Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS, OMIM #601224) is a rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of genes located on the 11p11.2p12. Affected individuals have a number of characteristic features including multiple exostoses, biparietal foramina, abnormalities of genitourinary system, hypotonia, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. We report here on the first Korean case of an 8-yr-old boy with PSS diagnosed by high resolution microarray. Initial evaluation was done at age 6 months because of a history of developmental delay, hypotonia, and dysmorphic face. Coronal craniosynostosis and enlarged parietal foramina were found on skull radiographs. At age 6 yr, he had severe global developmental delay. Multiple exostoses of long bones were detected during a radiological check-up. Based on the clinical and radiological features, PSS was highly suspected. Subsequently, chromosomal microarray analysis identified an 8.6 Mb deletion at 11p11.2 [arr 11p12p11.2 (Chr11:39,204,770-47,791,278)×1]. The patient continued rehabilitation therapy for profound developmental delay. The progression of multiple exostosis has being monitored. This case confirms and extends data on the genetic basis of PSS. In clinical and radiologic aspect, a patient with multiple exostoses accompanying with syndromic features, including craniofacial abnormalities and mental retardation, the diagnosis of PSS should be considered.
Potocki-Shaffer Syndrome; Chromosomal Microarray; Multiple Exostosis; Parietal Foramina
Reports of constitutional ring chromosome 22, r(22) are rare. Individuals with r(22) present similar features as those with the 22q13 deletion syndrome. The instability in the ring chromosome contributes to the development of variable phenotypes. Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are rare, highly malignant tumors, primarily occurring in young children below 3 years of age. The majority of ATRT cases display genetic alterations of SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5), a tumor suppressor gene located on 22q11.2. The coexistence of a CNS ATRT in a child with a r(22) is rare. We present a case of a 4-month-old boy with 46,XY,r(22)(p13q13.3), generalized hypotonia and delayed development. High-resolution microarray analysis revealed a 3.5-Mb deletion at 22q13.31q13.33. At 11 months, the patient had an ATRT (5.6 cm×5.0 cm×7.6 cm) in the cerebellar vermis, which was detected in the brain via magnetic resonance imaging.
Ring chromosome; 22q13.3 Deletion syndrome; Rhabdoid tumor
Transformation of MDS into ALL during childhood is extremely rare. We report a rare case of an 8-yr-old girl who presented with refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) that transformed into ALL only 3 months after the diagnosis of childhood MDS. Although no cytogenetic abnormalities were observed in conventional karyotype and FISH analysis, we found several deletions on chromosomes 5q, 12q, 13q, and 22q. Partial homozygous deletion of the RB1 gene was observed on microarray analysis, with the bone marrow specimen diagnosed as ALL. This is the first case report of transformation of ALL from childhood MDS in Korea. We also compared the clinical, cytological, and cytogenetic features of 4 previously reported childhood MDS cases that transformed into ALL.
Myelodysplastic syndromes; Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Cytogenetic aberrations; Microarray analysis
Terminal or interstitial deletions of Xp (Xp22.2→Xpter) in males have been recognized as a cause of contiguous gene syndromes showing variable association of apparently unrelated clinical manifestations such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (SHOX), chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1), mental retardation (NLGN4), ichthyosis (STS), Kallmann syndrome (KAL1), and ocular albinism (GPR143). Here we present a case of a 13.5 yr old boy and sister with a same terminal deletion of Xp22.2 resulting in the absence of genes from the telomere of Xp to GPR143 of Xp22. The boy manifested the findings of all of the disorders mentioned above. We began a testosterone enanthate monthly replacement therapy. His sister, 11 yr old, manifested only Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and had engaged in growth hormone therapy for 3 yr. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a male with a 9.7 Mb terminal Xp deletion including the OA1 locus in Korea.
Deletion Xp22 pter; Leri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis; Chondrodysplasia Punctata; Mental Retardation; Ichthyosis; Kallmann Syndrome; Ocular Albinism
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemic brain injury through an anti-apoptotic mechanism. Parvalbumin is a calcium buffering protein that plays an important role in modulating intracellular calcium concentration and regulating apoptotic cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate whether EGb 761 affects parvalbumin expression in cerebral ischemic injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or EGb 761 (100 mg/kg) prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and cerebral cortex tissues were collected 24 h after MCAO. A proteomic approach revealed a reduction in parvalbumin expression in the vehicle-treated animals, whereas EGb 761 pretreatment attenuates the ischemic injury-induced decrease in parvalbumin expression. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses clearly confirmed the fact that EGb 761 prevents the injury-induced decrease in parvalbumin. Moreover, the results of immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of parvalbumin-positive cells was lower in vehicle-treated animals than in sham-operated animals, and EGb 761 averted this decrease. Thus, these results suggest that the maintenance of parvalbumin expression is associated with the neuroprotective function of EGb 761 against neuronal damage induced by ischemia.
EGb 761; neuroprotection; parvalbumin
We evaluated high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis as a tool for detecting rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an accurate, affordable, and rapid manner. Two hundred seventeen M. tuberculosis clinical isolates of known resistance phenotype were used. Twenty-nine known rpoB mutant DNAs, including rare mutations, were also included. Four pairs of primers were designed: rpoB-F/R (for codons 516 to 539 of rpoB), rpoB-516F/R (for codons 508 to 536 of rpoB), katG-F/R (for the codon 315 region of katG), and inhA-F/R (for the nucleotide substitution of C to T at position −15 of inhA). An HRM curve was generated for each isolate after real-time PCR differentiated the mutant from the wild-type strains. DNA sequencing of the target regions was performed to confirm the results of the HRM curve analysis. All but one of the 73 RIF-resistant (RIF-R) strains and all 124 RIF-susceptible (RIF-S) isolates were correctly identified by HRM curve analysis of rpoB. Twenty-seven of 29 known rpoB mutants were detected. In HRM curve analysis of katG and inhA, 90 INH-R strains that harbored katG or inhA mutations, or both, and all INH-S strains were correctly identified. Ten phenotypically INH-R strains not harboring katG or inhA mutations were not detected. The HRM curve analysis will be a useful method for detection of RIF and INH resistance in M. tuberculosis in a rapid, accurate, simple, and cost-effective manner.
Miller-Dieker syndrome involves a severe type of lissencephaly, which is caused by defects in the lissencephaly gene (LIS1). We report the case of a female infant with der(17)t(12;17)(q24.33;p13.3)pat caused by an unbalanced segregation of the parental balanced translocation of 17p with other chromosomes. The proband presented with facial dysmorphism, arthrogryposis, and intrauterine growth retardation. Most cases of Miller-Dieker syndrome have a de novo deletion involving 17p13.3. When Miller-Dieker syndrome is caused by an unbalanced translocation, mild-to-severe phenotypes occur according to the extension of the involved partner chromosome. However, a pure partial monosomy derived from a paternal balanced translocation is relatively rare. In this case, the submicroscopic cryptic deletion in the proband was initially elucidated by FISH, and karyotype analysis did not reveal additional chromosome abnormalities such as translocation. However, a family history of recurrent pregnancy abnormalities strongly suggested familial translocation. Sequential G-banding and FISH analysis of the father's chromosomes showed that the segment of 17p13.3→pter was attached to the 12qter. Thus, we report a case that showed resemblance to the findings in cases of a nearly pure 17p deletion, derived from t(12;17), and delineated by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). If such cases are incorrectly diagnosed as Miller-Dieker syndrome caused by de novo 17p13.3 deletion, the resultant improper genetic counseling may make it difficult to exactly predict the potential risk of recurrent lissencephaly for successive pregnancies.
Miller-Dieker syndrome; Lissencephaly; Array comparative genomic hybridization; Partial monosomy 17p
In CD5 positive (CD5+) mature B-cell lymphomas, newly recognized CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been characterized by aggressive features. We studied twenty-five cases with CD5+ lymphomas involving bone marrow. Eleven cases were diagnosed as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, six cases were diagnosed as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and three cases with morphologic characteristics of MCL and without both the cyclin D1 expression and IGH/CCND1 rearrangement were unclassifiable. The remaining five cases, showing large to medium-sized lym-phoid cells with prominent nucleoli and a moderate amount of cytoplasm, were diagnosed as DLBCL. Five DLBCL cases were positive for CD5, CD20, surface immuno-globulin, but negative for CD23. Patients with CD5+ DLBCL showed a high age of onset (median, 68 yr) and two patients expired one month after the diagnosis. Since CD5+ DLBCL forms a distinct subgroup of DLBCL, a study of CD5 expression in DLBCL would be helpful to predict prognosis and to determine future therapeutic strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on de novo CD5+ DLBCL in Koreans.
Antigens, CD5; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic; Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell; Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Diffuse