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1.  Persistent Direction-Fixed Nystagmus Following Canalith Repositioning Maneuver for Horizontal Canal BPPV: A Case of Canalith Jam 
The authors report a 64-year-old man who developed persistent direction fixed nystagmus after a canalith repositioning maneuver for horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV). The patient was initially diagnosed with right HC-BPPV given that the Dix-Hallpike test showed geotropic horizontal nystagmus that was more pronounced on the right side, although the roll test did not show any positional nystagmus. The patient was treated with a canalith repositioning maneuver (Lempert maneuver). The next day, the patient experienced a different character of dizziness, and left-beating spontaneous nystagmus regardless of head position was observed. After a forced prolonged left decubitus and frequent head shaking, his symptoms and nystagmus resolved. This condition, referred to as canalith jam, can be a complication after the repositioning maneuver in patients with BPPV. Atypical positional tests suggest that abnormal canal anatomy could be the underlying cause of canalith jam.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2014.7.2.138
PMCID: PMC4050087  PMID: 24917912
Canalith jam; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; Repositioning maneuver
2.  Clinical Value of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential in Assessing the Stage and Predicting the Hearing Results in Ménière's Disease 
Objectives
Our goal was to find the clinical value of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in Ménière's disease (MD) and to evaluate whether the VEMP results can be useful in assessing the stage of MD. Furthermore, we tried to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of VEMP in predicting hearing outcomes.
Methods
The amplitude, peak latency and interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratio were obtained using cervical VEMP. The VEMP results of MD were compared with those of normal subjects, and the MD stages were compared with the IAD ratio. Finally, the hearing changes were analyzed according to their VEMP results.
Results
In clinically definite unilateral MD (n=41), the prevalence of cervical VEMP abnormality in the IAD ratio was 34.1%. When compared with normal subjects (n=33), the VEMP profile of MD patients showed a low amplitude and a similar latency. The mean IAD ratio in MD was 23%, which was significantly different from that of normal subjects (P=0.01). As the stage increased, the IAD ratio significantly increased (P=0.09). After stratification by initial hearing level, stage I and II subjects (hearing threshold, 0-40 dB) with an abnormal IAD ratio showed a decrease in hearing over time compared to those with a normal IAD ratio (P=0.08).
Conclusion
VEMP parameters have an important clinical role in MD. Especially, the IAD ratio can be used to assess the stage of MD. An abnormal IAD ratio may be used as a predictor of poor hearing outcomes in subjects with early stage MD.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2013.6.2.57
PMCID: PMC3687062  PMID: 23799160
Vestibular evoked myogenic potential; Ménière's disease; Stage; Hearing loss; Vertigo
3.  Hearing Outcomes According to the Types of Mastoidectomy: A Comparison between Canal Wall Up and Canal Wall Down Mastoidectomy 
Objectives
The aim of this study was to compare the hearing outcomes between canal wall up mastoidectmy (CWUM) and canal wall down mastoidectmy (CWDM).
Methods
One hundred seventy one chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients who underwent the second staged ossiculoplasty at least 6 months after mastoidectomy and who had an intact, well aerated tympanic cavity as well as intact mobile stapes at the time of operation were selected from the medical record. Based on the type of mastoid surgery, the patients were categorized into two groups: the CWUM (n=38) and CWDM groups (n=133). The hearing results of the CWUM and CWDM groups were compared using the pre- and post-operative air-bone gap (ABG) at 3 months after ossiculoplasty.
Results
The preoperative ABG in both groups (CWUM and CWDM) were 28.4±15.6 dB and 31.8±14.5 dB, respectively (P=0.18). Both groups didn't show any significant difference (10.9 dB vs. 13.5 dB, respectively) (P=0.21) for the postoperative ABG closure. The proportion of patients with an ABG less than 20 dB was 58.6% of the CWDM patients and 68.4% of the CWUM patients (P=0.25).
Conclusion
The type of mastoid surgery (CWUM and CWDM) did not affect the hearing results of CSOM patients. When choosing the type of mastoidectomy procedure for CSOM surgery, the hearing outcomes are basically the same for both types of procedure.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2010.3.4.203
PMCID: PMC3010539  PMID: 21217961
Hearing; Otitis media; Ossicle; Surgery
4.  The Clinical Usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the Evaluation of Lymph Node Metastasis in Periorbital Malignancies 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2009;10(1):1-7.
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical role of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of lymph node metastasis in periorbital malignancies, compared with CT alone.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed eighteen PET/CT and CT scans in 15 patients with biopsy-proven periorbital malignancies. We compared the diagnostic capabilities of PET/CT and CT with regard to nodal metastasis by level-by-level analysis and by N staging prediction. The reference standards were surgical pathology (n = 7) from dissected lymph node specimens and the results from radiological follow-up (n = 11, mean 20.5 months; range 10-52 months). Moreover, any changes in patient care as prompted by PET/CT were recorded and compared with treatment planning for CT alone.
Results
PET/CT had a sensitivity of 100%, while CT had a sensitivity of 57% (p = 0.03) for nodal metastasis by level-by-level analysis. PET/CT had a specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 93%, negative predictive value of 100%, and diagnostic accuracy of 98%, while the CT values for these same parameters were 97%, 89%, 82%, and 84%, respectively. PET/CT correctly predicted N staging with an accuracy of 100%, while CT was only 83% accurate (p = 0.01). Regarding the impact on patient care, the extent of surgery for regional lymph nodes and the treatment decision were modified by PET/CT in 39% of patients.
Conclusion
PET/CT could provide useful information in the management of regional lymph node metastases in patients with periorbital malignancies.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2009.10.1.1
PMCID: PMC2647179  PMID: 19182496
18F-FDG; PET/CT; Computed tomography (CT) scans; Lymphatic Metastasis; Eyelid Neoplasm

Results 1-4 (4)