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1.  Visceral Fat Thickness Predicts Fatty Liver in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(2):256-261.
Our aim was to study whether visceral adiposity is a predictor of diabetic fatty liver in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, abdominal ultrasonography was used to assess the presence of fatty liver in 1,898 patients with type 2 diabetes. We measured visceral fat thickness by high-resolutional ultrasonography and insulin resistance by Kitt. Half of the cohort had a fatty liver (50.2%). High visceral fat thickness had the highest odds ratio for developing fatty liver in both sexes (odds ratio [S.D]: 3.14 [2.24-4.69], p<0.00 in male, 2.84 [2.04-3.93], p<0.00 in female). In addition, visceral fat thickness of 42.45 and 37.7 mm in men and women, respectively, were chosen as the discriminating value to predict the presence of fatty liver with a sensitivity of 71% and 73% and a specificity of 70% and 70% in men and women, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.759 in men and 0.764 in women. Therefore we could conclude that the degree of visceral adiposity predicts the presence of fatty liver type 2 diabetes mellitus, whether centrally obese or not, suggesting that hepatic fat accumulation in a diabetic fatty liver may be influenced by visceral fat accumulation regardless of waist circumference.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.2.256
PMCID: PMC2526434  PMID: 18437009
Visceral Fat Thickness; Fatty Liver; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
2.  The association of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis with thigh and calf circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes 
Background
The relationship between body composition parameters such as thigh and calf circumference and insulin resistance or atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and thigh and calf circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
A total of 4,427 subjects with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. Insulin sensitivity was assessed according the rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt) determined via the short insulin tolerance test. Biochemical and anthropometric profiles were measured according to a standardized protocol. Visceral fat thickness and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) were measured by ultrasonography.
Results
Insulin sensitivity index (Kitt) was significantly correlated with weight adjusted thigh and calf circumference. Thigh circumference was inversely associated with IMT in men and women and calf circumference was negatively correlated with IMT in women. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that thigh circumference was independently correlated with insulin sensitivity index (Kitt) and IMT. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, thigh circumference was an independent determinant factor for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors.
Conclusions
Thigh and calf circumference were correlated with insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis, and thigh circumference was independently associated with insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-62
PMCID: PMC3444381  PMID: 22682537
Insulin resistance; Intima media thickness; Thigh circumference; Calf circumference; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
4.  Predictive Clinical Parameters for the Therapeutic Efficacy of Sitagliptin in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2011;35(2):159-165.
Background
Sitagliptin is a highly selective dipeptidyl peptide-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that increases blood levels of active glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP), resulting in increased insulin secretion. While studies conducted in other countries have indicated the efficacy and safety of using sitagliptin to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), its predictors of effects to sitagliptin are not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated the predictive clinical parameters for the therapeutic benefits of sitagliptin when added to an ongoing metformin or sulfonylurea therapy in Korean T2DM subjects.
Methods
We obtained data from 251 Korean T2DM subjects who had recently started taking sitagliptin as add-on therapy. Exclusion criteria included any insulin use. Changes in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (ΔFPG) were assessed by comparing baseline levels prior to sitagliptin administration to levels 12 and 24 weeks after treatment. Responders were defined as subjects who experienced decrease from baseline of >10% in ΔHbA1c or >20% in ΔFPG levels at 24 weeks.
Results
We classified 81% of the subjects (204 out of 251) as responders. The responder group had a lower mean body mass index (23.70±2.40 vs. 26.00±2.26, P≤0.01) and were younger (58.83±11.57 years vs. 62.87±12.09 years, P=0.03) than the non-responder group.
Conclusion
In Korean T2DM subjects, sitagliptin responders had lower body mass index and were younger compared to non-responders.
doi:10.4093/dmj.2011.35.2.159
PMCID: PMC3122893  PMID: 21738898
Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Dipeptidyl peptide-4 inhibitor; Sitagliptin
5.  Effect of pioglitazone on serum concentrations of osteoprotegerin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Objective
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as an important regulatory molecule in atherosclerosis. Recent studies report that thiazolidinediones could affect OPG expression. We investigated the relationship between OPG and inflammatory cytokines and the effects of pioglitazone (a PPARγ (PPARG) agonist) versus metformin on serum OPG levels in type 2 diabetic patients.
Design and methods
Sixty-seven type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study. They were assigned to pioglitazone (15 mg/day, n=34) or metformin (1000 mg/day, n=33) during 24 weeks. Various anthropometric and metabolic parameters, OPG, interleukin 6 (IL6), C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were measured at baseline and at 6 months of treatment.
Results
Serum OPG levels correlated significantly with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbAlc, HOMA-IR, IL6, and CRP, and inversely correlated with adiponectin after adjusting for age (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that FPG, HbAlc, and adioponectin were independently correlated with OPG level. After 6 months of treatment, the reduction in FPG and HbAlc levels was similar between the two groups. Pioglitazone treatment significantly increased body mass index (P<0.05) and waist circumference (P<0.05) and decreased triglycerides (P<0.05) and HOMA-IR (P<0.01). The adiponectin concentration was increased (P<0.05), and OPG and CRP levels were decreased in the pioglitazone group (P<0.05), but were unchanged in the metformin group. The changes in serum OPG in the pioglitazone group showed significant correlation with changes in FPG, HbAlc, and adiponectin.
Conclusions
In type 2 diabetic patients, pioglitazone decreases OPG levels, and this decrease in OPG levels might be associated with the increase in adiponectin.
doi:10.1530/EJE-10-0875
PMCID: PMC3000683  PMID: 20961967
6.  Gastric Syphilis Mimicking Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(3):559-562.
Syphilis is an unexpected diagnosis in the stomach, and the reduced incidence of syphilis has made its clinical presentation less widely appreciated. We report a 43-yr-old man suffering from epigastric tenderness with an initial diagnosis of gastric carcinoma; gastric syphilis was confirmed by demonstrating spirochetes in a gastric biopsy specimen by silver impregnation. Excessive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with diffuse thickening of gastric rugae should raise suspicion of gastric syphilis, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse erosive gastritis and infiltrative lesions of the stomach.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.3.559
PMCID: PMC2729968  PMID: 16778406
Stomach; Syphilis; Gastritis; Treponema Pallium

Results 1-6 (6)