Neuroendocrine tumors of the female reproductive tract are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that display various histologic findings and biologic behaviors. In this review, the classification and clinicopathologic characteristics of neuroendocrine tumors of the female reproductive tract are described. Differential diagnoses are discussed, especially for non-neuroendocrine tumors showing high-grade nuclei with neuroendocrine differentiation. This review also discusses recent advances in our pathogenetic understanding of these disorders.
Neuroendocrine tumors; Carcinoma, neuroendocrine; Gynecologic tract; Female reproductive tract
The Surgery Treatment Modality Committee of the Korean Gynecologic Oncologic Group (KGOG) has determined to develop a surgical manual to facilitate clinical trials and to improve communication between investigators by standardizing and precisely describing operating procedures.
The literature on anatomic terminology, identification of surgical components, and surgical techniques were reviewed and discussed in depth to develop a surgical manual for gynecologic oncology. The surgical procedures provided here represent the minimum requirements for participating in a clinical trial. These procedures should be described in the operation record form, and the pathologic findings obtained from the procedures should be recorded in the pathologic report form. Here, we focused on radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy, and we developed a KGOG classification for those conditions.
Manuals as Topic; Gynecologic Surgical Procedures; Hysterectomy, Lymph Node Excision
We report two autopsy cases that revealed the partial absence of the septum pellucidum with ventriculomegaly. In each case, the brain showed mild dilatation of both frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, normal third and fourth ventricles and no aqueductal stenosis. The posterior portion of the septum pellucidum was absent and the fornices were fused in a single midline nodule, abnormally displaced to a caudal position and lodged in the foramina of Monro. The brain base showed no apparent abnormalities; the optic nerves were well developed. We conclude that the caudally displaced fornix in the absence of the septum pellucidum may have intermittently obstructed the foramina of Monro and induced mild ventriculomegaly.
Septum Pellucidum; Fornix, Brain; Hydrocephalus; Ventriculomegaly
The goal of this study was to evaluate the cytomorphologic features of histologically confirmed uterine papillary serous carcinomas (UPSC) of the endometrium. We reviewed cervicovaginal smears from 12 patients with UPSC who had done their cervical smears at six months to a year earlier before the time of diagnosis; nine smears (75%) were diagnosed as positive for malignancy and three smears (25%) were diagnosed as negative. The cervical smears of patients with UPSC revealed frequent papillary clusters that were composed of large pleomorphic tumor cells with prominent nucleoli in a background of necrosis. Other findings revealed from the tests were relatively frequent single malignant cells and bare nuclei. Although the Pap smear is not a sensitive screening test for endometrial carcinoma, we could depend on it to reveal the cytologic features of UPSC which are fairly characteristic and reliable for a preoperative diagnosis of UPSC. Preoperative identification of this poor prognostic variant of endometrial carcinoma may influence the surgical management of these cases and the choice of adjuvant therapy.
Endometrial Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Papillary; Vaginal Smears
Although germline mutations of met proto-oncogene on human chromosome 7q31-34 have been known as useful molecular markers of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the expression of MET, a product of met proto-oncogene, has not been fully studied in sporadic RCC, along with its clinical significance. We investigated the expression of MET by immunohistochemistry in 182 cases of renal neoplasm encompassing 145 RCC, 25 urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis, and 12 oncocytomas. MET was diffusely and strongly expressed in 90% of papillary RCC, all collecting duct carcinomas, and 92% of urothelial carcinomas of renal pelvis. On the contrary, clear cell RCC, chromophobe RCC, and oncocytomas were negative or focally positive for MET expression. In clear cell RCC, MET expression was positively correlated with high nuclear grade, presence of infiltrative growth, tumoral necrosis, papillary architecture, sarcomatoid component, tumoral involvement of the renal pelvis or ureter, involvement of the calyx, and lymphatic invasion. In conclusion, diffuse and strong expression of MET in papillary RCC and collecting duct carcinoma might be helpful in discriminating from the other subtypes of RCC with tubular or papillary growth. In case of MET expression observed in clear cell RCC, it might correlate with those clinicopathological parameters implying aggressive behavior.
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Neoplasms; Kidney; Immunohistochemistry
To investigate what heterogeneity exists in breast cancer, 228 consecutive patients with operable invasive duetal carcinoma (IDC), not otherwise specified, were categorized on the basis of the horizontal progression model of carcinogenesis. Using the reversed Black's nuclear grade (RBNG) in the IDC component and the association of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the patients were classified into pure IDC (IDC de novo or ab initio) as Group I, non-high grade (RBNG 1 and 2) IDC with DCIS as Group II, and high grade (RBNG 3) IDC with DCIS as Group III. The Groups classified in the present study appeared as a prognostic factor independent of known prognostic and predictive factors in multivariate test. Group I had the worst prognosis among the three groups and was the most non-responsive to tamoxifen. After performing stratifying analyses by group, it was found that metastasis-free survival was statistically associated with the status of hormone receptors estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and tamoxifen therapy only in Group II. In addition, the status of c-erbB-2 expression had prognostic significance only within the Group III. Our results may be used to frame an alternative hypothetical model for breast cancer evolution and will lead us to reconsider the tailoring of the comprehensive therapeutic modality used at the present time.
Heterogeneity; Carcinogenesis; Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast; Receptors, Estrogen; Receptors,Progesterone; Nuclear Grade
Multifetal gestations are high-risk pregnancies involving higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and are subject to unique complications including twin oligohydramnios-polyhydramnios sequence, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, acardiac twins, conjoined twins, co-twin demise, and heterotopic pregnancies. The purpose of this study is to describe the prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of these complications.
Twins; Twins, abnormalities; Ultrasound