Entamoeba histolytica requires a dynamic actin cytoskeleton for intestinal and systemic pathogenicity. Diaphanous-related formins represent an important family of actin regulators that are activated by Rho GTPases. The E. histolytica genome encodes a large family of Rho GTPases and three diaphanous-related formins, of which EhFormin1 is known to regulate mitosis and cytokinesis in trophozoites. We demonstrate that EhFormin1 modulates actin polymerization through its formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. Despite a highly divergent diaphanous autoinhibitory domain, EhFormin1 is autoinhibited by an N- and C-terminal intramolecular interaction, but activated upon binding of EhRho1 to the N-terminal domain tandem. A crystal structure of the EhRho1·GTPγS/EhFormin1 complex illustrates an EhFormin1 conformation that diverges from mammalian mDia1 and lacks a secondary interaction with a Rho insert helix. The structural model also highlights residues required for specific recognition of the EhRho1 GTPase and suggests that the molecular mechanisms of EhFormin1 autoinhibition and activation differ from mammalian homologs.
actin polymerization; guanine nucleotide binding protein
G-protein signaling pathways, as key components of physiologic responsiveness and timing, are frequent targets for pharmacologic intervention. Here, we identify an effector for heterotrimeric G-protein α subunit (EhGα1) signaling from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis. EhGα1 interacts with this effector and GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP), EhRGS-RhoGEF, in a nucleotide state-selective fashion. Co-expression of EhRGS-RhoGEF with constitutively active EhGα1 and EhRacC leads to Rac-dependent spreading in Drosophila S2 cells. EhRGS-RhoGEF overexpression in E. histolytica trophozoites leads to reduced migration toward serum and lower cysteine protease activity, as well as reduced attachment to, and killing of, host cells. A 2.3 Å crystal structure of the full-length EhRGS-RhoGEF reveals a putative inhibitory helix engaging the DH domain Rho-binding surface and the PH domain. Mutational analysis of the EhGα1/EhRGS-RhoGEF interface confirms a canonical RGS domain rather than a RhoGEF-RGS (“rgRGS”) domain, suggesting a convergent evolution toward heterotrimeric and small G-protein cross-talk.
‘Regulator of G-protein Signaling’ (RGS) proteins constitute a class of intracellular signaling regulators that accelerate GTP hydrolysis by heterotrimeric Gα subunits. In recent years, RGS proteins have emerged as potential drug targets for small molecule modulation. Described in this unit are high-throughput screening procedures for identifying modulators of RGS protein-mediated GTPase acceleration (‘GAP activity’), for assessment of RGS domain/Gα interactions (most avid in vitro when Gα is bound by aluminum tetrafluoride), and for validation of candidate GAP-modulatory molecules with the single turnover GTP hydrolysis assay.
Regulator of G-protein Signaling (RGS) proteins; heterotrimeric G-protein α subunits; Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET); single-turnover GTP hydrolysis; fluorescence polarization (FP)
The mitochondrial protein MAVS (also known as IPS-1, VISA, CARDIF) interacts with RLR (RIG-I-like receptors) to induce type 1 interferon (IFN-I) during viral infection. NLRX1 is a mitochondrial NLR (nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeats containing) protein that attenuates MAVS-RLR signaling. Using Nlrx1−/− cells we confirmed NLRX1 attenuated IFN-I production, but additionally promoted autophagy during viral infection. This dual function of NLRX1 paralleled the previously described functions of the autophagy-related proteins Atg5-Atg12, but NLRX1 did not associate with Atg5-Atg12. High throughput quantitative mass spectrometry and endogenous protein-protein interaction revealed an NLRX1-interacting partner, mitochondrial Tu translation elongation factor (TUFM). TUFM interacted with Atg5-Atg12 and Atg16L1, and has similar functions as NLRX1 by inhibiting RLR-induced IFN-I but promoting autophagy. In the absence of NLRX1, increased IFN-I and decreased autophagy provide an advantage for host defense against vesicular stomatitis virus. This study establishes a link between an NLR protein and the viral-induced autophagic machinery via an intermediary partner, TUFM.
Uptake through the Dopamine Transporter (DAT) is the primary mechanism of terminating dopamine signaling within the brain, thus playing an essential role in neuronal homeostasis. Deregulation of DAT function has been linked to several neurological and psychiatric disorders including ADHD, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and drug addiction. Over the last 15 years, several studies have revealed a plethora of mechanisms influencing the activity and cellular distribution of DAT; suggesting that fine-tuning of dopamine homeostasis occurs via an elaborate interplay of multiple pathways. Here, we show for the first time that the βγ subunits of G proteins regulate DAT activity. In heterologous cells and brain tissue, a physical association between Gβγ subunits and DAT was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, in vitro pull-down assays using purified proteins established that this association occurs via a direct interaction between the intracellular carboxy-terminus of DAT and Gβγ. Functional assays performed in the presence of the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTP-γ-S, Gβγ subunit overexpression, or the Gβγ activator mSIRK all resulted in rapid inhibition of DAT activity in heterologous systems. Gβγ activation by mSIRK also inhibited dopamine uptake in brain synaptosomes and dopamine clearance from mouse striatum as measured by high-speed chronoamperometry in vivo. Gβγ subunits are intracellular signaling molecules that regulate a multitude of physiological processes through interactions with enzymes and ion channels. Our findings add neurotransmitter transporters to the growing list of molecules regulated by G-proteins and suggest a novel role for Gβγ signaling in the control of dopamine homeostasis.
The mainstay of assessing guanosine diphosphate release by the α-subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein is the [35S]guanosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) radionucleotide-binding assay. This assay requires separation of protein-bound GTPγS from free GTPγS at multiple time points followed by quantification via liquid scintillation. The arduous nature of this assay makes it difficult to quickly characterize multiple mutants, determine the effects of individual variables (e.g., temperature and Mg2+ concentration) on nucleotide exchange, or screen for small molecule modulators of Gα nucleotide binding/cycling properties. Here, we describe a robust, homogeneous, fluorescence polarization assay using a red-shifted fluorescent GTPγS probe that can rapidly determine the rate of GTPγS binding by Gα subunits.
Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways are vital components of physiology, and many are amenable to pharmacologic manipulation. Here, we identify functional heterotrimeric G-protein subunits in Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic colitis. The E. histolytica Gα subunit EhGα1 exhibits conventional nucleotide cycling properties and is seen to interact with EhGβγ dimers and a candidate effector, EhRGS-RhoGEF, in typical, nucleotide-state-selective fashions. In contrast, a crystal structure of EhGα1 highlights unique features and classification outside of conventional mammalian Gα subfamilies. E. histolytica trophozoites overexpressing wildtype EhGα1 in an inducible manner exhibit an enhanced ability to kill host cells that may be wholly or partially due to enhanced host cell attachment. EhGα1-overexpressing trophozoites also display enhanced transmigration across a Matrigel barrier, an effect that may result from altered baseline migration. Inducible expression of a dominant negative EhGα1 variant engenders the converse phenotypes. Transcriptomic studies reveal that modulation of pathogenesis-related trophozoite behaviors by perturbed heterotrimeric G-protein expression includes transcriptional regulation of virulence factors and altered trafficking of cysteine proteases. Collectively, our studies suggest that E. histolytica possesses a divergent heterotrimeric G-protein signaling axis that modulates key aspects of cellular processes related to the pathogenesis of this infectious organism.
Entamoeba histolytica causes an estimated 50 million intestinal infections and 100,000 deaths per year worldwide. Here, we identify functional heterotrimeric G-protein subunits in Entamoeba histolytica, constituting a signaling pathway which, when perturbed, is seen to regulate multiple cellular processes required for pathogenesis. Like mammalian counterparts, EhGα1 forms a heterotrimer with EhGβγ that is dependent on guanine nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis. Despite engaging a classical G-protein effector, EhRGS-RhoGEF, EhGα1 diverges from mammalian Gα subunits and cannot be classified within mammalian Gα subfamilies, as highlighted by distinct structural features in our crystal structure of EhGα1 in the inactive conformation. To identify roles of G-protein signaling in pathogenesis-related cellular processes, we engineered trophozoites for inducible expression of EhGα1 or a dominant negative mutant, finding that G-protein signaling perturbation affects host cell attachment and the related process of contact-dependent killing, as well as trophozoite migration and Matrigel transmigration. A transcriptomic comparison of our engineered strains revealed differential expression of known virulence-associated genes, including amoebapores and cytotoxic cysteine proteases. The expression data suggested, and biochemical experiments confirmed, that cysteine protease secretion is altered upon G-protein overexpression, identifying a mechanism by which pathogenesis-related trophozoite behaviors are perturbed. In summary, E. histolytica encodes a vital heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathway that is likely amenable to pharmacologic manipulation.
The de novo design of protein-binding peptides is challenging, because it requires identifying both a sequence and a backbone conformation favorable for binding. We used a computational strategy that iterates between structure and sequence optimization to redesign the C-terminal portion of the RGS14 GoLoco motif peptide so that it adopts a new conformation when bound to Gαi1. An X-ray crystal structure of the redesigned complex closely matches the computational model, with a backbone RMSD of 1.1 Å.
Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches integral to a panoply of different physiological responses that many organisms make to environmental cues. The switch from inactive to active Gαβγ heterotrimer relies on nucleotide cycling by the Gα subunit: exchange of GTP for GDP activates Gα, whereas its intrinsic enzymatic activity catalyzes GTP hydrolysis to GDP and inorganic phosphate, thereby reverting Gα to its inactive state. In several genetic studies of filamentous fungi, such as the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a G42R mutation in the phosphate-binding loop of Gα subunits is assumed to be GTPase-deficient and thus constitutively active. Here, we demonstrate that Gα(G42R) mutants are not GTPase deficient, but rather incapable of achieving the activated conformation. Two crystal structure models suggest that Arg-42 prevents a typical switch region conformational change upon Gαi1(G42R) binding to GDP·AlF4− or GTP, but rotameric flexibility at this locus allows for unperturbed GTP hydrolysis. Gα(G42R) mutants do not engage the active state-selective peptide KB-1753 nor RGS domains with high affinity, but instead favor interaction with Gβγ and GoLoco motifs in any nucleotide state. The corresponding Gαq(G48R) mutant is not constitutively active in cells and responds poorly to aluminum tetrafluoride activation. Comparative analyses of M. oryzae strains harboring either G42R or GTPase-deficient Q/L mutations in the Gα subunits MagA or MagB illustrate functional differences in environmental cue processing and intracellular signaling outcomes between these two Gα mutants, thus demonstrating the in vivo functional divergence of G42R and activating G-protein mutants.
Heterotrimeric G-proteins function as molecular switches to convey cellular signals. When a G-protein coupled receptor encounters its ligand at the cellular membrane, it catalyzes guanine nucleotide exchange on the Gα subunit, resulting in a shift from an inactive to an active conformation. G-protein signaling pathways are conserved from mammals to plants and fungi, including the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. A mutation in the Gα subunit (G42R), previously thought to eliminate its GTPase activity, leading to constitutive activation, has been utilized to investigate roles of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways in multiple species of filamentous fungi. Here, we demonstrate through structural, biochemical, and cellular approaches that G42R mutants are neither GTPase deficient nor constitutively active, but rather are unable to transition to the activated conformation. A direct comparison of M. oryzae fungal strains harboring either G42R or truly constitutively activating mutations in two Gα subunits, MagA and MagB, revealed markedly different phenotypes. Our results suggest that activation of MagB is critical for pathogenic development of M. oryzae in response to hydrophobic surfaces, such as plant leaves. Furthermore, the lack of constitutive activity by Gα(G42R) mutants prompts a re-evaluation of its use in previous genetic experiments in multiple fungal species.
The diverse RGS protein family is responsible for the precise timing of G-protein signaling. To understand how RGS protein structure encodes their common ability to inactivate G-proteins and their selective G-protein recognition, we integrated structure-based energy calculations with biochemical measurements of RGS protein activity. We revealed that, in addition to previously identified conserved residues, RGS proteins contain another group of variable modulatory residues, which reside at the periphery of the RGS-domain–G-protein interface and fine-tune G-protein recognition. Mutations of modulatory residues in high-activity RGS proteins impaired RGS function, whereas redesign of low-activity RGS proteins in critical modulatory positions yielded complete gain-of-function. Therefore, RGS proteins combine a conserved core interface with peripheral modulatory residues to selectively optimize G-protein recognition and inactivation. Finally, we show that our quantitative framework for analyzing protein-protein interactions can be extended to analyze interaction specificity across other large protein families.
The heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunit has long been considered a bimodal, GTP-hydrolyzing switch controlling the duration of signal transduction by seven-transmembrane domain (7TM) cell-surface receptors. In 1996, we and others identified a superfamily of “regulator of G-protein signaling” (RGS) proteins that accelerate the rate of GTP hydrolysis by Gα subunits (dubbed GTPase-accelerating protein or “GAP” activity). This discovery resolved the paradox between the rapid physiological timing seen for 7TM receptor signal transduction in vivo and the slow rates of GTP hydrolysis exhibited by purified Gα subunits in vitro. Here, we review more recent discoveries that have highlighted newly-appreciated roles for RGS proteins beyond mere negative regulators of 7TM signaling. These new roles include the RGS-box-containing, RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RGS-RhoGEFs) that serve as Gα effectors to couple 7TM and semaphorin receptor signaling to RhoA activation, the potential for RGS12 to serve as a nexus for signaling from tyrosine kinases and G-proteins of both the Gα and Ras-superfamilies, the potential for R7-subfamily RGS proteins to couple Gα subunits to 7TM receptors in the absence of conventional Gβγ dimers, and the potential for the conjoint 7TM/RGS-box Arabidopsis protein AtRGS1 to serve as a ligand-operated GAP for the plant Gα AtGPA1. Moreover, we review the discovery of novel biochemical activities that also impinge on the guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis cycle of Gα subunits: namely, the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) activity of the GoLoco motif-containing proteins and the 7TM receptor-independent guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity of Ric‑8/synembryn. Discovery of these novel GAP, GDI, and GEF activities have helped to illuminate a new role for Gα subunit GDP/GTP cycling required for microtubule force generation and mitotic spindle function in chromosomal segregation.
asymmetric cell division; GoLoco motif; G-protein; RGS proteins; RIC-8
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a robust method to detect and quantify macromolecular interactions; however, to measure binding interactions, one component must be immobilized on a sensor surface. This is typically achieved using covalent immobilization via free amines or thiols, or noncovalent immobilization using high affinity interactions such as biotin/streptavidin or antibody/antigen. In this Chapter we describe a robust method to covalently immobilize His6 fusion proteins on the sensor surface for SPR analysis.
Biacore; SPR; Capture Coupling; Immobilization; Hexahistidine; His-tag
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a highly sensitive method for the detection of molecular interactions. One interacting partner is immobilized on the sensor chip surface while the other is injected across the sensor surface. This chapter focuses on high affinity immobilization of protein substrates for affinity and kinetic analyses using biotin/streptavidin interaction and GST/anti-GST-antibody interaction.
BIAcore 3000; Biotin; Streptavidin; GST; High-Affinity Immobilization; SPR
RGS proteins are critical modulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling given their ability to deactivate Gα subunits via “GTPase-accelerating protein” (GAP) activity. Their selectivity for specific GPCRs makes them attractive therapeutic targets. However, measuring GAP activity is complicated by slow GDP release from Gα and lack of solution-phase assays for detecting free GDP in the presence of excess GTP. To overcome these hurdles, we developed a Gαi1 mutant with increased GDP dissociation and decreased GTP hydrolysis, enabling detection of GAP activity using steady-state GTP hydrolysis. Gαi1(R178M/A326S) GTPase activity was stimulated 6~12 fold by RGS proteins known to act on Gαi subunits, and not affected by those unable to act on Gαi, demonstrating that the Gα/RGS domain interaction selectivity was not altered by mutation. Gαi1(R178M/A326S) interacted with RGS proteins with expected binding specificity and affinities. To enable non-radioactive, homogenous detection of RGS protein effects on Gαi1(R178M/A326S), we developed a Transcreener® fluorescence polarization immunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody that recognizes GDP with greater than 100-fold selectivity over GTP. Combining Gαi1(R178M/A326S) with a homogenous, fluorescence-based GDP detection assay provides a facile means to explore the targeting of RGS proteins as a new approach for selective modulation of GPCR signaling.
Fluorescence polarization; GDP detection; regulators of G-protein signaling; surface plasmon resonance
Disrupting LGN’s function at lateral membrane domains displaces the axis of cell division in cyst-forming MDCK cells.
Coordinated cell polarization and mitotic spindle orientation are thought to be important for epithelial morphogenesis. Whether spindle orientation is indeed linked to epithelial morphogenesis and how it is controlled at the molecular level is still unknown. Here, we show that the NuMA- and Gα-binding protein LGN is required for directing spindle orientation during cystogenesis of MDCK cells. LGN localizes to the lateral cell cortex, and is excluded from the apical cell cortex of dividing cells. Depleting LGN, preventing its cortical localization, or disrupting its interaction with endogenous NuMA or Gα proteins all lead to spindle misorientation and abnormal cystogenesis. Moreover, artificial mistargeting of endogenous LGN to the apical membrane results in a near 90° rotation of the spindle axis and profound cystogenesis defects that are dependent on cell division. The normal apical exclusion of LGN during mitosis appears to be mediated by atypical PKC. Thus, cell polarization–mediated spatial restriction of spindle orientation determinants is critical for epithelial morphogenesis.
Heterotrimeric G proteins (Gαβγ) transmit signals from activated G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream effectors through a guanine nucleotide signaling cycle. Numerous studies indicate that the carboxy-terminal α5 helix of Gα subunits participate in Gα-receptor binding, and previous EPR studies suggest this receptor-mediated interaction induces a rotation and translation of the α5 helix of the Gα subunit [Oldham et al., Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 13: 772-7 (2006)]. Based on this result, an engineered disulfide bond was designed to constrain the α5 helix of Gαi1 into its EPR-measured receptor-associated conformation through the introduction of cysteines at positions 56 in the α1 helix and 333 in the α5 helix (I56C/Q333C Gαi1). A functional mimetic of the EPR-measured α5 helix dipole movement upon receptor association was additionally created by introduction of a positive charge at the amino-terminus of this helix, D328R Gαi1. Both proteins exhibit dramatically elevated basal nucleotide exchange. The 2.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the I56C/Q333C Gαi1 in complex with GDP-AlF4 − reveals the shift of the α5 helix toward the guanine nucleotide-binding site that is anticipated by EPR measurements. The structure of the I56C/Q333C Gαi1 subunit further revealed altered positions for the switch regions and throughout the Gαi1 subunit, accompanied by significantly elevated crystallographic temperature factors. Combined with previous evidence in the literature, the structural analysis supports the critical role of electrostatics of the α5 helix dipole and overall conformational variability during nucleotide release.
A critical role of the Gβγ dimer in heterotrimeric G-protein signaling is to facilitate engagement and activation of the Gα subunit by cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors. However, high-resolution structural information of the connectivity between receptor and Gβγ has not previously been available. Here, we describe the structural determinants of Gβ1γ2 in complex with a C-terminal region of the parathyroid hormone receptor-1 (PTH1R) as obtained by x-ray crystallography. The structure reveals that several critical residues within PTH1R contact solely Gβ residues located within the outer edge of WD1 and WD7 repeat segments of the Gβ toroid structure. These regions encompass a predicted membrane-facing region of Gβ thought to be oriented in a fashion that is accessible to the membrane-spanning receptor. Mutation of key receptor contact residues on Gβ1 lead to a selective loss-of-function in receptor/heterotrimer coupling while preserving Gβ1γ2 activation of the effector phospholipase-C beta.
Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins enhance the intrinsic GTPase activity of G protein α (Gα) subunits and are vital for proper signaling kinetics downstream of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). R7 subfamily RGS proteins specifically and obligately dimerize with the atypical G protein β5 (Gβ5) subunit through an internal G protein γ (Gγ)-subunit–like (GGL) domain. Here we present the 1.95-Å crystal structure of the Gβ5–RGS9 complex, which is essential for normal visual and neuronal signal transduction. This structure reveals a canonical RGS domain that is functionally integrated within a molecular complex that is poised for integration of multiple steps during G-protein activation and deactivation.
Heterotrimeric G-proteins are a class of signal transduction proteins highly conserved throughout evolution that serve as dynamic molecular switches regulating the intracellular communication initiated by extracellular signals including sensory information. This property is achieved by a guanine nucleotide cycle wherein the inactive, signaling-incompetent Gα subunit is normally bound to GDP; activation to signaling-competent Gα occurs through the exchange of GDP for GTP (typically catalyzed via seven-transmembrane domain G-protein coupled receptors [GPCRs]), which dissociates the Gβγ dimer from Gα-GTP and initiates signal transduction. The hydrolysis of GTP, greatly accelerated by “Regulator of G-protein Signaling” (RGS) proteins, returns Gα to its inactive GDP-bound form and terminates signaling. Through extensive characterization of mammalian Gα isoforms, the rate-limiting step in this cycle is currently considered to be the GDP/GTP exchange rate, which can be orders of magnitude slower than the GTP hydrolysis rate. However, we have recently demonstrated that, in Arabidopsis, the guanine nucleotide cycle appears to be limited by the rate of GTP hydrolysis rather than nucleotide exchange. This finding has important implications for the mechanism of sugar sensing in Arabidopsis. We also discuss these data on Arabidopsis G-protein nucleotide cycling in relation to recent reports of putative plant GPCRs and heterotrimeric G-protein effectors in Arabidopsis.
Arabidopsis; glucose; G-protein; nucleotide exchange; RGS protein
The GoLoco motif is a short Gα-binding polypeptide sequence. It is often found in proteins that regulate cell-surface receptor signaling, such as RGS12, as well as in proteins that regulate mitotic spindle orientation and force generation during cell division, such as GPSM2/LGN. Here, we describe a high-throughput fluorescence polarization (FP) assay using fluorophore-labeled GoLoco motif peptides for identifying inhibitors of the GoLoco motif interaction with the G-protein alpha subunit Gαi1. The assay exhibits considerable stability over time and is tolerant to DMSO up to 5%. The Z′-factors for robustness of the GPSM2 and RGS12 GoLoco motif assays in a 96-well plate format were determined to be 0.81 and 0.84, respectively; the latter assay was run in a 384-well plate format and produced a Z′-factor of 0.80. To determine the screening factor window (Z-factor) of the RGS12 GoLoco motif screen using a small molecule library, the NCI Diversity Set was screened. The Z-factor was determined to be 0.66, suggesting that this FP assay would perform well when developed for 1,536-well format and scaled up to larger libraries. We then miniaturized to a 4 μL final volume a pair of FP assays utilizing fluorescein- (green) and rhodamine- (red) labeled RGS12 GoLoco motif peptides. In a fully-automated run, the Sigma-Aldrich LOPAC1280 collection was screened three times with every library compound being tested over a range of concentrations following the quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) paradigm; excellent assay performance was noted with average Z-factors of 0.84 and 0.66 for the green- and red-label assays, respectively.
Fluorescence anisotropy; fluorescence polarization; GoLoco motif; heterotrimeric G-proteins; high-throughput screening
Heterotrimeric G-proteins, comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, are molecular switches that regulate numerous signaling pathways involved in cellular physiology. This characteristic is achieved by the adoption of two principal states: an inactive state in which GDP-bound Gα is complexed with the Gβγ dimer, and an active state in which GTP-bound Gα is freed of its Gβγ binding partner. Structural studies have illustrated the basis for the distinct conformations of these states which are regulated by alterations in three precise ‘switch regions’ of the Gα subunit. Discrete differences in conformation between GDP- and GTP-bound Gαunderlie its nucleotide-dependent protein-protein interactions (e.g., with Gβγ/receptor and effectors, respectively) that are critical for maintaining their proper nucleotide cycling and signaling properties. Recently, several screening approaches have been used to identify peptide sequences capable of interacting with Gα (and free Gβγ) in nucleotide-dependent fashions. These peptides have demonstrated applications in direct modulation of the nucleotide cycle, assessing the structural basis for aspects of Gα and Gβγ signaling, and serving as biosensor tools in assays for Gα activation including high-throughput drug screening. In this review, we highlight some of the methods used for such discoveries and discuss the insights that can be gleaned from application of these identified peptides.
The ability to manipulate protein binding affinities is important for the development of proteins as biosensors, industrial reagents, and therapeutics. We have developed a structure-based method to rationally predict single mutations at protein-protein interfaces that enhance binding affinities. The protocol is based on the premise that increasing buried hydrophobic surface area and/or reducing buried hydrophilic surface area will generally lead to enhanced affinity if large steric clashes are not introduced and buried polar groups are not left without a hydrogen bond partner. The procedure selects affinity enhancing point mutations at the protein-protein interface using three criteria: 1) the mutation must be from a polar amino acid to a non-polar amino acid or from a non-polar amino acid to a larger non-polar amino acid, 2) the free energy of binding as calculated with the Rosetta protein modeling program should be more favorable than the free energy of binding calculated for the wild type complex and 3) the mutation should not be predicted to significantly destabilize the monomers. The Rosetta energy function emphasizes short-range interactions: steric repulsion, Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, and an implicit solvation model that penalizes placing atoms adjacent to polar groups. The performance of the computational protocol was experimentally tested on two separate protein complexes; Gαi1 from the heterotrimeric G-protein system bound to the RGS14 GoLoco motif, and the E2, UbcH7, bound to the E3, E6AP from the ubiquitin pathway. 12 single-site mutations that were predicted to be stabilizing were synthesized and characterized in the laboratory. 9 of the 12 mutations successfully increased binding affinity with 5 of these increasing binding by over 1.0 kcal/mol. To further assess our approach we searched the literature for point mutations that pass our criteria and have experimentally determined binding affinities. Of the 8 mutations identified, 5 were accurately predicted to increase binding affinity, further validating the method as a useful tool to increase protein-protein binding affinities.
Computational Protein Design; Protein-Protein Interactions; Protein Binding Hotspots; Rosetta Molecular Modeling Software; Hydrophobic Effect
The heart initially compensates for hypertension-mediated pressure overload by enhancing its contractile force and developing hypertrophy without dilation. Gq protein–coupled receptor pathways become activated and can depress function, leading to cardiac failure. Initial adaptation mechanisms to reduce cardiac damage during such stimulation remain largely unknown. Here we have shown that this initial adaptation requires regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2). Mice lacking RGS2 had a normal basal cardiac phenotype, yet responded rapidly to pressure overload, with increased myocardial Gq signaling, marked cardiac hypertrophy and failure, and early mortality. Swimming exercise, which is not accompanied by Gq activation, induced a normal cardiac response, while Rgs2 deletion in Gαq-overexpressing hearts exacerbated hypertrophy and dilation. In vascular smooth muscle, RGS2 is activated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), suppressing Gq-stimulated vascular contraction. In normal mice, but not Rgs2–/– mice, PKG activation by the chronic inhibition of cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) suppressed maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, inhibiting Gq-coupled stimuli. Importantly, PKG was similarly activated by PDE5 inhibition in myocardium from both genotypes, but PKG plasma membrane translocation was more transient in Rgs2–/– myocytes than in controls and was unaffected by PDE5 inhibition. Thus, RGS2 is required for early myocardial compensation to pressure overload and mediates the initial antihypertrophic and cardioprotective effects of PDE5 inhibitors.
G-proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and active GTP-bound state, serving as molecular switches that coordinate cellular signaling. We recently used phage-display to identify a series of peptides that bind Gα subunits in a nucleotide-dependent manner [Johnston, C. A., Willard, F. S., Jezyk, M. R., Fredericks, Z., Bodor, E. T., Jones, M. B., Blaesius, R., Watts, V. J., Harden, T. K., Sondek, J., Ramer, J. K., and Siderovski, D. P. (2005) Structure 13, 1069–1080]. Here we describe the structural features and functions of KB-1753, a peptide that binds selectively to GDP·AlF4−- and GTPγS-bound states of Gαi subunits. KB-1753 blocks interaction of Gαtransducin with its effector, cGMP phosphodiesterase, and inhibits transducin-mediated activation of cGMP degradation. Additionally, KB-1753 interferes with RGS protein binding and resultant GAP activity. A fluorescent KB-1753 variant was found to act as a sensor for activated Gα in vitro. The crystal structure of KB-1753 bound to Gαi1·GDP·AlF4− reveals binding to a conserved hydrophobic groove between switch II and α3 helices, and, along with supporting biochemical data and previous structural analyses, supports the notion that this is the site of effector interactions for Gαi subunits.
Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by Gα subunits and are thus crucial to the timing of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Small molecule inhibition of RGS proteins is an attractive therapeutic approach to diseases involving dysregulated GPCR signaling. Methyl-N-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]-4-nitrobenzenesulfinimidoate (CCG-4986) was reported as a selective RGS4 inhibitor, but with an unknown mechanism of action (Roman et al., 2007 Mol Pharmacol. 71:169−75). Here, we describe its mechanism of action as covalent modification of RGS4. Mutant RGS4 proteins devoid of surface-exposed cysteine residues were characterized using surface plasmon resonance and FRET assays of Gα binding, as well as single-turnover GTP hydrolysis assays of RGS4 GAP activity, demonstrating that cysteine-132 within RGS4 is required for sensitivity to CCG-4986 inhibition. Sensitivity to CCG-4986 can be engendered within RGS8 by replacing the wildtype residue found in this position to cysteine. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a 153 dalton fragment of CCG-4986 as being covalently attached to the surface-exposed cysteines of the RGS4 RGS domain. We conclude that the mechanism of action of the RGS protein inhibitor CCG-4986 is via covalent modification of Cys-132 of RGS4, likely causing steric hinderance with the all-helical domain of the Gα substrate.
CCG-4986; RGS4; RGS protein inhibitor; regulator of G-protein signaling; thiol adduct