Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) infects a wide range of animals including dogs, pigs, cats, and humans; however, its association with disease in humans remains controversial. In contrast to parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), PIV5 is remarkably non-cytopathic in monolayer cultures of immortalized epithelial cells. To compare the cytopathology produced by these viruses in a relevant human tissue, we infected an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium and measured outcomes of cytopathology. PIV5, PIV3 and, RSV all infected ciliated cells, and PIV5 and PIV3 infection was dependent on sialic acid residues. Only PIV5-infected cells formed syncytia. PIV5 infection resulted in a more rapid loss of infected cells by shedding of infected cells into the lumen. These studies revealed striking differences in cytopathology of PIV5 versus PIV3 or RSV and indicate the extent of cytopathology determined in cell-lines does not predict events in differentiated airway cells.
Parainfluenza virus; respiratory syncytial virus; airway epithelium; cytopathic effect; viral pathogenesis; syncytia; ciliated cell shedding; viral persistence; multi-potent progenitor cells; 3-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction
Muc1 (MUC1 in humans) is a membrane-tethered mucin that exerts anti-inflammatory effects in the lung during bacterial infection. Muc1 and other mucins are also likely to form a protective barrier in the lung. We used mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1, also known as MAdV-1) to determine the role of Muc1 in the pathogenesis of an adenovirus in its natural host. Following intranasal inoculation of wild type mice, we detected increased TNF-α, a cytokine linked to Muc1 production, but no consistent changes in the production of lung Muc1, Muc5ac or overall lung mucus production. Viral loads were modestly higher in the lungs of Muc1−/− mice compared to Muc1+/+ mice at several early time points but decreased to similar levels by 14 days post infection in both groups. However, cellular inflammation and the expression of CXCL1, CCL5, and CCL2 did not significantly differ between Muc1−/− and Muc1+/+ mice. Our data therefore suggest that Muc1 may contribute to a physical barrier that protects against MAV-1 respiratory infection. However, our data do not reveal an anti-inflammatory effect of Muc1 that contributes to MAV-1 pathogenesis..
mucin; Muc1; adenovirus
AAV1 and AAV6 are two closely related AAV serotypes. In the present study, we found AAV6 was more efficient in transducing mouse lower airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo than AAV1. To further explore the mechanism of this difference, we found that significantly more AAV1 bound to mouse airway epithelia than AAV6, yet transduction by AAV6 was far superior. Lectin competition assays demonstrated that both AAV1 and AAV6 similarly utilize α-2, 3-, and to a lesser extend α-2, 6- linked sialic acids as the receptors for transduction. Furthermore, the rates of AAV endocytosis could not account for the transduction differences of AAV1 and AAV6. Finally, it was revealed that AAV6 was less susceptible to ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated blocks than AAV1 when transducing mouse airway epithelia. Thus compared with AAV1, AAV6 has a unique ability to escape proteasome-mediated degradation, which is likely responsible for its higher transduction efficiency in mouse airway epithelium.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its metabolite adenosine regulate airway mucociliary clearance via activation of purinoceptors. In this study, we investigated the contribution of goblet cells to airway epithelial ATP release. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cultures, typically dominated by ciliated cells, were induced to develop goblet cell metaplasia by infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or treatment with IL-13. Under resting conditions, goblet-cell metaplastic cultures displayed enhanced mucin secretion accompanied by increased rates of ATP release and mucosal surface adenosine accumulation as compared with nonmetaplastic control HBE cultures. Intracellular calcium chelation [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester] or disruption of the secretory pathways (nocodazole, brefeldin A, and N-ethylmaleimide) decreased mucin secretion and ATP release in goblet-cell metaplastic HBE cultures. Conversely, stimuli that triggered calcium-regulated mucin secretion (e.g., ionomycin or UTP) increased luminal ATP release and adenyl purine accumulation in control and goblet-cell metaplastic HBE cultures. Goblet cell–associated ATP release was not blocked by the connexin/pannexin hemichannel inhibitor carbenoxolone, suggesting direct nucleotide release from goblet cell vesicles rather than the hemichannel insertion. Collectively, our data demonstrate that nucleotide release is increased by goblet cell metaplasia, reflecting, at least in part, a mechanism tightly associated with goblet cell mucin secretion. Increased goblet cell nucleotide release and resultant adenosine accumulation provide compensatory mechanisms to hydrate mucins by paracrine stimulation of ciliated cell ion and water secretion and maintain mucociliary clearance, and to modulate inflammatory responses.
goblet cell metaplasia; ATP release; mucin; airway epithelia; RSV
The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) proteins regulate innate immunity. Although the positive regulatory impact of NLRs is clear, their inhibitory roles are not well defined. We showed Nlrx1−/− mice exhibited increased expression of antiviral signaling molecules IFN-β, STAT2, OAS1 and IL-6 after influenza virus infection. Consistent with increased inflammation, Nlrx1−/− mice exhibited marked morbidity and histopathology. Infection of these mice with an influenza strain that carries a mutated NS-1 protein, which normally prevents IFN induction by interaction with RNA and the intracellular RNA sensor RIG-I, further exacerbated IL-6 and type I IFN signaling. NLRX1 also weakened cytokine responses to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus in human cells. Mechanistically, Nlrx1 deletion led to constitutive interaction of MAVS and RIG-I. Additionally, an inhibitory function is identified for NLRX1 during LPS-activation of macrophages where the MAVS-RIG-I pathway was not involved. NLRX1 interacts with TRAF6 and inhibits NF-κB activation. Thus, NLRX1 functions as a checkpoint of overzealous inflammation.
Zhang and colleagues examine the efficacy of a replication-competent parainfluenza virus (PIV)-based vector for airway gene transfer applications. Using an in vitro model of rhesus airway epithelium, the authors demonstrate that PIV mediates efficient gene transfer in rhesus epithelium. In vivo experiments revealed that intranasal administration of a PIV vector expressing rhesus macaque α-fetoprotein (rhAFP) results in the transient secretion of rhAFP in both mucosal and serosal compartments.
Over the last two decades, enormous effort has been focused on developing virus-based gene delivery vectors to target the respiratory airway epithelium as a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. However, amongst other problems, the efficiency of gene delivery to the differentiated airway epithelial cells of the lung has been too low for clinical benefit. Although not a target for CF therapy, the nasal epithelium exhibits cellular morphology and composition similar to that of the lower airways, thus representing an accessible and relevant tissue target for evaluating novel and improved gene delivery vectors. We previously reported that replication-competent human parainfluenza virus (PIV)-based vectors efficiently deliver the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene to sufficient numbers of cultured CF airway epithelial cells to completely correct the bioelectric function of CF cells to normal levels, resulting in restoration of mucus transport. Here, using an in vitro model of rhesus airway epithelium, we demonstrate that PIV mediates efficient gene transfer in rhesus epithelium as in the human counterpart. Naive rhesus macaques were inoculated intranasally with a PIV vector expressing rhesus macaque α-fetoprotein (rhAFP), and expression was monitored longitudinally. rhAFP was detected in nasal lavage fluid and in serum samples, indicating that PIV-mediated gene transfer was effective and that rhAFP was secreted into both mucosal and serosal compartments. Although expression was transient, lasting up to 10 days, it paralleled virus replication, suggesting that as PIV was cleared, rhAFP expression was lost. No adverse reactions or signs of discomfort were noted, and only mild, transient elevations of a small number of inflammatory cytokines were measured at the peak of virus replication. In summary, rhAFP proved suitable for monitoring in vivo gene delivery over time, and PIV vectors appear to be promising airway-specific gene transfer vehicles that warrant further development.
Tissue damage predisposes humans to life-threatening disseminating infection by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial adherence to host tissue is a critical first step in this infection process. It is well established that P. aeruginosa attachment to host cells involves type IV pili (TFP), which are retractile surface fibers. The molecular details of attachment and the identity of the bacterial adhesin and host receptor remain controversial. Using a mucosal epithelium model system derived from primary human tissue, we show that the pilus-associated protein PilY1 is required for bacterial adherence. We establish that P. aeruginosa preferentially binds to exposed basolateral host cell surfaces, providing a mechanistic explanation for opportunistic infection of damaged tissue. Further, we demonstrate that invasion and fulminant infection of intact host tissue requires the coordinated and mutually dependent action of multiple bacterial factors, including pilus fiber retraction and the host cell intoxication system, termed type III secretion. Our findings offer new and important insights into the complex interactions between a pathogen and its human host and provide compelling evidence that PilY1 serves as the principal P. aeruginosa adhesin for human tissue and that it specifically recognizes a host receptor localized or enriched on basolateral epithelial cell surfaces.
It has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma worldwide. Human ability to generate physiologically required quantities of vitamin D through sun exposure is decreasing with increasing geographical latitude.
Considering that vitamin D deficiency is usually due to lack of outdoor sun exposure, this study is designed to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of asthma should be expected at high relative to low geographical latitudes.
Linear regression analyses are performed on asthma prevalence in the U.S. adult population vs. geographical latitude, insolation, air temperature, and air pollution (PM2.5) for 97 major metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas of the continental United States of America and on general population asthma prevalence vs. geographical latitude in eight metropolitan areas of Australia.
A 10° change in geographical latitude from southern to northern regions of the Eastern Seaboard is associated with a 2% increase in adult asthma prevalence (p<0.001). Total insolation in winter months is almost as strong as latitude in its ability to explain the observed spatial variation in the prevalence of asthma (r2 = 0.43; p<0.001). Similar results are obtained using the Australian data (r2 = 0.73; p<0.01), suggesting a consistent association between the latitude/insolation and asthma prevalence worldwide.
The results of this study suggest that, as a known modulator of the immune response closely linked with the geographical latitude and erythemal UV irradiation, vitamin D may play an important role in the development/exacerbation of asthma.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of severe pediatric respiratory viral disease. We characterized wild-type HPIV2 infection in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) and found that the virus replicates to high titer, sheds apically, targets ciliated cells, and induces minimal cytopathology. Replication of an experimental, live attenuated HPIV2 vaccine strain, containing both temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating mutations, was restricted >30-fold compared to rHPIV2-WT in HAE at 32°C and exhibited little productive replication at 37°C. This restriction paralleled attenuation in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, supporting the HAE model as an appropriate and convenient system for characterizing HPIV2 vaccine candidates.
Human parainfluenza virus; Live attenuated vaccine candidate; Human ciliated airway epithelium
In wild-type human parainfluenza virus type 2 (WT HPIV2), one gene (the P/V gene) encodes both the polymerase-associated phosphoprotein (P) and the accessory V protein. We generated a HPIV2 virus (rHPIV2-Vko) in which the P/V gene encodes only the P protein to examine the role of V in replication in vivo and as a potential live attenuated virus vaccine. Preventing expression of V protein severely impaired virus recovery from cDNA and growth in vitro, particularly in IFN-competent cells. rHPIV2-Vko, unlike WT HPIV2, strongly induced IFN-β and permitted IFN signaling, leading to establishment of a robust antiviral state. rHPIV2-Vko infection induced extensive syncytia and cytopathicity that was due to both apoptosis and necrosis. Replication of rHPIV2-Vko was highly restricted in the respiratory tract of African green monkeys and in differentiated primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures, suggesting that V protein is essential for efficient replication of HPIV2 in organized epithelial cells and that rHPIV2-Vko is over-attenuated for use as a live attenuated vaccine.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal recessive genetic disease in the Caucasian population. It is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that is normally expressed in ciliated airway epithelial cells and the submucosal glands of the lung. Since the CFTR gene was first characterized in 1989, a major goal has been to develop an effective gene therapy for CF lung disease, which has the potential to ameliorate morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) naturally infects the ciliated cells in the human airway epithelium. In addition, the immune response mounted against an RSV infection does not prevent subsequent infections, suggesting that an RSV-based vector might be effectively readministered. To test whether the large 4.5-kb CFTR gene could be expressed by a recombinant RSV and whether infectious virus could be used to deliver CFTR to ciliated airway epithelium derived from CF patients, we inserted the CFTR gene into four sites in a recombinant green fluorescent protein-expressing RSV (rgRSV) genome to generate virus expressing four different levels of CFTR protein. Two of these four rgRSV-CFTR vectors were capable of expressing CFTR with little effect on viral replication. rgRSV-CFTR infection of primary human airway epithelial cultures derived from CF patients resulted in expression of CFTR protein that was properly localized at the luminal surface and corrected the chloride ion channel defect in these cells.
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene have been used to deliver CFTR to the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, no significant CFTR function has been demonstrated likely due to low transduction efficiencies of the AAV vectors. To improve AAV transduction efficiency for human airway epithelium, we generated a chimeric AAV library and performed directed evolution of AAV on an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium. Two independent and novel AAV variants were identified that contained capsid components from AAV-1, AAV-6, and/or AAV-9. The transduction efficiencies of the two novel AAV variants for human ciliated airway epithelium were three times higher than that for AAV6. The novel variants were then used to deliver CFTR to ciliated airway epithelium from CF patients. Here we show that our novel AAV variants but not the parental AAV provide sufficient CFTR delivery to correct the chloride ion transport defect to ~25% levels measured in non-CF cells. These results suggest that directed evolution of AAV on relevant in vitro models will enable further improvements in CFTR gene transfer efficiency and the development of an efficacious and safe gene transfer vector for CF lung disease.
The host adaptation of influenza virus is partly dependent on the sialic acid (SA) isoform bound by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Avian influenza viruses preferentially bind the α-2,3 SA and human influenza viruses the α-2,6 isoform. Each isoform is predominantly associated with different surface epithelial cell types of the human upper airway. Using recombinant HAs and human tracheal airway epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo, we show that many avian HA subtypes do not adhere to this canonical view of SA specificity. The propensity of avian viruses to adapt to human receptors may thus be more widespread than previously supposed.
Mammalian airways normally regulate the volume of a thin liquid layer, the periciliary liquid (PCL), to facilitate the mucus clearance component of lung defense. Studies under standard (static) culture conditions revealed that normal airway epithelia possess an adenosine-regulated pathway that blends Na+ absorption and Cl− secretion to optimize PCL volume. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the absence of CF transmembrane conductance regulator results in a failure of adenosine regulation of PCL volume, which is predicted to initiate mucus stasis and infection. However, under conditions that mimic the phasic motion of the lung in vivo, ATP release into PCL was increased, CF ion transport was rebalanced, and PCL volume was restored to levels adequate for lung defense. This ATP signaling system was vulnerable, however, to insults that trigger CF bacterial infections, such as viral (respiratory syncitial virus) infections, which up-regulated extracellular ATPase activity and abolished motion-dependent ATP regulation of CF PCL height. These studies demonstrate (i) how the normal coordination of opposing ion transport pathways to maintain PCL volume is disrupted in CF, (ii) the hitherto unknown role of phasic motion in regulating key aspects of normal and CF innate airways defense, and (iii) that maneuvers directed at increasing motion-induced nucleotide release may be therapeutic in CF patients.
NLR genes mediate host immunity to various pathogenic stimuli. However, in vivo evidence for NLR involvement in viral sensing has not been widely investigated and remains controversial. As an ultimate test of the physiologic role of NLRP3 during RNA viral infection, this work explores the in vivo role of NLRP3 inflammasome components during influenza virus infection. Mice lacking Nlrp3, ASC, or Caspase-1, but not Nlrc4, exhibit dramatically increased mortality but reduced immune response following influenza virus exposure. Utilizing analogs of dsRNA (poly(I:C)) and ssRNA (ssRNA40), we demonstrate that NLRP3-mediated response can be activated by RNA species. Mechanistically, NLRP3 inflammasome activation by influenza virus is dependent upon lysosomal maturation and reactive oxygen species. Inhibition of ROS induction eliminated IL-1β production in animals during influenza infection. Together, these data place the NLRP3 inflammasome as an essential component in host defense against influenza infection through the sensing of viral RNA.
Cryopyrin; ASC; IPAF; NLR; NALP3; TUCAN; Caspase-1; IL-1β
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) contains a heavily glycosylated 90-kDa attachment glycoprotein (G). Infection of HEp-2 and Vero cells in culture depends largely on virion G protein binding to cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This GAG-dependent phenotype has been described for RSV grown in HEp-2 cells, but we have found that it is greatly reduced by a single passage in Vero cells. Virions produced from Vero cells primarily display a 55-kDa G glycoprotein. This smaller G protein represents a post-Golgi compartment form that is lacking its C terminus, indicating that the C terminus is required for GAG dependency. Vero cell-grown virus infected primary well-differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE) cell cultures 600-fold less efficiently than did HEp-2 cell-grown virus, indicating that the C terminus of the G protein is also required for virus attachment to this model of the in vivo target cells. This reduced infectivity for HAE cell cultures is not likely to be due to the loss of GAG attachment since heparan sulfate, the primary GAG used by RSV for attachment to HEp-2 cells, is not detectable at the apical surface of HAE cell cultures where RSV enters. Growing RSV stocks in Vero cells could dramatically reduce the initial infection of the respiratory tract in animal models or in volunteers receiving attenuated virus vaccines, thereby reducing the efficiency of infection or the efficacy of the vaccine.
We generated a new live-attenuated vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a chimeric virus HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP that contains the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) as the sole transmembrane envelope protein combined with the internal proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Electron microscopy analysis of the virus particles showed that they have an envelope and surface spikes resembling those of EBOV and a particle size and shape resembling those of HPIV3. When HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP was inoculated via apical surface of an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium, the virus was released from the apical surface; when applied to basolateral surface, the virus infected basolateral cells but did not spread through the tissue. Following intranasal (IN) inoculation of guinea pigs, scattered infected cells were detected in the lungs by immunohistochemistry, but infectious HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP could not be recovered from the lungs, blood, or other tissues. Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV.
Human tracheobronchial epithelial cells grown in air-liquid interface culture have emerged as a powerful tool for the study of airway biology. In this study, we have investigated whether this culture system produces “mucus” with a protein composition similar to that of in vivo, induced airway secretions. Previous compositional studies of mucous secretions have greatly underrepresented the contribution of mucins, which are major structural components of normal mucus. To overcome this limitation, we have used a mass spectrometry-based approach centered on prior separation of the mucins from the majority of the other proteins. Using this approach, we have compared the protein composition of apical secretions (AS) from well-differentiated primary human tracheobronchial cells grown at air-liquid interface and human tracheobronchial normal induced sputum (IS). A total of 186 proteins were identified, 134 from AS and 136 from IS; 84 proteins were common to both secretions, with host defense proteins being predominant. The epithelial mucins MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 and the gel-forming mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC were identified in both secretions. Refractometry showed that the gel-forming mucins were the major contributors by mass to both secretions. When the composition of the IS was corrected for proteins that were most likely derived from saliva, serum, and migratory cells, there was considerable similarity between the two secretions, in particular, in the category of host defense proteins, which includes the mucins. This shows that the primary cell culture system is an important model for study of aspects of innate defense of the upper airways related specifically to mucus consisting solely of airway cell products.
mucus; mucin; innate immunity; proteomics; human tracheobronchial epithelial cell culture
The emergence in 2009 of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus as the first pandemic of the 21st Century is a timely reminder of the international public health impact of influenza viruses, even those associated with mild disease. The widespread distribution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in the avian population has spawned concern that it may give rise to a human influenza pandemic. The mortality rate associated with occasional human infection by H5N1 virus approximates 60%, suggesting that an H5N1 pandemic would be devastating to global health and economy. To date, the H5N1 virus has not acquired the propensity to transmit efficiently between humans. The reasons behind this are unclear, especially given the high mutation rate associated with influenza virus replication. Here we used a panel of recombinant H5 hemagglutinin (HA) variants to demonstrate the potential for H5 HA to bind human airway epithelium, the predominant target tissue for influenza virus infection and spread. While parental H5 HA exhibited limited binding to human tracheal epithelium, introduction of selected mutations converted the binding profile to that of a current human influenza strain HA. Strikingly, these amino-acid changes required multiple simultaneous mutations in the genomes of naturally occurring H5 isolates. Moreover, H5 HAs bearing intermediate sequences failed to bind airway tissues and likely represent mutations that are an evolutionary “dead end.” We conclude that, although genetic changes that adapt H5 to human airways can be demonstrated, they may not readily arise during natural virus replication. This genetic barrier limits the likelihood that current H5 viruses will originate a human pandemic.
Historically, coronaviruses were predominantly associated with mild upper respiratory disease in humans. More recently, three novel coronaviruses associated with severe human respiratory disease were found, including (i) the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, associated with a significant atypical pneumonia and 10% mortality; (ii) HKU-1, associated with chronic pulmonary disease; and (iii) NL63, associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in children and adults worldwide. These discoveries establish coronaviruses as important human pathogens and underscore the need for continued research toward the development of platforms that will enable genetic manipulation of the viral genome, allowing for rapid and rational development and testing of candidate vaccines, vaccine vectors, and therapeutics. In this report, we describe a reverse genetics system for NL63, whereby five contiguous cDNAs that span the entire genome were used to generate a full-length cDNA. Recombinant NL63 viruses which contained the expected marker mutations replicated as efficiently as the wild-type NL63 virus. In addition, we engineered the heterologous green fluorescent protein gene in place of open reading frame 3 (ORF3) of the NL63 clone, simultaneously creating a unique marker for NL63 infection and demonstrating that the ORF3 protein product is nonessential for the replication of NL63 in cell culture. The availability of the NL63 and NL63gfp clones and recombinant viruses provides powerful tools that will help advance our understanding of this important human pathogen.
Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37°C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal airways (32°C). These data support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses, ordinarily adapted to the temperature of the avian enteric tract (40°C), rarely infect humans, in part due to differences in host airway regional temperatures. Previously, a critical residue at position 627 in the avian influenza virus polymerase subunit, PB2, was identified as conferring temperature-dependency in mammalian cells. Here, we use reverse genetics to show that avianization of residue 627 attenuates a human virus, but does not account for the different infection between 32°C and 37°C. To determine the mechanism of temperature restriction of avian influenza viruses in HAE at 32°C, we generated recombinant human influenza viruses in either the A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2) or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) genetic background that contained avian or avian-like glycoproteins. Two of these viruses, A/Victoria/3/75 with L226Q and S228G mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99 and A/PR/8/34 containing the H7 and N1 from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99, exhibited temperature restriction approaching that of wholly avian influenza viruses. These data suggest that influenza viruses bearing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection at the temperature of the human proximal airways. This temperature restriction may limit zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses and suggests that adaptation of avian influenza viruses to efficient infection at 32°C may represent a critical evolutionary step enabling human-to-human transmission.
Influenza type A viruses are endemic in aquatic birds but can cross the species barrier to infect the human respiratory tract. While transmission from birds to humans is rare, the introduction of novel avian influenza viruses into immunologically naïve human populations has significant pandemic potential. Avian influenza viruses are adapted for growth at 40°C, the temperature of the avian enteric tract. However, the human proximal airways, the likely site of initial inoculation by influenza viruses, are maintained at a cooler temperature (32°C), suggesting that zoonotic transmission may be limited by temperature differences between the two hosts. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium, we show that avian influenza viruses grow well at 37°C, a temperature reflective of distal airways, but are restricted for infection at 32°C. A panel of genetically manipulated human influenza viruses possessing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins were also restricted at 32°C, but not 37°C, suggesting that avian virus glycoproteins are not adapted for efficient infection at the temperature of the proximal airways. Thus, avian influenza virus infection is restricted in the human proximal airways due to the cooler temperature of this region, thus limiting the likelihood of zoonotic and subsequent human-to-human transmission of these viruses.
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 as an important cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans and in vitro models of the lung are needed to elucidate cellular targets and the consequences of viral infection. The severe and sudden onset of symptoms, resulting in an atypical pneumonia with dry cough and persistent high fever in cases of severe acute respiratory virus brought to light the importance of coronaviruses as potentially lethal human pathogens and the identification of several zoonotic reservoirs has made the reemergence of new strains and future epidemics all the more possible. In this chapter, we describe the pathology of SARS-CoV infection in humans and explore the use of two models of the human conducting airway to develop a better understanding of the replication and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV in relevant in vitro systems. The first culture model is a human bronchial epithelial cell line Calu3 that can be inoculated by viruses either as a non-polarized monolayer of cells or polarized cells with tight junctions and microvilli. The second model system, derived from primary cells isolated from human airway epithelium and grown on Transwells, form a pseudostratified mucociliary epithelium that recapitulates the morphological and physiological features of the human conducting airway in vivo. Experimental results using these lung epithelial cell models demonstrate that in contrast to the pathology reported in late stage cases SARS-CoV replicates to high titers in epithelial cells of the conducting airway. The SARS-CoV receptor, human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), was detected exclusively on the apical surface of cells in polarized Calu3 cells and human airway epithelial cultures (HAE), indicating that hACE2 was accessible by SARS-CoV after airway lumenal delivery. Furthermore, in HAE, hACE2 was exclusively localized to ciliated airway epithelial cells. In support of the hACE2 localization data, the most productive route of inoculation and progeny virion egress in both polarized Calu3 and ciliated cells of HAE was the apical surface suggesting mechanisms to release large quantities of virus into the lumen of the human lung. Preincubation of the apical surface of cultures with antisera directed against hACE2 reduced viral titers by 2 logs while antisera against DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR did not reduce viral replication levels suggesting that hACE2 is the primary receptor for entry of SARS-CoV into the ciliated cells of HAE cultures. To assess infectivity in ciliated airway cultures derived from susceptible animal species we generated a recombinant SARS-CoV by deletion of open reading frame 7a/7b (ORF 7a/b) and insertion of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) resulting in SARS-CoV GFP. SARS-CoV GFP replicated to similar titers as wild type viruses in Vero E6, MA104, and CaCo2 cells. In addition, SARS-CoV replication in airway epithelial cultures generated from Golden Syrian hamster tracheas reached similar titers to the human cultures by 72 hours post infection. Efficient SARS-CoV infection of ciliated cell-types in HAE provides a useful in vitro model of human lung origin to study characteristics of SARS-CoV replication and pathogenesis.
Human airway epithelia; SARS-CoV; Coronavirus Replication; SARS-CoV GFP; Coronavirus pathogenesis
Host responses to viral infection include both immune activation and programmed cell death. The mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor, MAVS (IPS-1, VISA or Cardif) is critical for host defenses to viral infection by inducing type-1 interferons (IFN-I), however its role in virus-induced apoptotic responses has not been elucidated.
We show that MAVS causes apoptosis independent of its function in initiating IFN-I production. MAVS-induced cell death requires mitochondrial localization, is caspase dependent, and displays hallmarks of apoptosis. Furthermore, MAVS−/− fibroblasts are resistant to Sendai virus-induced apoptosis. A functional screen identifies the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nonstructural protein (NSP15) as inhibitors of MAVS-induced apoptosis, possibly as a method of immune evasion.
This study describes a novel role for MAVS in controlling viral infections through the induction of apoptosis, and identifies viral proteins which inhibit this host response.
Recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) was modified to create rHPIV1-P(C−), a virus in which expression of the C proteins (C′, C, Y1, and Y2) was silenced without affecting the amino acid sequence of the P protein. Infectious rHPIV1-P(C−) was readily recovered from cDNA, indicating that the four C proteins were not essential for virus replication. Early during infection in vitro, rHPIV1-P(C−) replicated as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HPIV1, but its titer subsequently decreased coincident with the onset of an extensive cytopathic effect not observed with wt rHPIV1. rHPIV1-P(C−) infection, but not wt rHPIV1 infection, induced caspase 3 activation and nuclear fragmentation in LLC-MK2 cells, identifying the HPIV1 C proteins as inhibitors of apoptosis. In contrast to wt rHPIV1, rHPIV1-P(C−) and rHPIV1-CF170S, a mutant encoding an F170S substitution in C, induced interferon (IFN) and did not inhibit IFN signaling in vitro. However, only rHPIV1-P(C−) induced apoptosis. Thus, the anti-IFN and antiapoptosis activities of HPIV1 were separable: both activities are disabled in rHPIV1-P(C−), whereas only the anti-IFN activity is disabled in rHPIV1-CF170S. In African green monkeys (AGMs), rHPIV1-P(C−) was considerably more attenuated than rHPIV1-CF170S, suggesting that disabling the anti-IFN and antiapoptotic activities of HPIV1 had additive effects on attenuation in vivo. Although rHPIV1-P(C−) protected against challenge with wt HPIV1, its highly restricted replication in AGMs and in primary human airway epithelial cell cultures suggests that it might be overattenuated for use as a vaccine. Thus, the C proteins of HPIV1 are nonessential but have anti-IFN and antiapoptosis activities required for virulence in primates.
Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) is a significant cause of pediatric respiratory disease in the upper and lower airways. An in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), a useful tool for studying respiratory virus-host interactions, was used in this study to show that HPIV1 selectively infects ciliated cells within the HAE and that progeny virus is released from the apical surface with little apparent gross cytopathology. In HAE, type I interferon (IFN) is induced following infection with an HPIV1 mutant expressing defective C proteins with an F170S amino acid substitution, rHPIV1-CF170S, but not following infection with wild-type HPIV1. IFN induction coincided with a 100- to 1,000-fold reduction in virus titer, supporting the hypothesis that the HPIV1 C proteins are critical for the inhibition of the innate immune response. Two recently characterized live attenuated HPIV1 vaccine candidates expressing mutant C proteins were also evaluated in HAE. The vaccine candidates, rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALΔ1710-11, which contain temperature-sensitive (ts) attenuating (att) and non-ts att mutations, were highly restricted in growth in HAE at permissive (32°C) and restrictive (37°C) temperatures. The viruses grew slightly better at 37°C than at 32°C, and rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALY942A was less attenuated than rHPIV1-CR84G/Δ170HNT553ALΔ1710-11. The level of replication in HAE correlated with that previously observed for African green monkeys, suggesting that the HAE model has potential as a tool for the preclinical evaluation of HPIV1 vaccines, although how these in vitro data will correlate with vaccine virus replication in seronegative human subjects remains to be seen.