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Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience (1)
Journal of neural engineering (1)
Nature Neuroscience (1)
Zhang, Jiayi (4)
Crair, Michael C. (2)
Ackman, James (1)
Ackman, James B. (1)
Connors, Barry W (1)
Deisseroth, Karl (1)
Dhande, Onkar S. (1)
Ebner, Paul D. (1)
Kim, Jennifer A (1)
Laiwalla, Farah (1)
Nurmikko, Arto V (1)
Rostagno, Marcos H. (1)
Song, Yoon-Kyu (1)
Urabe, Hayato (1)
Van Wagenen, Rick (1)
Wall, Samantha K. (1)
Xu, Hong-Ping (1)
Zhang, Feng (1)
Year of Publication
Visual Map Development Depends On The Temporal Pattern of Binocular Activity in Mice
Crair, Michael C.
Binocular competition is thought to drive eye-specific segregation in the developing visual system, potentially through Hebbian synaptic learning rules that are sensitive to correlations in afferent activity. Altering retinal activity can disrupt eye-specific segregation, but little is known about the temporal features of binocular activity that modulate visual map development. We used optogenetic techniques to directly manipulate retinal activity in vivo and identified a critical period before eye opening in mice when specific binocular features of retinal activity drive visual map development. Synchronous activation of both eyes disrupted segregation, whereas asynchronous stimulation enhanced segregation. The optogenetic stimulus applied was spatially homogenous, and accordingly retinotopy of ipsilateral projections was dramatically perturbed, but contralateral retinotopy was unaffected or even improved. These results provide direct evidence that the synchrony and precise temporal pattern of binocular retinal activity during a critical period in development regulates eye-specific segregation and retinotopy in the developing visual system.
Retinal Waves; Superior Colliculus; Visual Development; Retinotopy; Eye Segregation; Lateral Geniculate Nucleus; Critical Period
Visualization and Manipulation of Neural Activity in the Developing Vertebrate Nervous System
Ackman, James B.
Dhande, Onkar S.
Crair, Michael C.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Neural activity during vertebrate development has been unambiguously shown to play a critical role in sculpting circuit formation and function. Patterned neural activity in various parts of the developing nervous system is thought to modulate neurite outgrowth, axon targeting, and synapse refinement. The nature and role of patterned neural activity during development has been classically studied with in vitro preparations using pharmacological manipulations. In this review we discuss newly available and developing molecular–genetic tools for the visualization and manipulation of neural activity patterns specifically during development.
optogenetics; development; neuron; circuit; vision; imaging
Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue
Kim, Jennifer A
Van Wagenen, Rick
Connors, Barry W
Nurmikko, Arto V
Journal of neural engineering
Neural stimulation with high spatial and temporal precision is desirable both for studying the real-time dynamics of neural networks and for prospective clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Optical stimulation of genetically targeted neurons expressing the light sensitive channel protein Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) has recently been reported as a means for millisecond temporal control of neuronal spiking activities with cell-type selectivity. This offers the prospect of enabling local delivery of optical stimulation and the simultaneous monitoring of the neural activity by electrophysiological means, both in the vicinity of and distant to the stimulation site. We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide (‘optrode’) integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array.
Phage Therapy To Reduce Preprocessing Salmonella Infections in Market-Weight Swine▿
Wall, Samantha K.
Rostagno, Marcos H.
Ebner, Paul D.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Contamination of meat products with food-borne pathogens usually results from the carcass coming in contact with the feces of an infected animal during processing. In the case of Salmonella, pigs can become colonized with the organism during transport and lairage from contaminated trailers and holding pens, resulting in increased pathogen shedding just prior to processing. Increased shedding, in turn, amplifies the likelihood of carcass contamination by magnifying the amount of bacteria that enters the processing facility. We conducted a series of experiments to test whether phage therapy could limit Salmonella infections at this crucial period. In a preliminary experiment done with small pigs (3 to 4 weeks old; 30 to 40 lb), administration of an anti-Salmonella phage cocktail at the time of inoculation with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium reduced Salmonella colonization by 99.0 to 99.9% (2- to 3-log reduction) in the tonsils, ileum, and cecum. To test the efficacy of phage therapy in a production-like setting, we inoculated four market-weight pigs (in three replicates) with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and allowed the challenged pigs to contaminate a holding pen for 48 h. Sixteen naïve pigs were randomly split into two groups which received either the anti-Salmonella phage cocktail or a mock treatment. Both groups of pigs were comingled with the challenged pigs in the contaminated pen. Treatment with the anti-Salmonella phage cocktail significantly reduced cecal Salmonella concentrations (95%; P < 0.05) while also reducing (numerically) ileal Salmonella concentrations (90%; P = 0.06). Additional in vitro studies showed that the phage cocktail was also lytic against several non-Typhimurium serovars.
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