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1.  Congenital Peribronchial Myofibroblastic Tumor: A Case Study and Literature Review 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(2):172-176.
Congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor (CPMT) is a benign pulmonary spindle cell neoplasm of intrauterine and perinatal period, which is thought to arise from primitive peribronchial mesenchyme. We present a case detected incidentally in a one-month-old infant. The solid and partially necrotic tumor involved the right middle and lower lobes of the lung with extension to the diaphragm. Histologically, the tumor was composed of fasciculated monotonous spindle cells, proliferating peribronchiolar cartilage and round cells with rich vasculature, and high mitotic activity was identified in the round cell area. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies showed that the spindle cells were myofibroblastic in phenotype. Although the tumor showed several malignant pathological features, recurrence was not observed in the two-year follow-up period, consistent with the benign clinical behavior of CPMT.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.2.172
PMCID: PMC3647131  PMID: 23667378
Congenital tumor; Lung; Peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor
2.  Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(1):20-28.
Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.1.20
PMCID: PMC3909857  PMID: 24497788
Breast; Extramammary; Metastasis; Ultrasound
3.  Association between BRCA Mutation Status, Pathological Findings, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Patients with Breast Cancer at Risk for the Mutation 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2013;16(3):308-314.
Purpose
We investigated the relationship between BRCA mutations, pathological findings, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in patients with breast cancer at risk for the mutation.
Methods
Genetic testing for BRCA mutations was performed in 275 breast cancer patients with at least one risk factor for the mutation. Using the breast imaging reporting and data system MR lexicon, morphological and kinetic features were reviewed on MRI scans of 230 tumors in 209 patients. The relationship between BRCA mutations, pathologic findings, and MRI data was examined, and disease recurrence was estimated.
Results
BRCA mutations were detected in 48 patients (23.0%), of which 21 (10.0%) were in BRCA1, and 25 (12.0%) in BRCA2. Additionally, two patients (1.0%) had mutations in both genes. Cancers in patients with BRCA1 mutations more frequently showed a higher nuclear grade (p=0.0041), and triple-negative (TN) phenotype (p<0.0001). On MRI scans, the cancers were seen as mass-type in 182 out of 230 lesions (79.1%), and nonmass type in 48 cases (20.9%). Among the features indentified by MRI, rim enhancement was significantly associated with molecular subtypes based on immunohistochemistry (p<0.0001), and nuclear grade (p=0.0387) in multiple logistic regression analysis. Rim enhancement on MRI, along with advanced pathologic N stage, was associated with increased disease recurrence (p=0.0023) based on multivariate analysis. However, the proportion of mass and nonmass tumors, and the distribution of morphological shape, margin, internal enhancement, and kinetic features assessed by MRI were not different according to BRCA mutation status.
Conclusion
BRCA1 mutations were associated with aggressive pathological characteristics, and the TN phenotype. Rim enhancement was frequently seen on MRI scans of high-grade cancers and in the TN phenotype. And it was a significant predictor of disease recurrence. However, a direct association with BRCA mutations was not observed.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2013.16.3.308
PMCID: PMC3800727  PMID: 24155760
BRCA1 genes; Breast neoplasms; Magnetic resonance imaging; Recurrence
4.  Prediction of outcomes for patients with brain parenchymal metastases from breast cancer (BC): a new BC-specific prognostic model and a nomogram 
Neuro-Oncology  2012;14(8):1105-1113.
The purpose of this study is to validate the recently published Breast–Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) and propose a new prognostic model and nomogram for patients with brain parenchymal metastases (BM) from breast cancer (BC). We retrospectively investigated 171 consecutive patients who received a diagnosis of BM from BC during 2000–2008. We appraised the recently proposed Sperduto's BC-specific GPA in training cohort through Kaplan-Meier survival curve using log-rank test and area under the curve for the BC-GPA predicting overall survival at 1 year and developed a new nomogram to predict outcomes using multivariate Cox-regression analysis. By putting the Sperduto's Breast-GPA together with our nomogram, we developed a new prognostic model. We validated our new prognostic model with an independent external patient cohort from 2 institutes for the same period. On the basis of our Cox-regression analysis, therapeutic effect of trastuzumab and status of extracranial systemic disease control were incorporated into our new prognostic model in addition to Karnofsky performance status, age, and hormonal status. Our new prognostic model showed significant discrimination in median survival time, with 3.7 months for class I (n = 15), 7.8 months for class II (n = 82), 10.7 months for class III (n = 42), and 19.2 months for class IV (n = 32; P < .0001). The new prognostic model accurately predicted survival among patients with BC from BM in an external validation cohort (P < .0001). We propose a new prognostic model and a nomogram reflecting the different biological features of BC, including treatment effect and status of extracranial disease control, which was excellently validated in an independent external cohort.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos137
PMCID: PMC3408262  PMID: 22693244
brain metastasis; breast cancer; HER2; prognosis; trastuzumab
5.  Methylation and Immunoexpression of p16INK4a Tumor Suppressor Gene in Primary Breast Cancer Tissue and Their Quantitative p16INK4a Hypermethylation in Plasma by Real-Time PCR 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(6):554-561.
Background
The p16INK4a gene methylation has been reported to be a major tumorigenic mechanism.
Methods
We evaluated the methylation status of the p16INK4a genes in 231 invasive breast cancer and 90 intraductal carcinoma specimens using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and p16 protein expression using immunohistochemistry. The quantity of cell-free methylated p16INK4a DNA in the plasma samples of 200 patients with invasive breast cancer was also examined using a fluorescence-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.
Results
The frequencies of p16INK4a methylation in invasive and intraductal tumors were 52.8% (122/231) and 57.8% (52/90), respectively. The p16 protein was overexpressed in 145 of the 231 invasive carcinomas (62.8%) and 63 of the 90 intraductal carcinomas (70%). High p16 expression in invasive carcinomas correlated significantly with a high histologic grade, a negative estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, p53 immunoreactivity and high Ki-67 expression with immunohistochemistry. In addition, the methylation index of p16INK4a was significantly higher in the cancer patients than the normal controls (p<0.001).
Conclusions
High p16 immunoreactivity correlated with a loss of differentiation in breast carcinomas and high frequency of p16INK4a promoter methylation in both invasive and intraductal carcinomas, suggesting it may be involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2012.46.6.554
PMCID: PMC3540333  PMID: 23323106
Breast; Neoplasms; p16; Methylation; Immunohistochemistry
6.  HER2 Status by Standardized Immunohistochemistry and Silver-Enhanced In Situ Hybridization in Korean Breast Cancer 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(4):381-387.
Purpose
Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene occurs in 18% to 20% of breast cancers, and it is recognized as a prognostic and predictive marker. We investigated the HER2 status in Korean breast cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH), as the first step toward building a nationwide quality assurance program for HER2 testing.
Methods
A total of 1,198 breast carcinoma samples were collected from six institutions and IHC and SISH were performed using tissue microarrays in central laboratories. The results were compared to those of local laboratories.
Results
Available data were obtained from 959 samples. Central IHC results were negative, equivocal, and positive for 756 (78.8%; range among institutions, 76.8-81.8%), 37 (3.9%; 1.9-6.2%), and 166 (17.3%; 13.6-20%), respectively. SISH results were negative, equivocal, and positive for 756 (78.8%; 77.4-79.9%), 2 (0.2%; 0-0.7%), and 201 (21%; 20.1-22.2%), respectively. HER2 gene amplification was observed in 4.4%, 19%, and 73.9% of the negative, equivocal and positive groups stratified by local IHC results, respectively. When central SISH was considered to be the gold standard method for measuring HER2 status, the false-negative and false-positive rates of local IHC were 14.4% (29/201) and 7.1% (54/756). The concordance rate between central IHC and SISH was 98.4%.
Conclusion
Central IHC and SISH markedly decreased the interlaboratory variability of HER2 status and the results of the two were highly concordant. The quality control program for HER2 testing must be focused on decreasing both the false negativity and positivity of IHC in local laboratories.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2012.15.4.381
PMCID: PMC3542844  PMID: 23346165
Breast neoplasms; HER2 gene; Immunohistochemistry; Silver-enhanced in situ hybridization
7.  Prognostic implications of tumor volume response and COX-2 expression change during radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(4):218-225.
Purpose
The relationship between treatment outcomes, alteration of the expression of biological markers, and tumor volume response during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with uterine cervical cancer was analyzed.
Materials and Methods
Twenty patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma received definitive RT with (n = 17) or without (n = 3) concurrent chemotherapy. Tumor volumes were measured by three serial magnetic resonance imaging scans at pre-, mid-, and post-RT. Two serial punch biopsies were performed at pre- and mid-RT, and immunohistochemical staining for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor was performed. The median follow-up duration was 60 months.
Results
The median tumor volume response at mid-RT (V2R) was 0.396 (range, 0.136 to 0.983). At mid-RT, an interval increase in the distribution of immunoreactivity for COX-2 was observed in 8 patients, and 6 of them showed poor mid-RT tumor volume response (V2R ≥ 0.4). Four (20%) patients experienced disease progression after 10 to 12 months (median, 11 months). All 4 patients had poor mid-RT tumor volume response (p = 0.0867) and 3 of them had an interval increase in COX-2 expression. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) decreased in patients with V2R ≥ 0.4 (p = 0.0291 for both). An interval increase in COX-2 expression at mid-RT was also associated with a decreased survival (p = 0.1878 and 0.1845 for OS and PFS, respectively).
Conclusion
Poor tumor volume response and an interval increase in COX-2 expression at mid-RT decreased survival outcomes in patients with uterine cervical cancer.
doi:10.3857/roj.2012.30.4.218
PMCID: PMC3546291  PMID: 23346542
Uterine cervical neoplasms; Radiotherapy; Volume response; Cyclooxygenase-2
8.  Invasive Pleomorphic Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast: Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis Compared with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma 
Journal of Breast Cancer  2012;15(3):313-319.
Purpose
Invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) is a very rare and distinct morphological variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), characterized by nuclear atypia and pleomorphism contrasted with the cytologic uniformity of ILC. This study evaluated clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of IPLC compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 35 patients with IPLC and 6,184 patients with IDC, not otherwise specified. We compared the clinicopathologic characteristics, relapse-free survival (RFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) of patients who were surgically treated between January 1997 and December 2010.
Results
Patients with IPLC presented at an older age with larger tumor size, worse histologic grade, higher rates of N3 stage, more multifocal/multicentric tumors, and more nipple-areolar complex involvement than those of patients with IDC. During the follow-up period, the IPLC group experienced five cases (14.3%) of disease recurrence and three cases (8.6%) of disease specific mortality compared with 637 cases (10.4%) of recurrence and 333 cases (5.4%) of disease specific mortality in the IDC group. Univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method revealed that the IPLC group showed a significantly poorer prognosis than that of the IDC group (RFS, p=0.008; DSS, p<0.001). However, after adjusting for clinicopathologic factors, a multivariate analysis showed no statistical differences in RFS (p=0.396) and DSS (p=0.168) between the IPLC and the IDC groups.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that patients with IPLC present with poor prognostic factors such as large tumor size, poor histologic grade and advanced stage at diagnosis. These aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics may result in poor clinical outcomes. Although our study could not link IPLC histology to poor prognosis, considering the aggressive characteristics of IPLC, early detection and considerate treatment, including proper surgical and adjuvant intervention, could be helpful for disease progression and survival.
doi:10.4048/jbc.2012.15.3.313
PMCID: PMC3468785  PMID: 23091544
Breast; Lobular carcinoma; Prognosis
9.  PIK3CA mutations in in situ and invasive breast carcinomas 
Cancer research  2010;70(14):5674-5678.
The PIK3 signaling pathway has been identified as one of the most important and most frequently mutated pathways in breast cancer. Somatic mutations in the catalytic subunit of PIK3CA have been found in a significant fraction of breast carcinomas, and it has been proposed that mutant PIK3CA plays a role in tumor initiation. However, the majority of primary human tumors analyzed for genetic alterations in PIK3CA have been invasive breast carcinomas and the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in pre-invasive lesions has not been explored. To investigate this, we sequenced exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA in pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), DCIS adjacent to invasive carcinoma, and invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDC). In a subset of cases both in situ and invasive areas were analyzed from the same tumor. We found that the frequency of PIK3CA mutations was essentially the same (~30%) in all three histologic groups. In some cases in situ and invasive areas of the same tumor were discordant for PIK3CA status and in two cases where multiple invasive and adjacent in situ areas within the same tumor were analyzed independently, we detected intra-tumor heterogeneity for PIK3CA mutations. Our results suggest that mutation of PIK3CA is an early event in breast cancer that is more likely to play a role in breast tumor initiation than in invasive progression, although a potential role for exon 9 mutations in the progression of a subset of DCIS cases cannot be excluded.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2660
PMCID: PMC2905503  PMID: 20551053
DCIS; PIK3CA; tumor progression; invasion; breast cancer
10.  Implications of Bone-Only Metastases in Breast Cancer: Favorable Preference with Excellent Outcomes of Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer 
Purpose
The aim of the current study was to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes of "bone-only metastases" in patients with breast cancer and to analyze the impact of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status on prognosis.
Materials and Methods
Between 1994 and 2007, of 968 patients with metastatic breast cancer who underwent palliative management at Samsung Medical Center, 565 (57%) relapsed with distant metastases. Of the 968, 146 (15%) had bone-only metastases during a median follow-up period of 75 months. Among the 146 patients with bone-only metastases, 122 (84%) were relapsed patients after curative surgery and 24 (26%) were initially metastatic cases.
Results
The median time from primary surgery to bone-only metastases of the 122 patients was 37 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27 to 46 months). Bone-only metastases were more common in the HR-positive group than in the other subtypes (85% for HR+; 8.2% for HER2+; 6.8% for triple negative. Among all 146 patients, 75 (51%) were treated with hormone therapy. The median post-relapse progression-free survival was 15 months (95%CI, 13 to 17 months). The median overall survival was much longer in the HR+ patients than the HER2+ and triple negative breast cancer patients with marginal statistical significance (65 vs. 40 vs. 40 months, p=0.077).
Conclusion
Breast cancer patients with "bone-only metastases" had excellent clinical outcomes. Further study is now warranted to reveal the underlying biology that regulates the behavior of this indolent tumor, as it should identify 'favorable tumor characteristics' in addition to 'favorable preferential metastatic site.'
doi:10.4143/crt.2011.43.2.89
PMCID: PMC3138922  PMID: 21811424
Bone; Neoplasm metastasis; Breast neoplasms; Estrogen receptors; Progesterone receptors; HER2
12.  Cystatin M loss is associated with the losses of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER4 in invasive breast cancer 
Breast Cancer Research : BCR  2010;12(6):R100.
Introduction
This study was aimed at understanding the clinicopathological significance of cystatin M loss, and investigating possible factors responsible for cystatin M loss in breast cancer.
Methods
The expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, HER4, and cystatin M was retrospectively analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 117 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and in 175 patients with invasive breast cancer (IBC). The methylation status of CST6 gene encoding cystatin M was evaluated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 292 participants and using pyrosequencing in fresh-frozen tumor and matched normal tissues from 51 IBC patients.
Results
Cystatin M loss was found in 9 (8%) of 117 patients with DCIS and in 99 (57%) of 175 with invasive breast cancer (IBC) (P < 0.0001). Cystatin M loss was found in 58 (57%) of 101 HER2-negative IBCs and in 41 (55%) of 74 HER2-positive IBCs, and this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.97). However, cystatin M loss was significantly associated with the loss of ER (P = 0.01), PR (P = 0.002), and HER4 (P = 0.003) in IBCs. Cystatin M loss occurred in 34 (76%) of the 45 HER4-negative IBCs and in 65 (50%) of the 130 HER4-positive IBCs. Multivariate analysis showed that cystatin M loss occurred at a 3.57 times (95% CI = 1.28 to 9.98; P = 0.01) higher prevalence in the triple-negative IBCs of ER, PR, and HER4 than in other subtypes, after adjusting for age. The quantity of CST6 methylation was associated with ER loss (P = 0.0002) in IBCs but not with the loss of PR (P = 0.64) or HER4 (P = 0.87).
Conclusions
The present study suggests that cystatin M loss may be associated with the losses of ER, PR, and HER4 in IBC.
doi:10.1186/bcr2783
PMCID: PMC3046445  PMID: 21092257
13.  Triple-negative, basal-like, and quintuple-negative breast cancers: better prediction model for survival 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:507.
Background
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are known as poor outcome subtypes with a lack of targeted therapy. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding the difference of prognostic significance between TNBCs and BLBCs. In this study, we aimed to characterize the prognostic features of TNBCs, in view of BLBCs and quintuple-negative breast cancers (QNBC/5NPs).
Methods
Using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical analysis, we categorized 951 primary breast cancers into four or five subtypes according to the expression of ER, PR, HER2, and basal markers (CK5/6, EGFR).
Results
The results of this study showed that both TNBCs and BLBCs were associated with high histological and/or nuclear grades. When the TNBCs are divided into two subtypes by the presence of basal markers, the clinicopathologic characteristics of TNBCs were mainly maintained in the BLBCs. The 5-subgrouping was the better prediction model for both disease free and overall survival in breast cancers than the 4-subgrouping. After multivariate analysis of TNBCs, the BLBCs did not have a worse prognosis than the QNBC/5NPs. Interestingly, the patients with BLBCs showed significant adjuvant chemotherapy benefit. In addition, QNBC/5NPs comprised about 6~8% of breast cancers in publicly available breast cancer datasets
Conclusion
The QNBC/5NP subtype is a worse prognostic subgroup of TNBCs, especially in higher stage and this result may be related to adjuvant chemotherapy benefit of BLBCs, calling for caution in the identification of subgroups of patients for therapeutic classification.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-507
PMCID: PMC2957395  PMID: 20860845
14.  The Effect of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression on Tumor Volume Response in Patients Treated with Radiotherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(6):1170-1176.
We investigated the correlation between Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and the tumor response in patients with cervical cancer that were treated with curative radiotherapy (RT). Fifty-seven patients with squamous cell carcinoma were treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy (CRCT, n=29) or RT alone (n=28). The response of each patient was evaluated by three serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations: before the start of RT, at four weeks after the start of RT (mid-RT) and at four weeks after the completion of RT (post-RT). Forty-three patients had positive COX-2 expression. The COX-2 negative patients achieved a higher rate of complete response (CR) at mid-RT than did the COX-2 positive patients (28.6% vs. 7.0%, P=0.054), but not at post-RT (64.3% vs. 69.8%). The initial tumor volume was a significant predictor of CR at mid-RT (P=0.003) and post-RT (P=0.004). The multivariate analysis showed that the initial tumor volume (at mid-RT and post-RT) and CRCT (at post-RT) were significant predictors of CR; however, the COX-2 expression was not. In conclusion, the COX-2 expression status has no significant correlation with the tumor response. Further studies on the changes in COX-2 expression levels during RT may be helpful for determination of its role in the tumor response to treatment and patient prognosis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.6.1170
PMCID: PMC2775869  PMID: 19949677
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms; Cyclooxygenase 2; Radiotherapy; Tumor Burden; Tumor Response
15.  Correlation between tumor volume response to radiotherapy and expression of biological markers in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma 
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology  2009;20(4):215-220.
Objective
To determine the factors associated with tumor volume response to radiotherapy (RT) in cervical cancer patients, and the relationship between the tumor volume response and alteration of the expression of biological markers during RT.
Methods
Twenty consecutive patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received definitive RT were enrolled. Tumor volumes were calculated by MRI examinations performed at the start of RT (pre-RT), at the fourth week of RT (mid-RT), and 1 month after RT completion (post-RT). Two serial punch biopsies were performed at pre- and mid-RT, and immunohistochemical staining was performed for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
Results
For the pre-RT evaluation, fourteen (70%) and eleven (55%) patients showed positive immunoreactivity for COX-2 and EGFR, respectively. Among the seven patients whose median percentage residual tumor at mid-RT (V2R) was greater than 0.5, seven (100%, p=0.0515) and five (71.4%, p=0.3742) patients showed positive immunoreactivity for COX-2 and EGFR, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that positive immunoreactivity for both COX-2 and EGFR at pre-RT were associated with V2R (p=0.0782). For the mid-RT evaluation, eight cases showed an interval increase in the distribution of immunoreactivity for COX-2, and six out of the eight patients had a V2R greater than 0.5 (p=0.2222).
Conclusion
The poor mid-RT tumor response was associated with the coexpression of COX-2 and EGFR.
doi:10.3802/jgo.2009.20.4.215
PMCID: PMC2799019  PMID: 20041097
Cervical cancer; Radiotherapy; Volume response; Cyclooxygenase-2; Epidermal growth factor receptor
16.  Comparison of Her-2, EGFR and Cyclin D1 in Primary Breast Cancer and Paired Metastatic Lymph Nodes: An Immunohistochemical and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(6):1053-1061.
The significant advance in the development of molecular-targeting drugs has made an evaluation of Her-2, EGFR, and cyclin D1 an important clinical issue in breast cancer patients. This study compared the Her-2, EGFR, and cyclin D1 status of primary tumors as well as their matching lymph node metastases using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in 73 breast cancer patients. Her-2, EGFR, and cyclin D1 protein showed a concordance between the primary lesion and the metastatic regional lymph nodes in 82%, 90%, and 63%, respectively. CISH also revealed 92%, 93%, and 85% concordance in the gene amplification status of Her-2, EGFR, and cyclin D1, showing a reasonable agreement between primary tumors and metastatic regional lymph nodes. Although a statistically significant agreement was found in Her-2 expression, a relatively high discordance rate (18%) raises a little concern. Our findings suggest that the Her-2 status can be reliably assessed on primary tumor but a possible difference can be found in Her-2, EGFR, and cyclin D1 status between the primary and the metastatic sites and this possibility should be concerned in patients considering molecular targeted therapy or patients with progress of disease.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.6.1053
PMCID: PMC2610643  PMID: 19119452
CISH; Her-2; EGFR; Cyclin D1; Immunohistochemistry
17.  The Spectrum of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disease in Korea: Incidence of Disease Entities by Age Groups 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2008;23(2):185-192.
This study is to identify the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) and relationships between these diseases in Korea. The EBV status and clinicopathology of 764 patients, including acute EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infections, B-LPD arising in chronic latent EBV infection, T & natural killer (NK) cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), B-NHLs, and Hodgkin's lymphomas (HD), were analyzed. T or NK cell NHLs were the most common forms of EBV-positive NHLs (107/167, 64%); among these, nasal-type NK/T cell lymphomas were the most common (89/107, 83%). According to the age, Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common in early childhood; in teenagers, chronic (active) EBV infection-associated LPD was the most common type. The incidence of NK/T cell lymphoma began to increase from the twenties and formed the major type of EBV-associated tumor throughout life. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma formed the major type in the sixties and seventies. In conclusion, primary infections in early childhood are complicated by the development of CAEBV infections that are main predisposing factors for EBV-associated T or NK cell malignancies in young adults. In old patients, decreased immunity associated with old age and environmental cofactors may provoke the development of peripheral T cell lymphoma, unspecified, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.2.185
PMCID: PMC2526432  PMID: 18436998
Lymphoma; Epstein-Barr Virus; Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic
18.  Metastatic Thymoma of the Breast 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2008;9(1):80-83.
Breast metastasis from nonmammary malignant neoplasms is uncommon, and it accounts for approximately 2% of all breast tumors. Distant metastasis of thymoma is very rare, and especially to extrathorcic areas. We report a female who had a metastatic thymoma in her breast 20 years after undergoing resection for a non-invasive thymoma. She presented with a palpable mass in her left breast. Mammography and ultrasonogram showed a lobular mass at the anterior glandular portion. Histological examination after surgical excision revealed a metastatic thymoma.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2008.9.1.80
PMCID: PMC2627170  PMID: 18253080
Breast neoplasm; Breast metastasis; Metastatic thymoma; Recurrent thymoma
19.  Solitary Pulmonary Nodule due to Mycobacterium intracellulare: The First Case in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(1):127-130.
Here, we describe a case of a solitary pulmonary nodule due to Mycobacterium intracellulare infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Korea. A 45-year-old female, exhibiting no respiratory symptoms, was admitted to our hospital due to the appearance of a solitary pulmonary nodule on a chest radiograph. Computed tomography revealed a 2.5cm nodule with an irregular shape and some marginal spiculation in the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose imaging revealed positive tumor uptake (maximum standardized uptake value=8.8). Bronchoscopy yielded no specific histological findings and no bacteriological findings. Percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy revealed epithelioid granuloma but no acid-fast bacilli were detected. The patient received isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for the treatment of "tuberculoma". Five weeks after the patient was admitted, numerous mycobacterial colonies were detected on a bronchial washing fluid culture. These colonies were subsequently identified as Mycobacterium intracellulare. A final diagnosis of M. intracellulare pulmonary disease was made, and the patient's treatment regimen was changed to a combination therapy consisting of clarithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2007.48.1.127
PMCID: PMC2628005  PMID: 17326256
Pulmonary coin lesion; atypical mycobacteria; Mycobacterium avium complex; tuberculosis; tuberculoma
20.  Polycystin-1 Expression in Fetal, Adult and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(3):425-429.
The mutation of the PKD1 gene causes autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and the PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC-1). PC-1 is thought to be a cell-cell/matrix adhesion receptor molecule at the cell surface that is widely expressed in the kidney. However, there are controversies about the role of PC-1 protein and its expression when using different antibodies to detect it. We used two PC-1 antibodies; C-20 (Santa Cruz, sc-10372) as the C-terminal antibody, and P-15 (Santa Cruz, sc-10307) as the N-terminal antibody. We evaluated the PC-1 expression by performing immunoblotting on the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and the renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (RPTEC) lysates. We characterized the expression of PC-1 in the fetal, adult and polycystic kidneys tissues by performing immunohistochemistry. We confirmed the PC-1 expression in the HEK 293 cells and the RPTEC lysates, but the expression was very low. The PC-1 proteins were diffusely expressed in the tubular epithelial cells cytoplasm in the fetal and adult kidneys, and the PC-1 expression was more prominent in the proximal tubules of the fetal kidney. In the ADPKD kidney, the PC-1 proteins were heterogenously and weakly expressed in the tubular or cyst lining epithelial cells. Our data suggests that the development of the kidney may regulate the expression of PC-1, and an altered PC-1 expression may contribute to cyst formation in ADPKD.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.3.425
PMCID: PMC2729945  PMID: 16778383
Polycystic Kidney Diseases; Polycystin-1; Polycystic kidney disease 1 protein
21.  Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor presenting as Meigs' Syndrome with elevated CA125 
Herein, a rare case of ovarian granulosa cell tumor, presenting as Meigs' syndrome, with elevated carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), is reported. A 69-year-old woman was admitted for the investigation of abdominal fullness and dyspnea. A preoperative examination revealed a huge pelvic tumor and an abdominopelvic magnetic resonance image (MRI) assumed ovarian cancer. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed pleural effusion. A laparotomy confirmed the huge mass to be an ovarian tumor. A total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and partial omentectomy, was performed. Although short-term intrathoracic drainage was required, the hydrothorax and ascites rapidly resolved in the postoperative period.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2005.20.1.105
PMCID: PMC3891406  PMID: 15906965
Meigs' syndrome; Granulosa cell tumor; CA125
22.  Radiofrequency Ablation of Rabbit Liver In Vivo: Effect of the Pringle Maneuver on Pathologic Changes in Liver Surrounding the Ablation Zone 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2004;5(4):240-249.
Objective
We wished to evaluate the effect of the Pringle maneuver (occlusion of both the hepatic artery and portal vein) on the pathologic changes in the hepatic vessels, bile ducts and liver parenchyma surrounding the ablation zone in rabbit livers.
Materials and Methods
Radiofrequency (RF) ablation zones were created in the livers of 24 rabbits in vivo by using a 50-W, 480-kHz monopolar RF generator and a 15-gauge expandable electrode with four sharp prongs for 7 mins. The tips of the electrodes were placed in the liver parenchyma near the porta hepatis with the distal 1 cm of their prongs deployed. Radiofrequency ablation was performed in the groups with (n=12 rabbits) and without (n=12 rabbits) the Pringle maneuver. Three animals of each group were sacrificed immediately, three days (the acute phase), seven days (the early subacute phase) and two weeks (the late subacute phase) after RF ablation. The ablation zones were excised and serial pathologic changes in the hepatic vessels, bile ducts and liver parenchyma surrounding the ablation zone were evaluated.
Results
With the Pringle maneuver, portal vein thrombosis was found in three cases (in the immediate [n=2] and acute phase [n=1]), bile duct dilatation adjacent to the ablation zone was found in one case (in the late subacute phase [n=1]), infarction adjacent to the ablation zone was found in three cases (in the early subacute [n=2] and late subacute [n=1] phases). None of the above changes was found in the livers ablated without the Pringle maneuver. On the microscopic findings, centrilobular congestion, sinusoidal congestion, sinusoidal platelet and neutrophilic adhesion, and hepatocyte vacuolar and ballooning changes in liver ablated with Pringle maneuver showed more significant changes than in those livers ablated without the Pringle maneuver (p < 0.05)
Conclusion
Radiofrequency ablation with the Pringle maneuver created more severe pathologic changes in the portal vein, bile ducts and liver parenchyma surrounding the ablation zone compared with RF ablation without the Pringle maneuver. Therefore, we suggest that RF ablation with the Pringle maneuver should be performed with great caution in order to avoid unwanted thermal injury.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2004.5.4.240
PMCID: PMC2698168  PMID: 15637474
Animals; Liver, interventional procedure; Radiofrequency (RF) ablation
23.  Trilateral retinoblastoma: a case report. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2002;17(1):137-140.
Trilateral retinoblastoma is a rare, but well recognized syndrome. These tumors usually occur in the pineal, parasellar, or suprasellar regions several years after successful management of ocular retinoblastomas without evidence of direct extension or distant metastasis. Here we report a case of trilateral retinoblastoma presenting initially with a sellar tumor and with concurrent unilateral retinoblastoma. The patient was a 5-month-old baby girl showing poor eye contact and nystagmus for several days. She had no family history of retinoblastoma. Brain MRI revealed a midline suprasellar tumor without evidence of cerebrospinal fluid seeding or extracranial metastasis. A pathologic diagnosis of retinoblastoma was made for her brain tumor, and a small, intraocular retinoblastoma was detected in the left eye by thorough examination of the fundus. If a retinoblastoma occurs in the midline of the brain, including the pineal and sellar regions, a careful screening to detect any additional retinal tumors should be performed. Moreover, since these tumors are often hereditary and harbor a worse prognosis, the diagnosis has implications for genetic counseling. This is the first report on a case of trilateral retinoblastoma in Korea presented with a sellar mass.
PMCID: PMC3054828  PMID: 11850605
24.  Favorable response to doxorubicin combination chemotherapy does not yield good clinical outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer with triple-negative phenotype 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:527.
Background
We analyzed the responses to first line treatment and clinical outcomes of metastatic breast cancer patients treated with palliative doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) according to molecular cancer subtype.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was performed for 110 metastatic breast cancer patients selected on the basis of palliative AC treatment and the availability of immunohistochemical data for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/neu) status.
Results
Of the 110 patients analyzed, 71 (64.5%) were hormone receptor positive (HR+), 14 (12.7%) were HER2+, and 25 (22.7%) were triple negative (TN). There were no differences in age, stage at diagnosis, total number of cycles of palliative chemotherapy, incidence of visceral metastasis, and metastatic sites with the exception of liver among breast cancer subtypes. The overall response rates to AC were 55.9% for the HR+ subgroup, 42.9% for the HER2+ subgroup, and 56.5% for the TN subgroup. The progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with HER2+ and TN were significantly shorter than in the HR+ (median PFS, 9.1 vs 8.1 vs 11.5 months, respectively; p = 0.0002). The overall survival (OS) was 25.4 months in the TN subgroup and 27.3 months in HER2+ subgroup. The median OS for these two groups was significantly shorter than for patients in the HR+ subgroup (median, 38.5 months; 95% CI, 30.1-46.9 months; p < 0.0001).
Conclusions
The response to palliative AC chemotherapy did not differ among breast cancer subtypes. Despite chemosensitivity for palliative AC, the TN subtype has a shorter overall survival than non-TN subtypes. Innovative treatment strategies should be developed to slow the course of disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-527
PMCID: PMC2972282  PMID: 20920367

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