was upgraded from atypical ductal hyperplasia to invasive ductal carcinoma. In the remaining 10 lesions, follow-up breast ultrasound and mammography were available (range, 15-44 months; mean, 32.1 months) and did not show suspicious lesions. The final malignancy rate was 19% (4/21).
MR-guided VAB for MR-only identified lesions yielded a 19% malignancy rate in Korean women with breast cancer. MR-guided VAB helps surgeons avoid an unnecessary wide excision or additional excisional biopsy.
PMCID: PMC4197358  PMID: 25320626
Breast neoplasms; Image-guided biopsy; Interventional magnetic resonance imaging
2.  Comparison of New and Established Full-Field Digital Mammography Systems in Diagnostic Performance 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2013;14(2):164-170.
To compare the diagnostic performance of new and established full-field digital mammography (FFDM) systems.
Materials and Methods
During a 15-month period, 1038 asymptomatic women who visited for mammography were prospectively included from two institutions. For women with routine two-view mammograms from established FFDM systems, bilateral mediolateral oblique (MLO) mammograms were repeated using the new FFDM system. One of the four reviewers evaluated two-sets of bilateral MLO mammograms at 4-week intervals by using a five-point score for the probability of malignancy according to a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The lesion type and breast density were determined by the consensus of two readers at each institution. The dichotomized mammographic results correlated with a final pathologic outcome and follow-up data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, and specificity were compared in general and according to the lesion type and breast density.
Of the 1038 cases, 193 (18.6%) had cancer. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the established system were 0.815, 65.3%, and 90.2%, respectively. Those of the new system were 0.839, 68.4%, and 91.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the AUCs, sensitivities or the specificities in general between new and established systems (Ps = 0.194, 0.590, 0.322, respectively). We found no significant difference in these parameters according to lesion type or breast density.
The new FFDM system has a comparable diagnostic performance with established systems.
PMCID: PMC3590326  PMID: 23482833
Breast; Digital mammography; FFDM; Analysis; Comparison
3.  Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2010;11(5):579-582.
A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on initial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC2930170  PMID: 20808705
Papillary thyroid carcinoma; Diffuse sclerosing variant; Ultrasonography
4.  Targeted Ultrasound for MR-Detected Lesions in Breast Cancer Patients 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(6):475-483.
To investigate the usefulness of targeted ultrasound (US) in the identification of additional suspicious lesions found by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in breast cancer patients and the changes in treatment based on the identification of the lesions by the use of targeted US.
Materials and Methods
One-hundred forty nine patients who underwent breast MR imaging for a preoperative evaluation of breast cancer between January 2002 and July 2004 were included in the study. We searched all cases for any additional lesions that were found initially by MR imaging and investigated the performance of targeted US in identifying the lesions. We also investigated their pathological outcomes and changes in treatment as a result of lesion identification.
Of the 149 patients with breast cancer, additional suspicious lesions were detected with MR imaging in 62 patients (42%). Of the 69 additional lesions found in those 62 patients, 26 (38%) were confirmed as cancers by histology. Thirty-eight lesions in 31 patients were examined with targeted US and were histologically revealed as cancers in 18 (47%), high risk lesions in two (5%), benign lesions in 15 (39%), and unidentified lesions in three (8%). The cancer rate was statistically higher in lesions with a US correlate than in lesions without a US correlate (p = 0.028). Of 31 patients, the surgical plan was altered in 27 (87%). The use of targeted US justified a change in treatment for 22 patients (81%) and misled five patients (19%) into having an unnecessary surgical excision.
Targeted US can play a useful role in the evaluation of additional suspicious lesions detected by MR imaging in breast cancer patients, but is limited in lesions without a US correlate.
PMCID: PMC2627449  PMID: 18071277
Breast cancer; Magnetic resonance (MR); Ultrasound (US)
5.  Breast MRI for Evaluating Patients with Metastatic Axillary Lymph Node and Initially Negative Mammography and Sonography 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(5):382-389.
We wanted to investigate the ability of breast MR imaging to identify the primary malignancy in patients with axillary lymph node metastases and initially negative mammography and sonography, and we correlated those results with the conventional imaging.
Materials and Methods
From September 2001 to April 2006, 12 patients with axillary lymph node metastases and initially negative mammography and sonography underwent breast MR imaging to identify occult breast carcinoma. We analyzed the findings of the MR imaging, the MR-correlated mammography and the second-look sonography. We followed up both the MR-positive and MR-negative patients.
MR imaging detected occult breast carcinoma in 10 of 12 (83%) patients. Two MR-negative patients were free of carcinoma in the ipsilateral breast during their follow-up period (39 and 44 months, respectively). In nine out of 10 patients, the MR-correlated mammography and second-look sonography localized lesions that were not detected on the initial exam. All the non-MR-correlated sonographic abnormalities were benign.
Breast MR imaging can identify otherwise occult breast cancer in patients with metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Localization of the lesions through MR-correlated mammography and second-look sonography is practically feasible in most cases.
PMCID: PMC2626808  PMID: 17923780
Axilla; Breast, MR; Breast neoplasms; Lymph nodes
6.  The Value of Ultrasound-Guided Tattooing Localization of Nonpalpable Breast Lesions 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(4):295-301.
To investigate the value of ultrasound-guided tattooing localization (US-tattoo) using a charcoal suspension for breast lesions.
Materials and Methods
One hundred sixty-four nonpalpable breast lesions in 134 patients (mean age 47 years; range 30-74 years) were marked with a charcoal suspension under US guidance. The medical records associated with the US-tattoo, the pathology results and the follow-up US results were reviewed.
The average size of the localized lesions was 1.0 cm. The procedure time was < 5 minutes (range, 2-10 minutes) per lesion. The US-tattoo was well tolerated in all cases. The only technical difficulty encountered was a needle tip blockage caused by a large charcoal particle (4.9%). The surgeon easily identified the tattoo with the exception one case. In addition, surgery could be safely delayed from one to 57 days after the making US-tattoo. The pathology result was benign in 108 cases, borderline in five, and malignant in 51. The excised specimen was < 4 cm in 76.6% (82/107) of the benign cases (mean; 2.7 cm). The pathologist could identify the mass around the tattoo and was able to make a specific diagnosis in 81.3% (87/107) of benign lesions. The only complication encountered was residual charcoal marking along the incision scar (3.6%). All follow-up US documented the removal of the lesions.
An US-tattoo for nonpalpable breast lesions is a very simple and accurate method that can help surgeons design and schedule an open biopsy.
PMCID: PMC2627157  PMID: 17673840
Breast, nonpalpable lesions; Breast, biopsy; Biopsies, technology
7.  Screen-Film Mammography and Soft-Copy Full-Field Digital Mammography: Comparison in the Patients with Microcalcifications 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2005;6(4):214-220.
We wanted to compare the ability of screen-film mammography (SFM) and soft-copy full-field digital mammography (s-FFDM) on two different monitors to detect and characterize microcalcifications.
Materials and Methods
The images of 40 patients with microcalcifications (three patients had malignant lesion and 37 patients had benign lesion), who underwent both SFM and FFDM at an interval of less than six months, were independently evaluated by three readers. Three reading sessions were undertaken for SFM and for FFDM on a mammography-dedicated review workstation (RWS, 2K×2.5K), and for FFDM on a high-resolution PACS monitor (1.7K×2.3K). The image quality, breast composition and the number and conspicuity of the microcalcifications were evaluated using a three-point rating method, and the mammographic assessment was classified into 4 categories (normal, benign, low concern and moderate to great concern).
The image quality, the number and conspicuity of the microcalcifications by s-FFDM (on the RWS, PACS and both) were superior to those by SFM in 85.0%, 80.0% and 52.5% of the cases, respectively (p < 0.01), and those by the s-FFDM on the two different monitors were similar in 15.0%, 12.5% and 35.0% of the cases, respectively (p > 0.01). The mammographic assessment category for the microcalcifications in the three reading sessions was similar.
s-FFDM gives a superior image quality to SFM and it is better at evaluating microcalcifications. In addition, s-FFDM with the PACS monitor is comparable to s-FFDM with the RWS for evaluating microcalcifications.
PMCID: PMC2684967  PMID: 16374078
Radiography, digital; Mammography; Microcalcification; Screens and films; Breast radiography; Soft copy reading
8.  Stereotactic Core-Needle Biopsy of Non-Mass Calcifications: Outcome and Accuracy at Long-Term Follow-Up 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2003;4(4):217-223.
To determine, by means of long-term follow-up evaluation, the outcome and accuracy of stereotactic core-needle biopsy (SCNB) of non-mass calcifications observed at mammography, and to analyze the factors contributing to false-negative findings.
Materials and Methods
Using a 14-gauge needle, SCNB was performed in cases involving 271 non-mass calcified lesions observed at mammography in 267 patients aged 23-72 (mean, 47) years. We compared the SCNB results with those of long-term follow-up which included surgery, mammography performed for at least six months, and reference to Korean Cancer Registry listings. We investigated the retrieval rate for calcifications observed at specimen mammography and histologic evaluation, and determined the incidence rate of cancer, sensitivity, and the underestimation rate for SCNB. False-negative cases were evaluated in terms of their mammographic findings, the effect of the operators' experience, and the retrieval rate for calcifications.
For specimen mammography and histologic evaluation of SCNB, the retrieval rate for calcifications was, respectively, 84% and 77%. At SCNB, 54 of 271 lesions (19.9%) were malignant [carcinoma in situ, 45/54 (83%)], 16 were borderline, and 201 were benign. SCNB showed that the incidence of cancer was 5.0% (6/120) in the benign mammographic category and 31.8% (48/151) in the malignant category. The findings revealed by immediate surgery and by long-term follow-up showed, respectively, that the sensitivity of SCNB was 90% and 82%. For borderline lesions, the underestimation rate was 10%. For false-negative cases, which were more frequent among the first ten cases we studied (p = 0.01), the most frequent mammographic finding was clustered amorphous calcifications. For true-negative and false-negative cases, the retrieval rate for calcifications was similar at specimen mammography (83% and 67%, respectively; p = 0.14) and histologic evaluation (79% and 75%, respectively; p = 0.47).
In this study group, most diagnosed cancers were in-situ lesions, and long-term follow-up showed that the sensitivity of SCNB was 82%. False-negative findings were frequent during the operators' learning period.
PMCID: PMC2698099  PMID: 14726638
Breast, biopsy; Breast neoplasms, diagnosis; Stereotaxis
9.  Foreign Body Granulomas of the Breast Presenting as Bilateral Spiculated Masses 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2001;2(2):113-116.
In Asia, mammography following the injection of foreign materials into the breasts for cosmetic augmentation is frequently seen and diagnosis based on the typical radiologic findings is straightforward.
We report the unusual radiologic findings in two patients with foreign body granulomas caused by injected foreign materials and discovered incidentally during screening work up. The mammographic findings were bilateral, hyperdense, spiculated masses, with occasional microcalcification, and at sonography, markedly hypoechoic, spiculated solid masses, located near the pectoralis muscle and partly extending into it, were observed. These radiologic findings mimicked malignancy.
PMCID: PMC2718101  PMID: 11752980
Breast, abnormalities; Breast radiography
10.  A New Full-Field Digital Mammography System with and without the Use of an Advanced Post-Processing Algorithm: Comparison of Image Quality and Diagnostic Performance 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(3):305-312.
To compare new full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with and without use of an advanced post-processing algorithm to improve image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank.
Materials and Methods
During a 22-month period, we prospectively enrolled 100 cases of specimen FFDM mammography (Brestige®), which was performed alone or in combination with a post-processing algorithm developed by the manufacturer: group A (SMA), specimen mammography without application of "Mammogram enhancement ver. 2.0"; group B (SMB), specimen mammography with application of "Mammogram enhancement ver. 2.0". Two sets of specimen mammographies were randomly reviewed by five experienced radiologists. Image quality, lesion detection, diagnostic performance, and priority rank with regard to image preference were evaluated.
Three aspects of image quality (overall quality, contrast, and noise) of the SMB were significantly superior to those of SMA (p < 0.05). SMB was significantly superior to SMA for visualizing calcifications (p < 0.05). Diagnostic performance, as evaluated by cancer score, was similar between SMA and SMB. SMB was preferred to SMA by four of the five reviewers.
The post-processing algorithm may improve image quality with better image preference in FFDM than without use of the software.
PMCID: PMC4023048  PMID: 24843234
Breast; Digital mammography; FFDM; Post-processing algorithm; Image quality; Comparison
11.  Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(1):20-28.
Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.
PMCID: PMC3909857  PMID: 24497788
Breast; Extramammary; Metastasis; Ultrasound
12.  Association between BRCA Mutation Status, Pathological Findings, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Patients with Breast Cancer at Risk for the Mutation 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2013;16(3):308-314.
We investigated the relationship between BRCA mutations, pathological findings, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in patients with breast cancer at risk for the mutation.
Genetic testing for BRCA mutations was performed in 275 breast cancer patients with at least one risk factor for the mutation. Using the breast imaging reporting and data system MR lexicon, morphological and kinetic features were reviewed on MRI scans of 230 tumors in 209 patients. The relationship between BRCA mutations, pathologic findings, and MRI data was examined, and disease recurrence was estimated.
BRCA mutations were detected in 48 patients (23.0%), of which 21 (10.0%) were in BRCA1, and 25 (12.0%) in BRCA2. Additionally, two patients (1.0%) had mutations in both genes. Cancers in patients with BRCA1 mutations more frequently showed a higher nuclear grade (p=0.0041), and triple-negative (TN) phenotype (p<0.0001). On MRI scans, the cancers were seen as mass-type in 182 out of 230 lesions (79.1%), and nonmass type in 48 cases (20.9%). Among the features indentified by MRI, rim enhancement was significantly associated with molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry (p<0.0001), and nuclear grade (p=0.0387) in multiple logistic regression analysis. Rim enhancement on MRI, along with advanced pathologic N stage, was associated with increased disease recurrence (p=0.0023) based on multivariate analysis. However, the proportion of mass and nonmass tumors, and the distribution of morphological shape, margin, internal enhancement, and kinetic features assessed by MRI were not different according to BRCA mutation status.
BRCA1 mutations were associated with aggressive pathological characteristics, and the TN phenotype. Rim enhancement was frequently seen on MRI scans of high-grade cancers and in the TN phenotype. And it was a significant predictor of disease recurrence. However, a direct association with BRCA mutations was not observed.
PMCID: PMC3800727  PMID: 24155760
BRCA1 genes; Breast neoplasms; Magnetic resonance imaging; Recurrence
13.  Metastatic Thymoma of the Breast 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2008;9(1):80-83.
Breast metastasis from nonmammary malignant neoplasms is uncommon, and it accounts for approximately 2% of all breast tumors. Distant metastasis of thymoma is very rare, and especially to extrathorcic areas. We report a female who had a metastatic thymoma in her breast 20 years after undergoing resection for a non-invasive thymoma. She presented with a palpable mass in her left breast. Mammography and ultrasonogram showed a lobular mass at the anterior glandular portion. Histological examination after surgical excision revealed a metastatic thymoma.
PMCID: PMC2627170  PMID: 18253080
Breast neoplasm; Breast metastasis; Metastatic thymoma; Recurrent thymoma
14.  Usefulness of Multidetector-row CT in the Evaluation of Reperfused Myocardial Infarction in a Rabbit Model 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2004;5(1):19-24.
To evaluate the usefulness of multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of reperfused myocardial infarction.
Materials and Methods
Eleven rabbits were subjected to 90-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. Multidetector-row CT was performed 31 hours ± 21 after the procedure and pre- and post-contrast multiphase helical CT images were obtained up to 10 min after contrast injection. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days and histochemical staining of the resected specimens was perfomed with 2'3'5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC).
In all 11 cases, the areas of myocardial infarction demonstrated with TTC-staining were identified on the CT images and the lesions showed hypoenhancement on the early phases up to 62 sec and hyperenhancement on the delayed phases of 5 min and 10 min compared with normal myocardial enhancement. The percentage area of the lesion with respect to the left ventricle wall on CT was significantly correlated with that of the TTC-staining results (p < 0.001 for both early and delayed phase CT) according to the generalized linear model analysis. The areas showing hypoenhancement on early CT were significantly smaller than those with hyperenhancement on delayed CT (p < 0.0001).
Multidetector-row CT may be useful in the detection and sizing of reperfused myocardial infarction.
PMCID: PMC2698109  PMID: 15064555
Animals; Computed tomography (CT), multidetector-row; Computed tomography (CT), helical technology; Myocardium, infarction; Myocardium, CT; Heart, CT
15.  Airway Reactivity to Bronchoconstrictor and Bronchodilator: Assessment Using Thin-Section and Volumetric Three-Dimensional CT 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2000;1(3):127-134.
To determine the extent to which thin-section and volumetric three-dimensional CT can depict airway reactivity to bronchostimulator, and to assess the effect of different airway sizes on the degree of reactivity.
Materials and Methods
In eight dogs, thin-section CT scans were obtained before and after the administration of methacholine and ventolin. Cross-sectional areas of bronchi at multiple levels, as shown by axial CT, proximal airway volume as revealed by three-dimensional imaging, and peak airway pressure were measured. The significance of airway change induced by methacholine and ventolin, expressed by percentage changes in cross-sectional area, proximal airway volume, and peak airway pressure was statistically evaluated, as was correlation between the degree of airway reactivity and the area of airways.
Cross-sectional areas of the bronchi decreased significantly after the administration of methacholine, and scans obtained after a delay of 5 minutes showed that normalization was insufficient. Ventolin induced a significant increase in cross-sectional areas and an increase in proximal airway volume, while the effect of methacholine on the latter was the opposite. Peak airway pressure increased after the administration of methacholine, and after a 5-minute delay its level was near that of the control state. Ventolin, however, induced no significant decrease. The degree of airway reactivity did not correlate with airway size.
Thin-section and volumetric spiral CT with three-dimensional reconstruction can demonstrate airway reactivity to bronchostimulator. The degree of reactivity did not correlate with airway size.
PMCID: PMC2718181  PMID: 11752943
Bronchi, CT; Lung, CT; Lung, effects of drugs on CT, three-dimensional
16.  Functional MR Imaging of Working Memory in the Human Brain 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2000;1(1):19-24.
In order to investigate the functional brain anatomy associated with verbal and visual working memory, functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed.
Materials and Methods
In ten normal right handed subjects, functional MR images were obtained using a 1.5-T MR scanner and the EPI BOLD technique. An item recognition task was used for stimulation, and during the activation period of the verbal working memory task, consonant letters were used. During the activation period of the visual working memory task, symbols or diagrams were employed instead of letters. For the post-processing of images, the SPM program was used, with the threshold of significance set at p < .001. We assessed activated brain areas during the two stimulation tasks and compared the activated regions between the two tasks.
The prefrontal cortex and secondary visual cortex were activated bilaterally by both verbal and visual working memory tasks, and the patterns of activated signals were similar in both tasks. The superior parietal cortex was also activated by both tasks, with lateralization to the left in the verbal task, and bilaterally without lateralization in the visual task. The inferior frontal cortex, inferior parietal cortex and temporal gyrus were activated exclusively by the verbal working memory task, predominantly in the left hemisphere.
The prefrontal cortex is activated by two stimulation tasks, and this is related to the function of the central executive. The language areas activated by the verbal working memory task may be a function of the phonological loop. Bilateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortices activated by the visual working memory task may be related to the visual maintenance of objects, representing visual working memory.
PMCID: PMC2718132  PMID: 11752924
Brain, MR; Brain, function

Results 1-16 (16)