Pregnancy in rodents is associated with a two- to threefold increase in β-cell mass, which is attributable to large increases in β-cell proliferation, complimented by increases in β-cell size, survival, and function and mediated mainly by the lactogenic hormones prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogens. In humans, however, β-cell mass does not increase as dramatically during pregnancy, and PRL fails to activate proliferation in human islets in vitro. To determine why, we explored the human PRL–prolactin receptor (hPRLR)–Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)–signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5)–cyclin–cdk signaling cascade in human β-cells. Surprisingly, adult human β-cells express little or no PRLR. As expected, restoration of the hPRLR in human β-cells rescued JAK2-STAT5 signaling in response to PRL. However, rescuing hPRLR-STAT5 signaling nevertheless failed to confer proliferative ability on adult human β-cells in response to PRL. Surprisingly, mouse (but not human) Stat5a overexpression led to upregulation of cyclins D1–3 and cdk4, as well as their nuclear translocation, all of which are associated with β-cell cycle entry. Collectively, the findings show that human β-cells fail to proliferate in response to PRL for multiple reasons, one of which is a paucity of functional PRL receptors, and that murine Stat5 overexpression is able to bypass these impediments.
There is growing evidence that Bit1 exerts different roles in the development and progression of human cancers. Although Bit1 was highly exhibited in ESCC tissues in our previous study, its roles and molecular mechanisms implicated in development and progression of ESCC remain unknown.
Bit1 protein expression in ESCC cell lines and normal esophageal epithelial cell was detected by Western blotting. Bit1 protein expression mediated by Bit1 shRNA was investigated by Western blotting. MTT, migration assay, invasion experiment, ELISA and Flow cytometry were utilized to determine the effects of Bit1 knockdown on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis, respectively. A xenograft model was used to examine in vivo tumourigenicity, and immunohistochemistry and TUNEL were utilized to evaluate the related protein expression and apoptosis. Gene microarray was determined by Agilent SurePrint G3 Human GE 8 × 60 K Microarray, the interaction of Bit1 and FAK proteins were detected by Immunoprecipitation and the key protein expressions of FAK-paxillin pathway were detected by Western blotting.
We found Bit1 expression in all human ESCC cell lines tested was significantly higher than that in normal esophageal epithelial cell Het-1A (P < 0.05), in which EC9706 presented the highest Bit1 level. Bit1 protein level was significantly downregulated at day 1 after transfection with specific shRNA against Bit1 (P < 0.05). At days 2 and 3, Bit1 level reached the lowest value after transfection with Bit1 shRNA. Moreover, Bit1 depletion contributed to growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo, reduced cell migration and invasion abilities, and induced cell apoptosis in EC9706 and TE1 cells. More importantly, Bit1 downregulation significantly lowered Bcl-2 and MMP-2 levels in EC9706 xenografted tumor tissues, meanwhile triggered apoptosis after treatment with different doses of Bit1 shRNA. Further gene microarray revealed that 23 genes in Bit1-RNAi group were markedly downregulated, whereas 16 genes were obviously upregulated. Notably, Bit1 intrinsically interacted with FAK protein in EC9706 cells. Moreover, paxillin was downregulated at mRNA and protein levels in Bit1 shRNA group, coupled with the decreases of FAK mRNA and protein expressions.
Bit1 may be an important regulator in cell growth, apoptosis, migration and invasion of ESCC via targeting FAK-paxillin pathway, and thereby combinative manipulation of Bit1 and FAK-paxillin pathway may be the novel and promising therapeutic targets for the patients with ESCC.
Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription 1; FAK-paxillin pathway; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; cell migration; cell invasion
A bovine interferon α (BoIFNα) gene that included signal sequence was amplified from bovine liver genomic DNA. The gene was named BoIFN-α1 according to the position at which the encoded gene of the bovine IFN was located in the bovine genome. The sequence included a 23-amino-acid signal peptide and a 166-amino-acid mature peptide. The structural characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of the BoIFN-α1 gene were analyzed. A recombinant mature BoIFN-α1 (rBoIFN-α1) was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Physicochemical characteristics and antiviral activity were determined in vitro. Recombinant BoIFN-α1 was found to be highly sensitive to trypsin and stable at pH 2.0 or 65°C. It also exhibited antiviral activity, which was neutralized by a rabbit anti-rBoIFNα polyclonal antibody. This study revealed that rBoIFN-α1 has the typical characteristics of IFNα and can be used for both research and industrial application.
In order to identify radon-prone areas and evaluate radon risk level, a soil gas radon survey combined with gamma-ray spectrometry measurements was carried out in Shenzhen City, south China. Meanwhile, the statistical analysis was applied to evaluate the distribution of measured results. This paper presents the methodology of the radon risk assessment. A radon risk map was accomplished based on a combination of soil gas radon concentration (RC), soil air permeability (Perm.) and uranium (238U) concentration. The results showed that the distribution of soil gas RC and radon-prone areas were closely related to geologic distribution of uranium (238U) and local lithology.
Soil gas radon; Gamma-ray spectrometry; Radon risk mapping; Geological unit
Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both result ultimately from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with peak beta cell labeling indices achieving approximately 2% in first year of life1-4. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication rates are very low. While beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts1-8. Hence, there remains an urgent need for diabetes therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, we report the results of a high-throughput small molecule screen (HTS) revealing a novel class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds, analogues of the small molecule, harmine. We also define dual specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine, and the Nuclear Factors of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation as well as beta cell differentiation. These observations suggest that harmine analogues (“harmalogs”) may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing potency and beta cell specificity are important future challenges.
Biological Sciences; Drug Discovery; Drug Screening; High-Throughput Screening
A 74-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital following a road accident with pains in the chest, abdomen, waist, back, nose, left wrist and lower limbs. After 1 week, the patient presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, and thus was treated with protein pump inhibitors (PPIs), including lansoprazole, esomeprazole and omeprazole enteric-coated tablets, in order to inhibit acid secretion and attenuate bleeding. However, the patient developed skin rashes on the chest and right lower limb and foot 28 days following treatment initiation. The skin rashes spread and ulcerated after 3 days, and were associated with tracheal mucosal injury and hemoptysis. Subsequently, treatment of the patient with PPIs was terminated, after which the tracheal hemoptysis and skin rashes markedly improved. In addition, no new skin rashes appeared following termination of the PPI treatment. In the present case, long-term treatment of an elderly patient with PPIs may have induced exfoliative dermatitis, due to hepatic ischemia, hypoxia and acute renal failure, which may have decreased the metabolism of PPIs, resulting in the accumulation of PPI metabolites.
proton pump inhibitors; exfoliative dermatitis
Memristive devices, with a fusion of memory and logic functions, provide good opportunities for configuring new concepts computing. However, progress towards paradigm evolution has been delayed due to the limited understanding of the underlying operating mechanism. The stochastic nature and fast growth of localized conductive filament bring difficulties to capture the detailed information on its growth kinetics. In this work, refined programming scheme with real-time current regulation was proposed to study the detailed information on the filament growth. By such, discrete tunneling and quantized conduction were observed. The filament was found to grow with a unit length, matching with the hopping conduction of Cu ions between interstitial sites of HfO2 lattice. The physical nature of the formed filament was characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Copper rich conical filament with decreasing concentration from center to edge was identified. Based on these results, a clear picture of filament growth from atomic view could be drawn to account for the resistance modulation of oxide electrolyte based electrochemical memristive elements.
There is growing evidence that microRNAs play important roles in cellular responses to hypoxia and in pulmonary hypertensive vascular remodeling, but the exact molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. In this study, we identified miR-322 as one of the microRNAs induced in lungs of chronically hypoxic mice and rats. The expression of miR-322 was also upregulated in primary cultured rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) in response to hypoxia. We demonstrated that HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, transcriptionally upregulates the expression of miR-322 in hypoxia. Furthermore, miR-322 facilitated the accumulation of HIF-1α in the nucleus and promoted hypoxia-induced cell proliferation and migration. Direct targeting BMPR1a and smad5 by miR-322 was demonstrated in PASMCs suggesting that downregulation of BMP-Smad signaling pathway may be mediating the hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation and migration. Our study implicates miR-322 in the hypoxic proliferative response of PASMCs suggesting that it may be playing a role in pulmonary vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension.
Hypoxia induces vascular inflammation by a mechanism not fully understood. Emerging evidence implicates O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) in inflammation. This study explored the role of OGT in hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial inflammatory response.
Methods and results
Hypoxia was either induced (1% O2 chamber) or mimicked by exposure to hypoxia-mimetic agents in cultured endothelial cells. Hypoxia increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) and inflammatory response (gene and protein expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and E-selectin) but, surprisingly, reduced OGT protein (not mRNA) levels. Hypoxia-mimetic CoCl2 failed to reduce OGT when proteasome inhibitors were present, suggesting proteasome involvement. Indeed, CoCl2 enhanced 26S proteasome functionality evidenced by diminished reporter (UbG76V-GFP) proteins in proteasome reporter cells, likely due to increased chymotrypsin-like activities. Mechanistically, β-TrCP1 mediated OGT degradation, since siRNA ablation of this E3 ubiquitin ligase stabilized OGT. Administration of the oxidative stress inhibitors reversed both proteasome activation and OGT degradation. Furthermore, up-regulation of OGT by stabilization, overexpression, or activation mitigated CoCl2-elicited inflammatory response. These observations were recapitulated in a mouse (C57BL/6J) model mimicking hypoxia, in which lung tissues presented higher levels of HIF-1α, proteasome activity, and inflammatory response, but lower levels of OGT (n = 5/group, hypoxia vs. normoxia, P < 0.05). However, administration of an activator of OGT (glucosamine: 1 mg/g/day, vehicle: saline, ip, 5 days) abolished the up-regulation of proteasome activity and inflammatory response (n = 5/group, the treated vs. untreated hypoxia groups, P < 0.05).
26S proteasome-mediated OGT reduction contributed to hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial inflammatory response. Modulation of OGT may represent a new approach to treat diseases characterized by hypoxic inflammation.
26S proteasomes; Hypoxia; Inflammatory response; O-GlcNAc; Oxidative stress
Objective: Genetic factors play an important role in osteosarcoma (OS) etiology and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) gene single polymorphisms may be involved. The aim of this study was to test whether FGF2 variants are associated with susceptibility to OS in a Chinese population. Methods: A total of 151 subjects who were diagnosed as OS and 225 healthy age-matched controls were enrolled in the present study. Thers11737764 C/T SNP in FGF2 gene was genotyped in all the subjects. The SPSS software was used to investigate the association between the rs11737764 genotypes and OS susceptibility or severity. Results: The genotype frequencies of the FGF2 rs11737764 C/T polymorphism were 44.4% (CC), 50.3% (CT) and 5.3% (TT) in OS patients, and 55.6% (CC), 43.1% (CT) and 1.3% (TT) in controls. Rs11737764 C/T was found to be significantly associated with increased risk and OS no matter what genetic model was used. Conclusion: In conclusion, our data demonstrated the FGF2 SNP rs11737764 was significantly associated with increased osteosarcoma susceptibility in Chinese Han Population.
FGF2; SNP; osteosarcoma
Graphene free-standing film-like or paper-like materials have attracted great attention due to their intriguing electronic, optical and mechanical properties and potential application in chemical filters, molecular storage and supercapacitors. Although significant progress has been made in fabricating graphene films or paper, there is still no effective method targeting ultrathin free-standing graphene films (UFGFs). Here, we present a modified filtration assembly method to prepare these ultrathin films. With this approach, we have fabricated a series of ultrathin free-standing graphene oxide films and UFGFs, up to 40 mm in diameter, with controllable thickness from micrometre to nanoscale (approx. 40 nm) dimensions. This method can be easily scaled up and the films display excellent optical, electrical and electrochemical properties. The ability to produce UFGFs from graphene oxide with a scalable, low-cost approach should take us a step closer to real-world applications of graphene.
graphene; graphene oxide; ultrathin free-standing graphene oxide films; ultrathin free-standing graphene films
The insufficient retention prevents the resistive random access memory from intended application, such as code storage, FPGA, encryption, and others. The retention characteristics of high resistance state (HRS) switching from different low resistance state (LRS) were investigated in a 1-kb array with one transistor and one resistor configuration. The HRS degradation was found strongly dependent on the LRS: the lower the resistance of the LRS (RLRS) is, the worse HRS retention will be. According to the quantum point contact model, the HRS corresponds to a tiny tunnel gap or neck bridge with atomic size in the filament. The degradation of HRS is due to the filling or widening of the neck point by the diffusion of copper species from the residual filament. As the residual filament is stronger in case of the lower RLRS, the active area around the neck point for copper species diffusion is larger, resulting in higher diffusion probability and faster degradation of HRS during the temperature-accelerated retention measurement.
Resistive random access memory (RRAM); High resistance state (HRS); Retention; Quantum point contact (QPC) model
Further performance improvement is necessary for resistive random access memory (RRAM) to realize its commercialization. In this work, a novel pulse operation method is proposed to improve the performance of RRAM based on Ti/HfO2/Pt structure. In the DC voltage sweep of the RRAM device, the SET transition is abrupt under positive bias. If current sweep with positive bias is utilized in SET process, the SET switching will become gradual, so SET is current controlled. In the negative voltage sweep for RESET process, the change of current with applied voltage is gradual, so RESET is voltage controlled. Current sweep SET and voltage sweep RESET shows better controllability on the parameter variation. Considering the SET/RESET characteristics in DC sweep, in the corresponding pulse operation, the width and height of the pulse series can be adjusted to control the SET and RESET process, respectively. Our new method is different from the traditional pulse operation in which both the width and height of program/erase pulse are simply kept constant which would lead to unnecessary damage to the device. In our new method, in each program or erase operation, a series of pulses with the width/height gradually increased are made use of to fully finish the SET/RESET switching but no excessive stress is generated at the same time, so width/height-controlled accurate SET/RESET can be achieved. Through the operation, the uniformity and endurance of the RRAM device has been significantly improved.
Resistive random access memory (RRAM); Current sweep; Pulse operation; Uniformity; Endurance; Weibull distribution
It is known that chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) suppress LPS-induced vascular endothelial inflammatory response by mechanism involving NF-κB blockade. It remains unknown how COS inhibit NF-κB. We provided evidence both in cultured endothelial cells and mouse model supporting a new mechanism. Regardless of the endothelial cell types, the LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent inflammatory gene expression was suppressed by COS, which was associated with reduced NF-κB nucleus translocation. LPS enhanced O-GlcNAc modification of NF-κB/p65 and activated NF-κB pathway, which could be prevented either by siRNA knockdown of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) or pretreatment with COS. Inhibition of either mitogen-activated protein kinase or superoxide generation abolishes LPS-induced NF-κB O-GlcNAcylation. Consistently, aortic tissues from LPS-treated mice presented enhanced NF-κB/p65 O-GlcNAcylation in association with upregulated gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in vascular tissues; however, pre-administration of COS prevented these responses. In conclusion, COS decreased OGT-dependent O-GlcNAcylation of NF-κB and thereby attenuated LPS-induced vascular endothelial inflammatory response.
Chitosan oligosaccharides; LPS (Lipopolysaccharides); Endothelial cells; O-GlcNAcylation; NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells); Inflammatory response
SIRT1 is central to the lifespan and vascular health, but undergoes degradation that contributes to several medical conditions, including diabetes. How SIRT1 turnover is regulated remains unclear. However, emerging evidence suggests that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) positively regulates SIRT1 protein expression. We recently identified NO as an endogenous inhibitor of 26S proteasome functionality with a cellular reporter system. Here we extended this finding to a novel pathway that regulates SIRT1 protein breakdown. In cycloheximide (CHX)-treated endothelial cells, NONOate, an NO donor, and A23187, an eNOS activator, significantly stabilized SIRT1 protein. Similarly, NO enhanced SIRT1 protein, but not mRNA expression, in CHX-free cells. NO also stabilized an autophagy-related protein unc-51 like kinase (ULK1), but did not restore SIRT1 protein levels in ULK1-siRNA-treated cells or in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from Ulk1−/− mice. This suggests that ULK1 mediated the NO regulation of SIRT1. Furthermore, adenoviral overexpression of ULK1 increased SIRT1 protein expression, while ULK1 siRNA treatment decreased it. Rapamycin-induced autophagy did not mimic these effects, suggesting that the effects of ULK1 were autophagy-independent. Treatment with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, or siRNA of β-TrCP1, an E3 ligase, prevented SIRT1 reduction induced by ULK1-siRNA. Mechanistically, ULK1 negatively regulated 26S proteasome functionality, which was at least partly mediated by O-linked-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), probably by increased O-GlcNAc modification of proteasomal subunit Rpt2. The NO-ULK1-SIRT1 axis was likely operative in the whole animal: both ULK1 and SIRT1 protein levels were significantly reduced in tissue homogenates in eNOS-knockout mice (lung) and in db/db mice where eNOS is downregulated (lung and heart). Taken together, the results show that NO stabilizes SIRT1 by regulating 26S proteasome functionality through ULK1 and OGT, but not autophagy, in endothelial cells.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women world wide which is closely related to metastasis. Recent studies argue that breast cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) acquire aggressive malignant properties, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are poorly understood. In this study, we found that increased expression of proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) was associated with the progression of breast cancer and that PRR11 protein levels were significantly elevated in breast cancer. High PRR11 levels also predict shorter overall survival of breast cancer patients. Moreover, we found that the forced expression of PRR11 decreased the expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin but increased the mesenchymal markers in breast cancer cells. In contrast, silencing PRR11 in metastatic breast tumor cells promoted a shift toward an epithelial morphology concomitant with increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of mesenchymal markers. PRR11 silencing also reduced the expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors (Snail, Slug, ZEB1 and ZEB2).
PRR11; EMT; breast cancer; migration; invasion
Osteosarcoma is the most common histological form of primary bone cancer, which arises from osteoid tissue. It occurs predominantly in infants and adolescents, with an incidence of 4–5 cases/100,000,000. The 5-year survival rate of patients with osteosarcoma has significantly improved over time; however, there remains a significant proportion of patients that respond poorly to chemotherapy. An improved understanding of the pathology of osteosarcoma is required to provide more effective treatment strategies, identify biomarkers and develop novel chemotherapeutic agents. Disturbance in microRNA (miRNA) expression has been identified in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines; however, the roles of miRNA during osteosarcoma pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression levels of eight selected miRNAs were investigated in osteosarcoma tissues and the results revealed that the expression levels of miR-542-3p and miR-542-5p were significantly upregulated and the expression of miR-199-3p was significantly downregulated. Using a dual luciferase assay and western blot analysis, the present study confirmed that Van Gogh-like 2, which is a non-canonical Wnt pathway suppressor, was a target gene of miR-542-3p. Subsequently, the biological function of miR-542-3p in U2OS cells was examined, which revealed that overexpression of miR-542-3p can enhance the cell proliferation and migration ability of U2OS cells. This indicated that miR-542-3p may act as an oncogene in osteosarcoma pathogenesis. The findings of the present study may provide assistance in understanding the development of osteosarcoma and aid in the development of strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of osteosarcoma.
osteosarcoma; microRNA; Van Gogh-like 2; 3′ untranslated region; proliferation; migration
Preparations utilizing monoclonal antibodies against S100A4 provide useful tools for functional studies to investigate the clinical applications of the human S100A4 protein. In the present study, human S100A4 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3), successfully purified by diethylaminoethyl cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and identified by western blot analysis. Soluble S100A4 bioactivity was confirmed by Transwell migration and invasion assays in the human HeLa cell line. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated utilizing the standard hybridoma method and were validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analysis. The antibody was then used to examine human gastric carcinoma specimens by immunohistochemistry. Recombinant S100A4 was functionally expressed in E. coli and promoted the migration and invasion of HeLa cells. Four hybridoma cell lines, which secreted mAbs specifically against human S100A4 protein, were obtained. One of the four mAbs, namely 2A12D10B2, recognized human S100A4 as indicated by immunohistochemical staining of human gastric carcinoma specimens and recombinant S100A4 was functionally expressed in E. coli. The mAbs of recombinant S100A4 were suitable for detecting S100A4 expression in human tissues and for investigating the subsequent clinical applications of the protein.
human S100A4 protein; monoclonal antibody; preparation; application
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most prevalent primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults, its complex etiology involving a combination of environmental and genetic factors. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short, non-coding regulatory RNA molecule that represses gene expression by imperfectly base-pairing to the 3′ untranslated region of target mRNAs. Evidence has shown that alterations in the expression of miRNA are involved in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of human cancers. It is believed that miRNAs function both as tumor suppressors and oncogenes during cancer development. In the present study, three tumor-associated miRNAs (miR-21, miR-34a and miR-146a) coding regions were screened in Chinese-Han OS patients. A G>A variation in the pre-miR-34a coding region was found to be associated with higher OS morbidity. By detecting the mature miR-34a expression in cells transfected with pre-miR-34a expression vectors of different genotypes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was demonstrated that the G>A variation reduced miR-34a expression in vitro. This was in accordance with the data collected from tumor tissue and patient serum samples. Subsequently, a dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis were used to detect the site variation effect on the expression of c-Met, a target gene of miR-34a. The G>A variation downregulated the suppression of c-Met in two OS cell lines. Furthermore, it was found that reduced miR-34a expression decreased the suppression of OS cell proliferation in vitro. In conclusion, the present study established the association between miR-34a and the risk of suffering OS in a Chinese Han population by identifying one functional single nucleotide polymorphism site in pre-miR-34a. These findings may give insight into the mechanism of OS development and create an opportunity to approach the diagnosis and treatment of OS.
osteosarcoma; microRNA; pre-miRNA; polymorphism; cell proliferation
The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of published studies for evaluating the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on immediate breast reconstruction.
We searched medical databases to identify appropriate studies that assessed the impact of NAC on immediate breast reconstruction from the inception of this technique through April 2013. We then performed a meta-analysis of these studies.
Our searches identified 11 studies among 1,840 citations. In the meta-analysis, NAC did not increase the overall rate of complications after immediate breast reconstruction (odds ratio [OR] = 0.59; 95% confidence interval[CI] = 0.38–0.91). The complication rate was also unaffected by NAC when we considered infections (OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.46–1.45), hematomas (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 0.57–3.21), and seromas (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.23–2.55). Additionally, expander or implant loss did not significantly increase in patients after NAC (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 0.91–2.79). Only 2 studies (202 procedures) had reported total autologous flap loss, and they were included in our analysis; both studies found no association between NAC and total flap loss.
Our analysis suggests that NAC does not increase the complication rate after immediate breast reconstruction. For appropriately selected patients, immediate breast reconstruction following NAC is a safe procedure. The best way to study this issue in the future is to conduct a multicenter prospective study with a longer follow-up period and more clearly defined parameters.
The 26S proteasome plays a fundamental role in almost all eukaryotic cells, including vascular endothelial cells. However, it remains largely unknown how proteasome functionality is regulated in the vasculature. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)-derived NO is known to be essential to maintain endothelial homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to establish the connection between endothelial NO and 26S proteasome functionality in vascular endothelial cells. The 26S proteasome reporter protein levels, 26S proteasome activity, and the O-GlcNAcylation of Rpt2, a key subunit of the proteasome regulatory complex, were assayed in 26S proteasome reporter cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and mouse aortic tissues isolated from 26S proteasome reporter and eNOS knockout mice. Like the other selective NO donors, NO derived from activated eNOS (by pharmacological and genetic approach) increased O-GlcNAc modification of Rpt2, reduced proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity, and caused 26S proteasome reporter protein accumulation. Conversely, inactivation of eNOS reversed all the effects. SiRNA knockdown of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the key enzyme that catalyzes protein O-GlcNAcylation, abolished NO-induced effects. Consistently, adenoviral overexpression of O-GlcNAcase (OGA), the enzyme catalyzing the removal of the O-GlcNAc group, mimicked the effects of OGT knockdown. Finally, compared to eNOS wild type aortic tissues, 26S proteasome reporter mice lacking eNOS exhibited elevated 26S proteasome functionality in parallel with decreased Rpt2 O-GlcNAcylation, without changing the levels of Rpt2 protein. In conclusion, the eNOS-derived NO functions as a physiological suppressor of the 26S proteasome in vascular endothelial cells.
Low incidence of GVHD provides the major rational for pursuing UCB stem cell transplant (UCB SCT). Considerable evidence also suggests a lower rate of recurrence after UCB SCT than after transplantation from adult donors. Recent advances in understanding of the human fetal immune development provide a rational underpinning for these clinical outcomes. The fetal immune system is geared toward maintaining tolerance to foreign antigens, particularly to the maternal antigens to which it is exposed throughout gestation. To this purpose it is dominated by a unique population of peripheral T regulatory cells which actively maintain tolerance. This and other features of the UCB lymphoid system explains the low incidence of GVHD and superior outcomes of UCB SCT with NIMA (non-inherited maternal antigens)-matched grafts. At the same time, highly sensitized maternal microchimeric cells are frequently detected in UCB and likely contribute to superior GVL effects and low rates of disease recurrence in IPA (inherited paternal antigen) matched UCB recipients.
But historically erratic and slow hematopoietic recovery after UCB SCT leads to increased early morbidity and mortality, excessive hospitalization and costs. This has held up the widespread utilization of UCB SCT in adults. Here we summarize recent data on UCB SCT with an emphasis on studies of co-infusion of adult CD34 selected hematopoietic stem cells with UCB SCT. This procedure, through transient engraftment of adult hematopoietic stem cells largely overcomes the problem of delayed engraftment. We also briefly discuss unresolved issues and possible future applications of this technology.
S100A4 protein is associated with Ca2+-dependent regulation of intracellular activities and is significant in the invasion, growth and metastasis of cancer. In order to express rat S100A4 functionally and identify its biological activity following purification, an S100A4 gene fragment was optimized and fully synthesized via overlapping polymerase chain reaction. The gene was inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector, pBV220, with phage λ PRPL promoters following confirmation by DNA sequencing. The pBV220-S100A4 plasmid was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α. Following temperature induction, rat S100A4 was overexpressed and the protein was observed to be located in the supernatant of the lysates, which was ~30–40% of the total protein within the host. The protein was isolated and purified by metal-chelate affinity chromatography. High purity protein (>98% purity) was obtained and in vitro western blot analysis identified that the recombinant S100A4 was able to bind to the antibody against wild-type S100A4. The bioactivity of the recombinant protein was detected via Transwell migration and invasion assays. The polyclonal antibody of rat S100A4 protein was prepared for rabbit immunization and exhibited similar efficacies when compared with commercial S100A4. Therefore, rat S100A4 was functionally expressed in E. coli; thus, the production of active recombinant S100A4 protein in E. coli may further aid with the investigation and application of S100A4.
rat S100A4; functional expression; gene recombination
The squat exercise was usually performed with varying feet and hip angles by different populations. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast the three-dimensional knee angles, moments, and forces during dynamic squat exercises with varying feet and hip angles. Lower extremity motions and ground reaction forces for fifteen healthy subjects (9 females and 6 males) were recorded while performing the squat with feet pointing straight ahead (neutral squat), 30º feet adduction (squeeze squat) and 30º feet abduction (outward squat). Nonparametric procedures were used to detect differences in the interested measures between the conditions. No significant difference in three-dimensional peak knee angles was observed for three squat exercises (p>0.05), however, the overall tendency of knee rotations was affected by varying feet and hip positions. During the whole cycle, the outward squat mainly displayed adduction moments, while the neutral and squeeze squat demonstrated abduction moments. Peak abduction moments were significantly affected by feet positions (p<0.05). Moreover, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint forces progressively increased as knee flexed and decreased as knee extended, yet peak forces were not affected by varying feet positions (p>0.05). In conclusion, a neutral position is recommended to perform the squat exercise, while the squeeze squat and outward squat might contribute to the occurrence of joint pathologies.
squat performance; foot angle; knee alignment; rehabilitation; osteoarthritis