Only 3% of women with breast cancer participate in cancer clinical trials nationwide. The lack of awareness about clinical trials is a significant barrier towards clinical trials participation. A study was conducted at a large urban Comprehensive Cancer Center to test (1) the effectiveness of an 18-min educational video on improving attitudes toward clinical trials and trials enrollment among new breast cancer patients seen at the Karmanos Cancer Institute, and (2) to assess racial differences in attitudes regarding clinical trials. Participants were randomized to either the educational intervention prior to their first oncology clinic appointment or to standard care. A baseline and 2-week post-intervention survey to assess attitudes toward clinical trials participation was completed by participants. Of 218 subjects recruited, 196 (55% white vs. 45% African American (AA)) eligible patients were included in the analysis. A small increase in therapeutic clinical trial enrollment was observed in the intervention arm but was not statistically significant (10.4% vs. 6.1%; P = 0.277). The intervention also did not result in a clear improvement in patients’ attitudes toward clinical trials at posttest. However, a lower enrollment rate for the AA women was noted after adjusting for stage (OR = 0.282, P = 0.049). Significantly more negative scores were noted in 3 out of the 5 baseline attitudinal scales for AA women. The educational video did not significantly increase enrollment in breast cancer clinical trials. The findings that AA women had significantly more negative attitudes toward clinical trials than white women may partially explain the racial disparity in enrollment. An educational video remains a simple and cost-effective way to educate patients. Future studies should focus on designing a new educational video to specifically target cultural and attitudinal barriers in the AA population to more effectively change attitudes and increase trial enrollment.
Clinical trials enrollment; Breast cancer; Educational video; Attitudes regarding clinical trials; Racial disparity
Connectivity analysis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is an important area, useful for the identification of biomarkers for various mental disorders, including schizophrenia. Most studies to date have focused on resting data, while the study of functional connectivity during task and the differences between task and rest are of great interest as well. In this work, we examine the graph-theoretical properties of the connectivity maps constructed using spatial components derived from independent component analysis (ICA) for healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia during an auditory oddball task (AOD) and at extended rest. We estimate functional connectivity using the higher-order statistical dependence, i.e., mutual information among the ICA spatial components, instead of the typically used temporal correlation. We also define three novel topological metrics based on the modules of brain networks obtained using a clustering approach. Our experimental results show that although the schizophrenia patients preserve the small-world property, they present a significantly lower small-worldness during both AOD task and rest when compared to the healthy controls, indicating a consistent tendency towards a more random organization of brain networks. In addition, the task-induced modulations to topological measures of several components involving motor, cerebellum and parietal regions are altered in patients relative to controls, providing further evidence for the aberrant connectivity in schizophrenia.
Functional connectivity; graph theoretical analysis; spatial dependence; resting state; auditory oddball task; schizophrenia
Phylogenetic trees are used to represent the evolutionary relationship among various groups of species. In this paper, a novel method for inferring prokaryotic phylogenies using multiple genomic information is proposed. The method is called CGCPhy and based on the distance matrix of orthologous gene clusters between whole-genome pairs. CGCPhy comprises four main steps. First, orthologous genes are determined by sequence similarity, genomic function, and genomic structure information. Second, genes involving potential HGT events are eliminated, since such genes are considered to be the highly conserved genes across different species and the genes located on fragments with abnormal genome barcode. Third, we calculate the distance of the orthologous gene clusters between each genome pair in terms of the number of orthologous genes in conserved clusters. Finally, the neighbor-joining method is employed to construct phylogenetic trees across different species. CGCPhy has been examined on different datasets from 617 complete single-chromosome prokaryotic genomes and achieved applicative accuracies on different species sets in agreement with Bergey's taxonomy in quartet topologies. Simulation results show that CGCPhy achieves high average accuracy and has a low standard deviation on different datasets, so it has an applicative potential for phylogenetic analysis.
Previous investigations have assumed that embryos lack the capacity of physiological thermoregulation until they are large enough for their own metabolic heat production to influence nest temperatures. Contrary to intuition, reptile embryos may be capable of physiological thermoregulation. In our experiments, egg-sized objects (dead or infertile eggs, water-filled balloons, glass jars) cooled down more rapidly than they heated up, whereas live snake eggs heated more rapidly than they cooled. In a nest with diel thermal fluctuations, that hysteresis could increase the embryo’s effective incubation temperature. The mechanisms for controlling rates of thermal exchange are unclear, but may involve facultative adjustment of blood flow. Heart rates of snake embryos were higher during cooling than during heating, the opposite pattern to that seen in adult reptiles. Our data challenge the view of reptile eggs as thermally passive, and suggest that embryos of reptile species with large eggs can influence their own rates of heating and cooling.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are identified in nearly all plants where they play important roles in development and stress responses by target mRNA cleavage or translation repression. MiRNAs exert their functions by sequence complementation with target genes and hence their targets can be predicted using bioinformatics algorithms. In the past two decades, microarray technology has been employed to study genes involved in important biological processes such as biotic response, abiotic response, and specific tissues and developmental stages, many of which are miRNA targets. Despite their value in assisting research work for plant biologists, miRNA target genes are difficult to access without pre-processing and assistance of necessary analytical and visualization tools because they are embedded in a large body of microarray data that are scattered around in public databases.
Plant MiRNA Target Expression Database (PMTED) is designed to retrieve and analyze expression profiles of miRNA targets represented in the plethora of existing microarray data that are manually curated. It provides a Basic Information query function for miRNAs and their target sequences, gene ontology, and differential expression profiles. It also provides searching and browsing functions for a global Meta-network among species, bioprocesses, conditions, and miRNAs, meta-terms curated from well annotated microarray experiments. Networks are displayed through a Cytoscape Web-based graphical interface. In addition to conserved miRNAs, PMTED provides a target prediction portal for user-defined novel miRNAs and corresponding target expression profile retrieval. Hypotheses that are suggested by miRNA-target networks should provide starting points for further experimental validation.
PMTED exploits value-added microarray data to study the contextual significance of miRNA target genes and should assist functional investigation for both miRNAs and their targets. PMTED will be updated over time and is freely available for non-commercial use at http://pmted.agrinome.org.
MiRNA; Microarray; Meta-analysis; Stress response
Soybean isoflavones have been used as a potential preventive agent in anticancer research for many years. Genistein is one of the most active flavonoids in soybeans. Accumulating evidence suggests that genistein alters a variety of biological processes in estrogen-related malignancies, such as breast and prostate cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of genistein in the prevention of human colon cancer remains unclear. Here we attempted to elucidate the anticarcinogenic mechanism of genistein in human colon cancer cells. First we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of genistein and two other isoflavones, daidzein and biochanin A, on HCT-116 and SW-480 human colon cancer cells. In addition, flow cytometry was performed to observe the morphological changes in HCT-116/SW-480 cells undergoing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, which had been visualized using Annexin V-FITC and/or propidium iodide staining. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were also employed to study the changes in expression of several important genes associated with cell cycle regulation. Our data showed that genistein, daidzein and biochanin A exhibited growth inhibitory effects on HCT-116/SW-480 colon cancer cells and promoted apoptosis. Genistein showed a significantly greater effect than the other two compounds, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, genistein caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by activation of ATM/p53, p21waf1/cip1 and GADD45α as well as downregulation of cdc2 and cdc25A demonstrated by q-PCR and immunoblotting assay. Interestingly, genistein induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner. These findings exemplify that isoflavones, especially genistein, could promote colon cancer cell growth inhibition and facilitate apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The ATM/p53-p21 cross-regulatory network may play a crucial role in mediating the anticarcinogenic activities of genistein in colon cancer.
colon cancer; cancer chemoprevention; G2/M cell cycle arrest; isoflavones; p53
To investigate the ability of rESAT6 to identify different mycobacteria-sensitized guinea pigs and its safety in preclinical and phase I clinical study.
Guinea pigs were sensitized with different Mycobacteria. After sensitization, all animals were intradermally injected with rESAT6 and either PPD or PPD-B. At 24 h after the injection, the erythema of the injection sites were measured using a double-blind method. For the preclinical safety study, different doses of rESAT6 and BSA were given 3 times intramuscularly to guinea pigs. On day 14 after the final immunization, the guinea pigs were intravenously injected with the same reagents in the hind legs and the allergic reactions were observed. A single-center, randomized, open phase I clinical trial was employed. The skin test was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers aged 19–65 years with 0.1 μg, 0.5 μg, and 1 μg rESAT6. Physical examination and laboratory tests were performed before and after the skin test and adverse reactions were monitored. The volunteers’ local and systemic adverse reactions and adverse events were recorded for 7 days.
Positive PPD or PPD-B skin tests were observed in all Mycobacteria-sensitized guinea pigs; the diameters of erythema were all >10 mm. The rESAT6 protein induced a positive skin test result in the guinea pigs sensitized with MTB, M. bovis, M. africanum and M. kansasii; the diameters of erythema were 14.7±2.0, 9.3±3.8, 18.7±2.4, and 14.8±4.2 mm, respectively. A negative skin test result was detected in BCG-vaccinated and other NTM-sensitized guinea pigs. The rESAT6 caused no allergic symptoms, but many allergic reactions, such as cough, dyspnea, and even death, were observed in the guinea pigs who were administered BSA. During the phase I clinical trial, no adverse reactions were found in the 0.1 μg rESAT6 group, but in the 0.5 μg rESAT6 group 2 volunteers reported pain and 1 reported itching, and in the 1 μg rESAT6 group there was 1 case of pain, 1 case of itching, and 1 case of blister. No other local or systemic adverse reactions or events were reported.
The rESAT6 can differentiate effectively among MTB infection, BCG vaccination, and NTM infection and is safe in healthy volunteers.
phase I clinical trial; recombinant protein; skin test; latent M. tuberculosis infection
Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins that exhibits anticancer activity. Irinotecan (IRN) is a second line anticancer drug, but clinical treatment with IRN is limited due to side effects. In this study, we investigated the possible synergistic anticancer effects of PD and IRN on human colorectal cancer cells and explored the potential role of apoptosis in the synergistic activities.
The combination of PD and IRN significantly enhanced antiproliferative effects in HCT-116 cells (P < 0.05). Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that combining IRN treatment with PD significantly increased the G1-phase fractions of cells, compared with IRN treatment alone. In apoptotic assays, the combination of PD and IRN significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with IRN alone (P < 0.01). Increased caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities were observed after treating with PD and IRN. The synergistic apoptotic effects were also supported by docking analysis, which demonstrated that PD and IRN bound two different chains of the caspase 3 protein.
Data from this study suggested that caspase 3- and caspase 9-mediated apoptosis may play an important role in the PD enhanced antiproliferative effects of IRN on human colorectal cancer cells.
Irinotecan; panaxadiol; apoptosis; cell cycle; human colorectal cancer
Plant-derived active constituents and their semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs have served as major sources of anticancer drugs. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a metabolite of ginseng saponin of both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). We previously demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3, a glucoside precursor of PPD, exhibits anti-proliferative effects on HCT116 cells and reduces tumor size in a xenograft model. Our subsequent study indicated that PPD has more potent antitumor activity than that of Rg3 in vitro although the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD remains to be defined. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of PPD in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PPD was shown to inhibit growth and induce cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells. The in vivo studies indicate that PPD inhibits xenograft tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing HCT116 cells. The xenograft tumor size was significantly reduced when the animals were treated with PPD (30 mg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks. When the expression of previously identified Rg3 targets, A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8 (AKAP8L) and phosphatidylinositol transfer protein α (PITPNA), was analyzed, PPD was shown to inhibit the expression of PITPNA while upregulating AKAP8L expression in HCT116 cells. Pathway-specific reporter assays indicated that PPD effectively suppressed the NF-κB, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that the anticancer activity of PPD in colon cancer cells may be mediated through targeting NF-κB, JNK and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, although the detailed mechanisms underlying the anticancer mode of PPD action need to be fully elucidated.
ginseng; ginseng metabolites; 20(S)-protopanaxadiol; colorectal cancer; signaling pathway; natural products
To investigate the long-term impacts of different posterior operations on curvature, neurological improvement and axial symptoms for multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy (CDM), and to study the relationship among loss of cervical lordosis, recovery rate and axial symptom severity.
We retrospectively reviewed 98 patients with multilevel CDM who had undergone laminoplasty (Group LP, 36 patients), laminectomy (Group LC, 30 patients), or laminectomy with lateral mass screw fixation (Group LCS, 32 patients) between January 2000 and January 2005. Loss of curvature index (CI) was measured according to the preoperative and final follow-up radiographic parameters. The recovery rate was calculated based on the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Axial symptom severity was quantified by Neck Disability Index (NDI).
Analysis of final follow-up data showed significant differences among the three groups regarding loss of CI (F = 41.46, P < 0.001) between preoperative and final follow-up JOA scores (P < 0.001), final follow-up JOA score (F = 7.81, P < 0.001), recovery rate (F = 12.98, P < 0.001) and axial symptom severity (χ2 = 18.04, P < 0.001). Loss of CI showed negative association with neurological recovery (r = −0.555, P < 0.001) and positive correlation with axial symptom severity (r = 0.696, P < 0.001).
Excellent neurological improvement was obtained by LP and LCS for patients with multilevel CDM, while loss of CI in groups LP and LC caused a high incidence of axial symptoms. Loss of CI was correlated with poor neurological recovery and axial symptom severity. Lateral mass screw fixation can effectively prevent loss of postoperative cervical curvature and reduce incidence of axial symptoms.
Multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy; Posterior operations; Curvature index; Neurological recovery; Axial symptoms
We evaluated the performance of green fluorescent magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) as gene carrier and location in pig kidney cells. When the mass ratio of NPs to green fluorescent protein plasmid DNA reached 1:16 or above, DNA molecules can be combined completely with NPs, which indicates that the NPs have good ability to bind negative DNA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were carried out to investigate the binding mechanism between NPs and DNA. AFM images show that individual DNA strands come off of larger pieces of netlike agglomerations and several spherical nanoparticles are attached to each individual DNA strand and interact with each other. The pig kidney cells were labelled with membrane-specific red fluorescent dye 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate and nucleus-specific blue fluorescent dye 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride. We found that green fluorescent nanoparticles can past the cell membrane and spread throughout the interior of the cell. The NPs seem to locate more frequently in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus.
magnetic; fluorescent nanoparticles; gene carrier; location; 75.50.-y; 81.07.-b; 87.85.Rs
Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a triterpenoid that can be prepared from steamed ginseng. PPD possesses anticancer potential via caspase-dependent apoptosis. Whether paraptosis, a type of the caspase-independent cell death, is also induced by PPD has not been evaluated.
Cell death, the cell cycle and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with annexin V/PI, PI/RNase or H2DCFDA. We observed morphological changes by crystal violet staining assay. Mitochondrial swelling was measured by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. The activation of NF-κB was measured by luciferase reporter assay.
At comparable concentrations of 5-fluorouracil, PPD induced more cell death in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-116 and SW-480. We demonstrated that PPD induced paraptosis in these cancer cells. PPD treatment significantly increased the percentage of cancer cells with cytoplasmic vacuoles. After the cells were treated with PPD and cycloheximides, cytoplasmic vacuole generation was inhibited. The paraptotic induction effect of PPD was also supported by the results of the mitochondrial swelling assay. PPD induced ROS production in cancer cells, which activated the NF-κB pathway. Blockage of ROS by NAC or PS-1145 inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling.
PPD induces colorectal cancer cell death in part by induction of paraptosis. The anticancer activity of PPD may be enhanced by antioxidants such as green tea, which also inhibit the activation of NF-κB signaling.
Ginseng; Protopanaxadiol; PPD; Paraptosis; Cytoplasmic vacuoles; Mitochondrial swelling; Antioxidant; Cancer chemoprevention
Compound K (20-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, CK), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been shown to inhibit cell growth in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC). A xenograft tumor model was used first to examine the anti-CRC effect of CK in vivo. Then, multiple in vitro assays were applied to investigate the anticancer effects of CK including antiproliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. In addition, a qPCR array and western blot analysis were executed to screen and validate the molecules and pathways involved. We observed that CK significantly inhibited the growth of HCT-116 tumors in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. CK significantly inhibited the proliferation of human CRC cell lines HCT-116, SW-480, and HT-29 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that CK induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase in HCT-116 cells. The processes were related to the upregulation of p53/p21, FoxO3a-p27/p15 and Smad3, and downregulation of cdc25A, CDK4/6 and cyclin D1/3. The major regulated targets of CK were cyclin dependent inhibitors, including p21, p27, and p15. These results indicate that CK inhibits transcriptional activation of multiple tumor-promoting pathways in CRC, suggesting that CK could be an active compound in the prevention or treatment of CRC.
colorectal cancer; ginsenoside; compound K; xenograft; cell cycle arrest; p53/p21
The retinoblastoma gene Rb is the prototype tumor suppressor and is conserved in Drosophila. We use the developing fly retina as a model system to investigate the role of Drosophila Rb (rbf) during differentiation. This report shows that mutation of rbf and rhinoceros (rno), which encodes a PHD domain protein, leads to a synergistic delay in photoreceptor cell differentiation in the developing eye disc. We show that this differentiation delay phenotype is caused by decreased levels of different components of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in the absence of rbf and rno. We show that rbf is required for normal expression of Rhomboid proteins and activation of MAP kinase in the morphogenetic furrow (MF), while rno is required for the expression of Pointed (Pnt) and Ebi proteins, which are key factors that mediate EGFR signaling output in the nucleus. Interestingly, while removing the transcription activation function of dE2F1 is sufficient to suppress the synergistic differentiation delay, a mutant form of de2f1 that disrupts the binding with RBF but retains the transcription activation function does not mimic the effect of rbf loss. These observations suggest RBF has additional functions besides dE2F1 binding that regulate EGFR signaling and photoreceptor differentiation.
RBF; Rhinoceros; EGFR signaling; differentiation; dE2F1; pointed; Ebi
Influenza vaccines are less effective in older people than younger people. This impaired ability to protect older people from influenza viral lung infection has important implications as older people suffer a higher morbidity and mortality from influenza viral lung infection than younger people. Therefore, the development of novel effective vaccines that induce protection from influenza viral infections in older people are urgently needed. We had previously shown that direct linking the TLR5 activator, flagellin, to viral peptides induces effective immunity to viral antigens in young mice and people, respectively. In this study, we tested the efficacy of this vaccine platform with the hemagglutinin peptide of the influenza A strain virus (vaccine denoted as STF2.HA1-2) in protecting aged mice from subsequent influenza viral lung infection. We found that a 3.0μg dose of the vaccine was effective in reducing mortality and increasing clinical well-being during influenza viral lung infection in aged mice. However, this effect was inferior to the response induced in young mice. Defects in the adaptive immune system but not the innate immune system were associated with this reduced effectiveness of the vaccine with aging. Our results indicate that the STF2.HA1-2 vaccine is effective in protecting aged hosts from influenza lung infection, although defects in the adaptive immune system with aging may limit the effectiveness of this vaccine in older people.
Ageing; influenza viral infection
Age-related decline in immunity can impair cell-mediated responses during an infection, malignancy, and acute allograft rejection. Although much research has been allocated to understand the immune responses that impact the former two conditions, the cellular mechanisms by which aging impacts the immune acceptance of organ allografts are not completely clear. In this study, we examined how recipient age impacts the efficacy of therapies that modulate immune recognition of allografts using an immunogenic murine skin transplant model. We found that costimulatory blockade-based treatment failed to extend allograft survival in older recipients to the same extent as that observed in younger recipients. CD8+ T-cells were critical for the inability of aged recipients to achieve maximal allograft survival. Although aged mice displayed a larger number of effector memory T-cells prior to transplantation, these cells did not exhibit enhanced alloreactivity compared to young memory T-cells. In contrast, naïve aged CD8+ T-cells exhibited enhanced IFN-γ production to allostimulation compared to young naïve T-cells. Our results provide evidence that aging enhances CD8+ T-cell alloreactivity. This could impair the ability of costimulatory blockade-based therapies to prolong allograft survival. Thus, targeting CD8+ T cells in humans may be a way to improve outcomes in older patients requiring immune modulatory therapy.
The intra- and postoperative complications resulting from surgery for giant thyroid gland tumors (diameter greater than 10 cm) present serious challenges to patient recovery. Although there are a number of methods, all have limitations. In this study, we present our experience with several complications of surgical treatment of giant thyroid gland tumors to increase the awareness and aid the prevention of these complications. A total of 137 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment in Henan Tumor Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Statistics pertaining to the patients’ clinical factors were gathered. We found that the most common surgical complications were recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and symptomatic hypoparathyroidism. Other complications included incision site infections, bleeding, infection and chyle fistula, the incidence of which increased significantly with increasing extent of surgery from group I (near-total thyroidectomy) to group V (total thyroidectomy plus lateral neck dissection). Low complication rates may be achieved with more accurate knowledge of the surgical anatomy, skilled surgical treatment and experience. More extensive surgery results in a greater number of complications.
complications; giant thyroid gland; recurrent laryngeal nerve; hypoparathyroidism
TOR (Target Of Rapamycin) signalling coordinates cell growth and division in response to changes in the nutritional environment of the cell. TOR kinases form two distinct complexes: TORC1 and TORC2. In mammals, the TORC1 controlled S6K1 kinase phosphorylates the ribosomal protein S6 thereby co-ordinating cell size and nutritional status. We show that the Schizosaccharomyces pombe AGC kinase Gad8 co-immunoprecipitates with the ribosomal protein S6 (Rps6) and regulates its phosphorylation status. It has previously been shown that Gad8 is phosphorylated by TORC2. Consistent with this, we find that TORC2 as well as TORC1 modulates Rps6 phosphorylation. Therefore, S6 phosphorylation in fission yeast actually represents a read-out of the combined activities of TORC1 and TORC2. In contrast, we find that the in vivo phosphorylation status of Maf1 (a repressor of RNA polymerase III) specifically correlates with TORC1 activity.
Gad8; Maf1; S6; S6K; TOR; S. pombe
Design of a digital infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filter is the process of synthesizing and implementing a recursive filter network so that a set of prescribed excitations results a set of desired responses. However, the error surface of IIR filters is usually non-linear and multi-modal. In order to find the global minimum indeed, an improved differential evolution (DE) is proposed for digital IIR filter design in this paper. The suggested algorithm is a kind of DE variants with a controllable probabilistic (CPDE) population size. It considers the convergence speed and the computational cost simultaneously by nonperiodic partial increasing or declining individuals according to fitness diversities. In addition, we discuss as well some important aspects for IIR filter design, such as the cost function value, the influence of (noise) perturbations, the convergence rate and successful percentage, the parameter measurement, etc. As to the simulation result, it shows that the presented algorithm is viable and comparable. Compared with six existing State-of-the-Art algorithms-based digital IIR filter design methods obtained by numerical experiments, CPDE is relatively more promising and competitive.
Atopic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma, are closely related to clinical phenotypes with hypersensitivity, and often share some similar genetic and pathogenic bases. Our recent GWAS identified three susceptibility gene/loci FLG (rs11204971 and rs3126085), 5q22.1 (rs10067777, rs7701890, rs13360927 and rs13361382) and 20q13.33 (rs6010620) to AD. The effect of these AD associated polymorphisms in asthma is so far unknown. To investigate whether AD relevant genetic variants is identical to asthma and reveal the differences in genetic factors between AD and asthma in Chinese Han population, seven AD associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as 3 other SNPs (rs7936562 and rs7124842 at 11q13.5 and rs4982958 at 14q11.2) from our previous AD GWAS were genotyped in 463 asthma patients and 985 controls using Sequenom MassArray system. We found rs4982958 at 14q11.2 was significantly associated with asthma (P = 3.04×10−4, OR = 0.73). We also detected one significant risk haplotype GGGA from the 4 SNPs (rs10067777, rs7701890, rs13360927 and rs13361382) at 5q22.1 in AD cases (Pcorrection = 3.60×10−10, OR = 1.26), and the haplotype was suggestive of risk in asthma cases in this study (P = 0.014, Pcorrection = 0.084, OR = 1.38). These SNPs (rs11204971, rs3126085, rs7936562, rs712484 and rs6010620) at AD susceptibility genes/loci FLG, 11q13.5 and 20q13.33 were not associated with asthma in this study. Our results further comfirmed that 14q11.2 was an important candidate locus for asthma and demonstrated that 5q22.1 might be shared by AD and asthma in Chinese Han population.
The combined effects of anticancer drugs with nutritional factors against tumor cells have been reported previously. This study characterized the efficacy and possible mechanisms of the combination of sorafenib and vitamin K1 (VK1) on glioma cell lines.
We examined the effects of sorafenib, VK1 or their combination on the proliferation and apoptosis of human malignant glioma cell lines (BT325 and U251) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) assay. The signaling pathway changes were detected by western blotting.
Sorafenib, as a single agent, showed antitumor activity in a dose-dependent manner in glioma cells, but the effects were more pronounced when used in combination with VK1 treatment. Sorafenib in combination with VK1 treatment produced marked potentiation of growth inhibition and apoptosis, and reduced expression of phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, the expression levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were significantly reduced.
Our findings indicated that VK1 enhanced the cytotoxicity effect of sorafenib through inhibiting the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway in glioma cells, and suggested that sorafenib in combination with VK1 maybe a new therapeutic option for patients with gliomas.
Apoptosis; Glioma; MAPK; Sorafenib; Vitamin K1
Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components in American ginseng, a commonly used herb. In this study, we showed that the ginsenoside Rh2 exhibited significantly more potent cell death activity than the ginsenoside Rg3 in HCT116 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Cell death induced by Rh2 is mediated in part by the caspase-dependent apoptosis and in part by the caspase-independent paraptosis, a type of cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Treatment of cells with Rh2 activated the p53 pathway and significantly increased the levels of the pro-apoptotic regulator, Bax, while decreasing the levels of anti-apoptosis regulator Bcl-2. Removal of p53 significantly blocked Rh2 induced cell death as well as vacuole formation, suggesting that both types of cell death induced by Rh2 are mediated by p53 activity. Furthermore, we show that Rh2 increased ROS levels and activated the NF-κB survival pathway. Blockage of ROS by NAC or catalase inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling and enhanced Rh2-induced cell death, suggesting that the anticancer effect of Rh2 can be enhanced by antioxidants.
Ginsenoside; apoptosis; ROS; NF-κB; antioxidant
The variety of human cancers in which the retinoblastoma protein pRb is inactivated reflects both its broad importance for tumor suppression and its multitude of cellular functions. Accumulating evidence indicates that pRb contributes to a diversity of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and genome stability. pRb performs these diverse functions through the formation of large complexes that include E2F transcription factors and chromatin regulators. In this review we will discuss some of the recent advances made in understanding the structure and function of pRb as they relate to tumor suppression, and highlight research using Drosophila melanogaster that reveals important, evolutionarily conserved functions of the RB family.
RB; E2F; Drosophila Rbf; cell cycle; chromatin modification
There is limited data on the clinical outcome of patients with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) pneumonia who received oseltamivir treatment, especially when the treatment was administered more than 48 hours after symptom onset.
During the pandemic in 2009, a cohort of pH1N1 influenza pneumonia was built in China, and their clinical information was collected systematically, and analyzed with Cox models.
920 adults and 541 children with pneumonia who didn't receive corticosteroids were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was higher in adults who did not receive antiviral therapy (18.2%) than those with who received oseltamivir ≤ 2days (2.9%), between 2–5 days (4.6%) and >5 days after illness onset (4.9%), p<0.01. A similar trend was observed in pediatric patients. Cox regression showed that at 60 days after symptoms onset, 11 patients (10.8%) who did not receive antivirals died versus 4 (1.8%), 18 (3.3%), and 23 (3.7%) patients whose oseltamivir treatment was started ≤ 2days, between 2–5days, and >5 days, respectively. For males patients, aged ≥ 14 years and baseline PaO2/FiO2<200, oseltamivir administration reduced the mortality risk by 92.1%, 88% and 83.5%, respectively. Higher doses of oseltamivir (>3.8 mg/kg/d) did not improve clinical outcome (mortality, higher dose 2.5% vs standard dose 2.8%, p>0.05).
Antiviral therapy might reduce mortality of patients with pH1N1 pneumonia, even when initiated more than 48 hours after onset of illness. Greater protective effects might be in males, patients aged 14–60 years, and patients with PaO2/FiO2<200.
Screening of mutations in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant Marfan syndrome (MFS).
It has been reported that FBN1 mutations account for approximately 90% of Autosomal Dominant MFS. FBN1 mutations were analyzed in a Chinese family of 36 members including 13 MFS patients. The genomic DNAs from blood leukocytes of the patients and their relatives were isolated and the entire coding region of FBN1 was amplified by PCR. The sequence of FBN1 was dertermined with an ABI 3100 Genetic Analyzer.
A previously unreported the missense mutation G214S (caused by a 640 A→G heterozygous change) in FBN1 was identified in the Chinese family. The mutation was associated with the disease phenotype in patients, but not detected in their relatives or in the 100 normal controls.
This is the first report of molecular characterization of FBN1 in the MFS family of Chinese origin. Our results expand the spectrum of FBN1 mutations causing MFS and further confirm the role of FBN1 in the pathogenesis of MFS. Direct sequencing of the mutation in FBN1 may be used for diagnosis of MFS.