Head and neck reconstruction is still challenging in terms of esthetic and functional outcomes. This study investigated the feasibility of the angular branch-based scapular tip free flap (STFF).
This was a retrospective study of 17 patients undergoing maxillectomy and mandibulectomy and either primary or secondary reconstruction by STFF. This study included surgical, esthetic, and functional outcomes, and detailed data are presented regarding the flap, such as pedicle length, size of the harvested bone, and failure rate. Medical photographs were used to estimate the esthetic outcome, and computed tomography was used to check the flap status postoperatively.
The data were collected from April 2013 to April 2014. Eight patients underwent maxillary reconstruction, and nine underwent mandibular reconstruction. Maxillary defects usually included unilateral alveolar structures and the palate; mandibular defects were usually those involving mandibular angle and short segment. Vein grafting was not required in any of the patients. Flap failure occurred in one of the 17 patients (5.9%) with successful reconstruction after revision. Of the eight maxillectomy patients, orbital revisions for diplopia after maxillary reconstruction were performed in two patients (25%), and oroantral fistula repair was performed in one patient (12.5%).
This study demonstrated the reconstructive advantages of the angular branch-based STFF, long pedicle, low flap failure, 3-dimensional nature of bone and soft tissues (chimeric flap), and small rate of donor site morbidity with free ambulation. This flap is an excellent option for use in complex three-dimensional head and neck reconstruction.
Mandibular Reconstruction; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Free Tissue Flaps; Scapula
Advances in reconstruction and conservative surgery and the importance of quality of life (QOL) encouraged this reevaluation of surgery-based treatments for oropharyngeal cancer. We tried to compare treatment outcome and QOL after surgery-based versus radiation-based treatment in oropharyngeal cancer.
The 133 eligible patients were divided into surgery-based and radiotherapy (RT)-based treatment groups. Medical records were reviewed, and EORTC QLQ-C30 and HN65 questionnaires were completed for survivors. Three-year overall survivals, disease-free survivals, locoregional control rates, and QOL scores were compared between the two groups.
Demographic data and overall stages were not significantly different between the two groups, and all survival rates were non-significantly different, either. The scores for most QOL items were equivalent, however, for a few items, scores were significantly better in surgery-based group.
The surgery-based group achieved equivalent treatment outcomes and slightly better QOL scores than the RT-based group. The results of this study suggest that surgery could still be considered as a first-line therapy for oropharyngeal cancer.
Treatment outcome; Quality of life; Oropharyngeal cancer; Surgery; Radiation
The primary aim of this study was to determine whether 18F-FDG-PET/CT (PET/CT) scans provide additional diagnostic information in addition to the direct laryngoscopic examination (L/E) and contrast-enhanced CT (CT) in patients with glottic cancer during the initial evaluation.
Fifty-five consecutive patients with glottic cancer of the larynx that had L/E, CT and PET/CT were enrolled. The diagnostic value of each modality was compared for their accuracy in predicting the extent of the primary tumors on sub-site based analysis and the final tumor staging. The reference standards were either the surgical pathology findings or clinical/radiological follow-up outcome. Changes in patient care based on PET/CT results were compared with the treatment decisions based on L/E with CT.
For primary tumor sub-site based analysis, the sensitivity was significantly higher for L/E (92.8%) than for PET/CT (79.4%, P=0.028). The comparisons between L/E vs. CT and CT vs. PET/CT did not reach statistical significance. As an initial tumor-staging method the L/E had a diagnostic accuracy of 76.4%, compared to 61.8% for CT and 41.8% for PET/CT. The L/E and CT were better than the PET/CT (P=0.0009 and 0.049) for the initial TNM staging. PET/CT scanning changed the clinical decision-making based on the L/E with CT results in 12.7% of cases, of whom 5.5% had no additional PET/CT related benefit.
The results of this study showed that PET/CT imaging added no clinical information benefit compared to the L/E and CT for the initial evaluation of patients with glottic cancer.
Positron emission tomography; Tomography; X-ray computed; Laryngoscopy; Laryngeal neoplasms; Glottis
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy by using a radiotracer lymphatic mapping technique in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, and the diagnostic value of this technique. We studied twenty patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and N0 necks. After the peritumoral injection of 99mTc filtered tin colloid preop-eratively, lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative mapping using a gamma detector were performed to localize sentinel nodes. An open biopsy of the sentinel node was followed by complete neck dissection. We identified the sentinel nodes in 19 of 20 patients (95.0%) by lymphoscintigraphy and in all (100%) by intraoperative gamma detector. In all cases, the status of the sentinel node accurately predicted the pathologic status of the neck with the false negative rate being 0%. The negative predictive value for the absence of cervical metastases was 100%. In conclusion, our radio-localization technique of sentinel nodes using 99mTc filtered tin colloid in N0 squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity is technically feasible and appears to accurately predict the presence of the occult metastatic disease.
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy; Lymphatic Metastasis; Mouth Neoplasms; Radionuclide Imaging
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of volume-based metabolic parameters measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Forty-four NPC patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging work-up before concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were retrospectively evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV), mean SUV, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumors were measured. The prognostic significance and predictive performance of these parameters were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.
Multivariate analysis showed that American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 7th edition (hazard ratio [HR], 1.525; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.062 to 2.188; P=0.022), and TLG (HR, 7.799; 95% CI, 2.622 to 23.198; P≤0.001) were independent predictive factors associated with decreased disease-free survival (DFS). Time-dependent ROC curve analysis indicated that TLG was a better predictor of DFS than MTV (P=0.008).
The TLG of the primary tumor was a significant independent metabolic prognostic factor of DFS in patients with NPC treated with CCRT.
Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; Positron-Emission Tomography; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Tumor Burden; Prognosis
Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a highly aggressive subtype of salivary gland cancers and there is no established standard therapy for this disease. Thus, development of molecular markers for SDC will be important to guide the diagnosis and therapy of this aggressive tumor.
We performed next-generation sequencing using the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq cancer panel, which explores the mutational status of hotspot regions in 50 cancer-associated genes, and we analyzed copy number variations (CNVs) of 21 genes by NanoString nCounter for 37 patients with SDC. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was also conducted to confirm ERBB2 gene amplification. Clinical records and tumor histopathology of the patients were retrospectively reviewed.
Genetic alterations were detected in 29 of 37 (78.3%) tumors, including mutations in PIK3CA (N = 9, 24.3%), ERBB2 (N = 4, 10.8%), and EGFR (N = 4, 10.8%). To our knowledge, this is the first time that ERBB2 mutations have been reported in this tumor type. Both PIK3CA and ERBB2 mutation status were associated with poor overall survival, but without statistical significance. ERBB2 amplification was strong and common in SDC and almost all cases also exhibited EGFR and ERBB3 amplifications.
This study reports the largest and most comprehensive analysis of DNA aberrations in SDC. Our results show that PIK3CA and/or ERBB2 alterations in the development of SDC might be a useful diagnostic tool and could serve as a potential therapeutic target.
Salivary duct carcinoma; Next-generation sequencing; Molecular markers; PIK3CA; ERBB2; EGFR
Spontaneous regression of a malignant tumor is the phenomenon of disappearance of cancer cells without any treatments and it can be induced by an enhanced tumor-targeting immune response. However, there has not been a comprehensive immunological overview to compare the tumor-regressed lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes in the same patient.
We conducted a histologic analysis of various immune cells in an Asian female patient with buccal cancer (squamous cell carcinomas), in which the spontaneous regression of metastatic lymphadenopathy was confirmed by surgical pathology. The immune cell profiles between the metastatic nodes and the tumor-regressed nodes were compared. Tumor regression was confirmed by hematoxylin & eosin and cytokeratin/Ki-67 staining. Distinct differences were observed in Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells; a higher density of Foxp3(+) Treg cells was found in metastatic lymph nodes and more infiltration of CD56(+) NK cells in tumor regressed lymph nodes. Other immune cell populations (CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD86, CD123, CD11c, and mannose receptor) showed no discernible differences in marker expression in the nodes examined.
Less recruitment of Treg and high infiltration of NK cells were key features in tumor-regressed lymph nodes. Modulation of Treg or NK cells may be a good therapeutic method to control lymph node metastasis.
Neoplasms; Lymph nodes; Lymphatic metastasis; Spontaneous neoplasm regression; Cellular immunity
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered as a favorable prognostic factor in oropharyngeal cancer, the prognosis of HPV-associated tonsil cancer has rarely been studied especially when surgery was the main treatment. In this study, the authors investigated the effect of p16 over-expression (HPV infection) on tonsil cancer prognosis according to the type of treatment, HPV presence by PCR, and expression of p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Medical records of 33 tonsil cancer patients were reviewed. Using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor specimens, PCR-based genotyping of HPV and IHC of p16, p53 and EGFR were performed. The effects of HPV presence and the expression of IHC markers were analyzed on the recurrence-free survival. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were evaluated according to p16 expression status.
An over-expression of p16 was observed in 27 (81.9%) out of 33 cases. Surgery-based treatment was provided for 21 (63.6%) patients. There was no association between p16 immunoreactivity and HPV presence, nor with p53 and EGFR expression. Regardless of main treatment modalities, five-year DFS did not differ by p16 expression status (P=0.051). However, over-expression of p16 was associated with a lower recurrence in multivariable analyses (P=0.046).
Regardless of main treatment modalities, an over-expression of p16 (HPV infection) is associated with a lower recurrence in tonsil cancers. However it is not associated with simple HPV presence or p53 and EGFR over-expression.
Human papillomavirus; Oropharyngeal neoplasms; Therapeutics; Immunohistochemistry; Prognosis; p16 (INK4A)
To evaluate the prognostic value of volume-based metabolic parameters measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) as compared with other prognostic factors.
Materials and Methods
In this study, we included a total of 57 patients who had been diagnosed with cN0 tongue cancer by radiologic, 18F-FDG PET/CT, and physical examinations. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average SUV (SUVavg), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) for primary tumors were measured with 18F-FDG PET. The prognostic significances of these parameters and other clinical variables were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.
In the univariate analysis, pathological node (pN) stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, SUVmax, SUVavg, MTV, and TLG were significant predictors for survival. On a multivariate analysis, pN stage (hazard ratio = 10.555, p = 0.049), AJCC stage (hazard ratio = 13.220, p = 0.045), and MTV (hazard ratio = 2.698, p = 0.033) were significant prognostic factors in cN0 OTSCC patients. The patients with MTV ≥ 7.78 cm3 showed a worse prognosis than those with MTV < 7.78 cm3 (p = 0.037).
The MTV of primary tumor as a volumetric parameter of 18F-FDG PET, in addition to pN stage and AJCC stage, is an independent prognostic factor for survival in cN0 OTSCC.
18F-FDG PET/CT; Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma; SUV; Metabolic tumor volume; Total lesion glycolysis; Prognosis prediction
The authors would report the results of definitive radiation therapy (RT) for early glottic cancer by two different radiation dose schedules.
From February of 1995 till June of 2008, 157 patients with T1-2N0 glottic cancer were treated with curative RT at Samsung Medical Center. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, and there were 89 patients (56.7%) with T1a, 36 (22.9%) with T1b, and 32 (20.4%) with T2. Two different radiation dose schedules were used: 70 Gy in 35 fractions to 64 patients (40.8%, group A); and 67.5 Gy in 30 fractions to 93 patients (59.2%, group B). The median treatment durations were 50 days (range, 44 to 59 days) and 44 days (range, 40 to 67 days) in the groups A and B, respectively.
The median follow-up durations were 85 and 45 months for the groups A and B. No severe late complication of RTOG grade 3 or higher was observed, and there was no difference in acute or chronic complication between the groups. Twenty-four patients experienced treatment failure: local recurrence only in 19 patients; regional recurrence only in one; combined local and regional recurrence in four; and systemic metastasis in none. The overall 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates were 84.7% and 94.8%. The disease-free survival rate in the group B was better (78.3% vs. 90.8%, P=0.031). This difference was significant only in T1 stage (83.4% vs. 94.6%, P=0.025), but not in T2 (62.7% vs. 60.6%, P=0.965). Univariate analysis showed that the tumor extent, cord mobility, T-stage, and the dose schedule had significant influence on the disease-free survival, and multivariate analysis showed that only the tumor extent and the dose schedule were associated with the disease-free survival.
Superior disease-free survival could be achieved by 2.25 Gy per fraction without increased toxicity over shorter RT duration, when compared with 2.0 Gy per fraction.
Laryngeal neoplasms; Radiotherapy; Dose fractionation
This is to report treatment results of major salivary gland cancer by surgery with or without postoperative radiation therapy (PORT).
Between March 1995 and January 2006, 94 patients with primary major salivary cancer underwent curative surgical resection at Samsung Medical Center. The parotid gland was the most commonly involved (73, 77.7%), followed by the submandibular and the sublingual. Neck dissection was added in 28 patients, and PORT was individually recommended to those with risk factors. Seventy-five (79.8%) patients received PORT. PORT volume included primary tumor bed and pathologically involved regional lymphatics, and no additional effort was made for elective nodal irradiation. The median total doses were 56.0 Gy to primary site and 58.7 Gy to regional lymphatics.
After median follow-up of 49 months, 21 patients had relapsed: 20 in PORT; and one in surgery alone group. As the first site of failure, distant metastasis was the most common (17 patients). Local recurrence occurred in three, and regional relapse in one. The lung was the most common site (10 patients), followed by the bone, and the brain. Five-yr disease free survival (DFS), local control, and overall survival (OS) rates were 74.4% and 94.7%, 96.0% and 100%, and 78.2% and 100% in PORT and surgery alone groups, respectively. On multivariate analysis, DFS was significantly affected by pN+ (hazard ratio [HR], 3.624; P=0.0319), while OS was by pN+ (HR, 7.138; P=0.0034) and perineural invasion (HR, 5.073; P=0.0187).
Based on our experience, the patients with early stage major salivary gland cancer with low risk can be effectively treated by surgery alone, and those who with risk factors can achieve excellent local and regional control by adding PORT. Omitting elective neck irradiation in patients with N0 disease seems a feasible strategy under accurate clinical evaluation. An effort is needed to decrease distant metastasis through further clinical trials.
Salivary gland cancer; Postoperative radiation therapy; Elective neck irradiation; Local control; Distant metastasis
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical role of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of lymph node metastasis in periorbital malignancies, compared with CT alone.
Materials and Methods
We analyzed eighteen PET/CT and CT scans in 15 patients with biopsy-proven periorbital malignancies. We compared the diagnostic capabilities of PET/CT and CT with regard to nodal metastasis by level-by-level analysis and by N staging prediction. The reference standards were surgical pathology (n = 7) from dissected lymph node specimens and the results from radiological follow-up (n = 11, mean 20.5 months; range 10-52 months). Moreover, any changes in patient care as prompted by PET/CT were recorded and compared with treatment planning for CT alone.
PET/CT had a sensitivity of 100%, while CT had a sensitivity of 57% (p = 0.03) for nodal metastasis by level-by-level analysis. PET/CT had a specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 93%, negative predictive value of 100%, and diagnostic accuracy of 98%, while the CT values for these same parameters were 97%, 89%, 82%, and 84%, respectively. PET/CT correctly predicted N staging with an accuracy of 100%, while CT was only 83% accurate (p = 0.01). Regarding the impact on patient care, the extent of surgery for regional lymph nodes and the treatment decision were modified by PET/CT in 39% of patients.
PET/CT could provide useful information in the management of regional lymph node metastases in patients with periorbital malignancies.
18F-FDG; PET/CT; Computed tomography (CT) scans; Lymphatic Metastasis; Eyelid Neoplasm