HIV latency is a major barrier to viral eradication from infected individuals. Lusic et al. show that HIV latency is established by spatially positioning the proviral chromatin in close proximity to promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, a reversible process that recruits the methyltransferase enzyme G9a to the latent viral promoter.
Latent HIV persists in CD4+ T cells in infected patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Latency is associated with transcriptional silencing of the integrated provirus and driven, at least in part, by histone deacetylases (HDACs), a family of chromatin associated proteins that regulate histone acetylation and the accessibility of DNA to transcription factors. Remarkably, inhibition of HDACs is sufficient to reactivate a fraction of latent HIV in a variety of experimental systems. This basic observation led to the shock and kill idea that forcing the transcriptional activation of HIV might lead to virus expression, to virus-or host-induced cell death of the reactivated cells, and to the eradication of the pool of latently infected cells. Such intervention might possibly lead to a cure for HIV infected patients. Here, we review the basic biology of HDACs and their inhibitors, the role of HDACs in HIV latency and recent efforts to use HDAC inhibitors to reactivate latent HIV in vitro and in vivo.
HIV; Latency; HDAC; HDAC inhibitors
HIV latency constitutes the main barrier for clearing HIV infection from patients. Our inability to recognize and isolate latently infected cells hinders the study of latent HIV. We engineered two HIV-based viral reporters expressing different fluorescent markers: one HIV promoter-dependent marker for productive HIV infection, and a second marker under a constitutive promoter independent of HIV promoter activity. Infection of cells with these viruses allows the identification and separation of latently-infected cells from uninfected and productively infected cells. These reporters are sufficiently sensitive and robust for high-throughput screening to identify drugs that reactivate latent HIV. These reporters can be used in primary CD4 T lymphocytes and reveal a rare population of latently infected cells responsive to physiological stimuli. In summary, our HIV-1 reporters enable visualization and purification of latent cell populations and open up new perspectives for studies of latent HIV infection.
The therapeutic potential of pharmacologic inhibition of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins has recently emerged in hematological malignancies and chronic inflammation. We find that BET inhibitor compounds (JQ1, I-Bet, I-Bet151 and MS417) reactivate HIV from latency. This is evident in polyclonal Jurkat cell populations containing latent infectious HIV, as well as in a primary T-cell model of HIV latency. Importantly, we show that this activation is dependent on the positive transcription elongation factor p-TEFb but independent from the viral Tat protein, arguing against the possibility that removal of the BET protein BRD4, which functions as a cellular competitor for Tat, serves as a primary mechanism for BET inhibitor action. Instead, we find that the related BET protein, BRD2, enforces HIV latency in the absence of Tat, pointing to a new target for BET inhibitor treatment in HIV infection. In shRNA-mediated knockdown experiments, knockdown of BRD2 activates HIV transcription to the same extent as JQ1 treatment, while a lesser effect is observed with BRD4. In single-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, quantitative analyses across ~2,000 viral integration sites confirm the Tat-independent effect of JQ1 and point to positive effects of JQ1 on transcription elongation, while delaying re-initiation of the polymerase complex at the viral promoter. Collectively, our results identify BRD2 as a new Tat-independent suppressor of HIV transcription in latently infected cells and underscore the therapeutic potential of BET inhibitors in the reversal of HIV latency.
HIV; latency; Tat; JQ1; MS417; I-BET; I-BET151; P-TEFb; BRD4; BRD2
T follicular helper (TFH) cells provide critical help to B cells during humoral immune responses. Here we report that mice with T cell-specific deletion of miR-17~92 family miRNAs (tKO mice) exhibited severely compromised TFH differentiation, germinal center formation, antibody responses, and failed to control chronic virus infection. Conversely, T cell-specific miR-17~92 transgenic mice spontaneously accumulated TFH cells and developed fatal immunopathology. Mechanistically, miR-17~92 family miRNAs control CD4+ T cell migration into B cell follicles by regulating ICOS-PI3K signaling intensity through suppressing the expression of the Akt phosphatase Phlpp2. These findings demonstrate that miR-17~92 family microRNAs play an essential role in TFH differentiation and establish Phlpp2 as an important mediator of their function in this process.
The possibility of HIV-1 eradication has been limited by the existence of latently infected cellular reservoirs. Studies to examine control of HIV latency and potential reactivation have been hindered by the small numbers of latently infected cells found in vivo. Major conceptual leaps have been facilitated by the use of latently infected T cell lines and primary cells. However, notable differences exist among cell model systems. Furthermore, screening efforts in specific cell models have identified drug candidates for “anti-latency” therapy, which often fail to reactivate HIV uniformly across different models. Therefore, the activity of a given drug candidate, demonstrated in a particular cellular model, cannot reliably predict its activity in other cell model systems or in infected patient cells, tested ex vivo. This situation represents a critical knowledge gap that adversely affects our ability to identify promising treatment compounds and hinders the advancement of drug testing into relevant animal models and clinical trials. To begin to understand the biological characteristics that are inherent to each HIV-1 latency model, we compared the response properties of five primary T cell models, four J-Lat cell models and those obtained with a viral outgrowth assay using patient-derived infected cells. A panel of thirteen stimuli that are known to reactivate HIV by defined mechanisms of action was selected and tested in parallel in all models. Our results indicate that no single in vitro cell model alone is able to capture accurately the ex vivo response characteristics of latently infected T cells from patients. Most cell models demonstrated that sensitivity to HIV reactivation was skewed toward or against specific drug classes. Protein kinase C agonists and PHA reactivated latent HIV uniformly across models, although drugs in most other classes did not.
HIV establishes a state of latency in vivo and this latent reservoir, although small, is difficult to eradicate. To be able to better understand this state of latency, and to develop strategies to eliminate it, many groups have developed in vitro models of HIV latency. However, notable differences exist among cell model systems because compounds that reactivate latent HIV in a particular system often fail to do so uniformly across different models. To begin to understand the biological characteristics that are inherent to each HIV model of latency, we compared the response properties of five primary T cell, four J-Lat cell models and those obtained with patient-derived infected cells. A panel of thirteen stimuli that are known to reactivate HIV by defined mechanisms of action was selected and tested in parallel in all models.
NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases (sirtuins)
play important roles in epigenetic regulation but also through nonhistone
substrates for other key cellular events and have been linked to the
pathogenesis of cancer, neurodegeneration, and metabolic diseases.
The subtype Sirt5 has been shown recently to act as a desuccinylating
and demalonylating enzyme. We have established an assay for biochemical
testing of Sirt5 using a small labeled succinylated lysine derivative.
We present a comparative study on the profiling of several established
sirtuin inhibitors on Sirt1–3 as well as Sirt5 and also present
initial results on a screening for new compounds that block Sirt5.
Thiobarbiturates were identified as new Sirt5 inhibitors in the low
micromolar range, which are selective over Sirt3 that can be found
in the same cell compartment as Sirt5.
sirtuin; Sirt5; desuccinylation; sirtinol; AMC assay
Regulating crosstalk between anoikis and survival signaling pathways is crucial to regulating tissue processes and mitigating diseases like cancer. Previously, we showed that anoikis activates a CD95/Fas-mediated signaling pathway regulated by receptor-interacting protein (RIP), a kinase that shuttles between Fas-mediated cell death and integrin/FAK-mediated survival pathways. Since sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), an NAD-dependent deacetylase, is known to regulate cell survival, metabolism, and tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that SIRT3 might engage in crosstalk with Fas/RIP/integrin/FAK survival-death pathways in cancer cell systems.
Using immunohistochemical staining, immunoblotting, human tissue microarrays, and overexpression and suppression approaches in vitro and in vivo we examined the roles of RIP and SIRT3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) anoikis resistance and tumorigenesis.
RIP and SIRT3 have an opposite expression profile in OSCC cells and tissues. Stable suppression of RIP enhances SIRT3 levels, whereas, stable suppression of SIRT3 does not impact RIP levels in OSCC cells. As OSCC cells become anoikis-resistant they form multicellular aggregates or oraspheres in suspension conditions, and their expression of SIRT3 increases as their RIP expression decreases. Also, anoikis-resistant OSCC cells with higher SIRT3 and low RIP expression induce an increased tumor burden and incidence in mice unlike their adherent OSCC cell counterparts. Furthermore, stable suppression of SIRT3 inhibits anoikis resistance and reduces tumor incidence.
RIP is a likely upstream negative regulator of SIRT3 in anoikis resistance, and an anoikis-resistant orasphere phenotype defined by higher SIRT3 and low RIP expression contributes to a more aggressive phenotype in OSCC development.
Efficient coupling of cellular energy production to metabolic demand is crucial to maintain organismal homeostasis. Here, we report that the mitochondrial Sirtuin Sirt4 regulates mitochondrial ATP homeostasis. We find that Sirt4 affects mitochondrial uncoupling via the adenine nucleotide translocator 2 (ANT2). Loss of Sirt4 expression leads to decreased cellular ATP levels in vitro and in vivo while Sirt4 overexpression is associated with increased ATP levels. Further, we provide evidence that lack of Sirt4 activates a retrograde signaling response from the mitochondria to the nucleus that includes AMPK, PGC1α, key regulators of β-oxidation such as Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and components of the mitochondrial respiratory machinery. This study highlights the ability of Sirt4 to regulate ATP levels via ANT2 and a feedback loop involving AMPK.
Sirt4; ANT2; AMPK; ATP; mitochondrial signaling
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial for recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by cells of the innate immune system. TLRs are present and functional in CD4+ T cells. Memory CD4+ T cells, predominantly central memory cells (TCM), constitute the main reservoir of latent HIV-1. However, how TLR ligands affect the quiescence of latent HIV within central memory CD4+ T cells has not been studied.
We evaluated the ability of a broad panel of TLR agonists to reactivate latent HIV-1. The TLR-1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 leads to viral reactivation of quiescent HIV in a model of latency based on cultured TCM and in resting CD4+ T cells isolated from aviremic patients. In addition, we investigated the signaling pathway associated with Pam3CSK4 involved in HIV-1 reactivation. We show that the transcription factors NFκB, NFAT and AP-1 cooperate to induce viral reactivation downstream of TLR-1/2 stimulation. Furthermore, increasing levels of cyclin T1 is not required for TLR-mediated viral reactivation, but induction of viral expression requires activated pTEFb. Finally, Pam3CSK4 reactivates latent HIV-1 in the absence of T cell activation or proliferation, in contrast to antigen stimulation.
Our findings suggest that the signaling through TLR-1/2 pathway via Pam3CSK4 or other reagents should be explored as an anti-latency strategy either alone or in combination with other anti-latency drugs.
Age-related loss of muscle mass and function, sarcopenia, has a major impact on the quality of life in the elderly. Among the proposed causes of sarcopenia are mitochondrial dysfunction and accumulated oxidative damage during aging. Dietary restriction (DR), a robust dietary intervention that extends lifespan and modulates age-related pathology in a variety of species has been shown to protect from sarcopenia in rodents. Although the mechanism(s) by which DR modulates aging are still not defined, one potential mechanism is through modulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. To directly test the protective effect of DR against oxidative stress induced muscle atrophy in vivo, we subjected mice lacking a key antioxidant enzyme, CuZnSOD (Sod1) to DR (40% of ad libitum fed diet). We have previously shown that the Sod1−/− mice exhibit an acceleration of sarcopenia associated with high oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and severe neuromuscular innervation defects. Despite the dramatic atrophy phenotype in the Sod1−/− mice, DR led to a reversal or attenuation of reduced muscle function, loss of innervation and muscle atrophy in these mice. DR improves mitochondrial function as evidenced by enhanced Ca2+ regulation and reduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, we show upregulation of SIRT3 and MnSOD in DR animals, consistent with reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and reduced oxidative damage in muscle tissue measured as F2- isoprostanes. Collectively, our results demonstrate that DR is a powerful mediator of mitochondrial function, mitochondrial ROS production, and oxidative damage, providing a solid protection against oxidative stress induced neuromuscular defects and muscle atrophy in vivo even under conditions of high oxidative stress.
Concentrations of acetyl–coenzyme A and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) affect histone acetylation and thereby couple cellular metabolic status and transcriptional regulation. We report that the ketone body d-β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) is an endogenous and specific inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Administration of exogenous βOHB, or fasting or calorie restriction, two conditions associated with increased βOHB abundance, all increased global histone acetylation in mouse tissues. Inhibition of HDAC by βOHB was correlated with global changes in transcription, including that of the genes encoding oxidative stress resistance factors FOXO3A and MT2. Treatment of cells with βOHB increased histone acetylation at the Foxo3a and Mt2 promoters, and both genes were activated by selective depletion of HDAC1 and HDAC2. Consistent with increased FOXO3A and MT2 activity, treatment of mice with βOHB conferred substantial protection against oxidative stress.
Improving the control of energy homeostasis can lower cardiovascular risk in metabolically compromised individuals. To identify new regulators of whole-body energy control, we conducted a high-throughput screen in transgenic reporter zebrafish for small molecules that modulate the expression of the fasting-inducible gluconeogenic gene pck1. We show that this in vivo strategy identified several drugs that impact gluconeogenesis in humans, as well as metabolically uncharacterized compounds. Most notably, we find that the Translocator Protein (TSPO) ligands PK 11195 and Ro5-4864 are glucose lowering agents despite a strong inductive effect on pck1 expression. We show that these drugs are activators of a fasting-like energy state, and importantly that they protect high-fat diet induced obese mice from hepatosteatosis and glucose intolerance, two pathological manifestations of metabolic dysregulation. Thus, using a whole-organism screening strategy, this study has identified new small molecule activators of fasting metabolism.
Current antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection effectively suppresses but does not eradicate HIV-1. Patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) maintain a persistent low-level viremia requiring lifelong adherence to antiretroviral therapies. This viremia may arise from latently infected reservoirs such as resting memory CD4+ T-cells or sanctuary sites where drug penetration is suboptimal. Understanding the mechanisms of HIV latency will help efforts to eradicate the infection. This review examines the dynamics of persistent viremia, viral reservoirs, the mechanisms behind viral latency, and methods to purge the viral reservoirs. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development.
Heterochromatin; repression; latency; transcription; transcriptional interference; chromatin; primary latency models; virus; epigenetics; histone
The Foxp3 transcription factor is the master regulator of regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation and function. Its activity is regulated by reversible acetylation. Using mass spectrometry of immunoprecipitated proteins, we identify three novel acetylation sites in murine Foxp3 (K31, K262, and K267) and the corresponding sites in human FoxP3 proteins. Newly raised modification-specific antibodies against acetylated K31 and K267 confirm acetylation of these residues in murine Tregs. Mutant Foxp3 proteins carrying arginine substitutions at the three acetylation sites (3KR) accumulate in T cells to higher levels than wildtype Foxp3 and exert better suppressive activity in co-culture experiments. Acetylation and stability of wildtype, but not mutant, Foxp3 is enhanced when cells are treated with Ex-527, an inhibitor of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. Treatment with Ex-527 promotes Foxp3 expression during induced Treg differentiation, enhances Foxp3 levels in natural Tregs, and prevents loss of Foxp3 expression in adoptively transferred Tregs in mice. Our data identify SIRT1 as a negative regulator of Treg function via deacetylation of three novel target sites in Foxp3. SIRT1 inhibitors strengthen the suppressive activity of Tregs and may be useful in enhancing Treg-based therapeutic approaches to autoimmune diseases or graft rejections.
Mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation is a known consequence of sustained ethanol consumption and has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mechanisms underlying this altered acetylome, however, remain unknown. The mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is reported to be the major regulator of mitochondrial protein deacetylation and remains a central focus for studies on protein acetylation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced mitochondrial acetylation, we employed a model for ALD in both wild-type (WT) and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice using a proteomics and bioinformatics approach. Here, WT and SIRT3 KO groups were compared in a mouse model of chronic ethanol consumption, revealing pathways relevant to ALD, including lipid and fatty acid metabolism, antioxidant response, amino acid biosynthesis and the electron-transport chain, each displaying proteins with altered acetylation. Interestingly, protein hyperacetylation resulting from ethanol consumption and SIRT3 ablation suggests ethanol-induced hyperacetylation targets numerous biological processes within the mitochondria, the majority of which are known to be acetylated through SIRT3-dependent mechanisms. These findings reveal overall increases in 91 mitochondrial targets for protein acetylation, identifying numerous critical metabolic and antioxidant pathways associated with ALD, suggesting an important role for mitochondrial protein acetylation in the pathogenesis of ALD.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a family of compounds that can oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules and may influence lifespan. Sirtuins are a conserved family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent protein deacetylases that regulate lifespan in many model organisms including yeast and mice. Recent work suggests that sirtuins can modulate ROS levels notably during a dietary regimen known as calorie restriction which enhances lifespan for several organisms. Although both sirtuins and ROS have been implicated in the aging process, their precise roles remain unknown. In this review, we summarize current thinking about the oxidative stress theory of aging, discuss some of the compelling data linking the sirtuins to ROS and aging, and propose a conceptual model placing the sirtuins into an ROS-driven mitochondria-mediated hormetic response.
sirtuins; SIRT1; SIRT3; oxidative stress; mitohormesis; acetylation
Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7), the mammalian homologs of the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been a major focus of study in the scientific community this past decade because of their emerging role in cancer biology and other age-related diseases. Emerging functions for this unique family of enzymes include roles in genomic stability, angiogenesis, metabolism, and anoikis. Here, we review recent developments on the role of sirtuins in cancer with a particular focus on SIRT3 and its role in the hallmarks of cancer and as a potential drug target for cancer treatment.
sirtuin-3; SIRT3; sirtuins; cancer; tumor promoter; tumor suppressor; anoikis
HIV-1 latency is a barrier to overcome in the effort to fully eradicate the virus from infected individuals using highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Therefore, the study of the mechanisms underlying the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency are vital to achieving a cure. Transcriptional repression of the viral promoter is the major cause of HIV-1 latency. DNA methylation of genomic regions known as CpG islands (CpGIs) is a well-established transcriptional regulatory mechanism, and the HIV-1 provirus contains several conserved CpGIs including two that are located within the viral promoter region. The study of these CpGIs in both in vitro and in vivo models of HIV-1 latency using the technique of bisulfite-mediated methylcytosine mapping has led to their identification as factors that contribute to the maintenance of HIV-1 latency. Here, we discuss the identification of CpGIs within the HIV-1 provirus and the study of their differential methylation patterns in several HIV-1 latency models using bisulfite-mediated methylcytosine mapping.
CpG Island; DNA methylation; HIV-1 latency; Bisulfite-mediated methylcytosine mapping
Acetylation is increasingly recognized as an important metabolic regulatory post-translational protein modification, yet the metabolic consequence of mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation is unknown. We find that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces hepatic mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in mice and downregulation of the major mitochondrial protein deacetylase SIRT3. Mice lacking SIRT3 (SIRT3KO) placed on a HFD show accelerated obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and steatohepatitis compared to wild-type (wt) mice. The lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 is highly induced in SIRT3KO mice, and its deletion rescues both wt and SIRT3KO mice from HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We further identify a single nucleotide polymorphism in the human SIRT3 gene that is suggestive of a genetic association with the metabolic syndrome. This polymorphism encodes a point-mutation in the SIRT3 protein, which reduces its overall enzymatic efficiency. Our findings show loss of SIRT3 and dysregulation of mitochondrial protein acetylation contribute to the metabolic syndrome.
Progressive mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to neuronal degeneration in age-mediated disease. An essential regulator of mitochondrial function is the deacetylase, sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Here we investigate a role for CNS Sirt3 in mitochondrial responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS)- and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-mediated stress. Pharmacological augmentation of mitochondrial ROS increases Sirt3 expression in primary hippocampal culture with SIRT3 over-expression being neuroprotective. Furthermore, Sirt3 expression mirrors spatiotemporal deposition of β-amyloid in an AD mouse model and is also upregulated in AD patient temporal neocortex. Thus, our data suggest a role for SIRT3 in mechanisms sensing and tackling ROS- and AD-mediated mitochondrial stress.
Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has converted HIV into a chronic disease, a reservoir of HIV latently infected resting T cells prevents the eradication of the virus from patients. To achieve eradication, HAART must be combined with drugs that reactivate the dormant viruses. We examined this problem in an established model of HIV postintegration latency by screening a library of small molecules. Initially, we identified eight molecules that reactivated latent HIV. Using them as templates, additional hits were identified by means of similarity-based virtual screening. One of those hits, 8-methoxy-6-methylquinolin-4-ol (MMQO), proved to be useful to reactivate HIV-1 in different cellular models, especially in combination with other known reactivating agents, without causing T-cell activation and with lower toxicity than that of the initial hits. Interestingly, we have established that MMQO produces Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation and enhances the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 stimulation of HIV-1 reactivation from latency but inhibits CD3-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene transcription. Moreover, MMQO prevents TCR-induced cell cycle progression and proliferation in primary T cells. The present study documents that the combination of biological screening in a cellular model of viral latency with virtual screening is useful for the identification of novel agents able to reactivate HIV-1. Moreover, we set the bases for a hypothetical therapy to reactivate latent HIV by combining MMQO with physiological or pharmacological TCR/CD3 stimulation.
Taxanes are potent inhibitors of cell motility, a property implicated in their antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activity and unrelated to their antiproliferative effect. The molecular mechanism of this anti-motility activity is poorly understood. In this study, we found that paclitaxel induced tubulin acetylation in endothelial and tumor cells, at concentrations that affected cell motility but not proliferation (10-8 to 10-9 M, for 4 hours). Induction of tubulin acetylation correlated with inhibition of motility but not proliferation based on a comparison of highly and poorly cytotoxic taxanes (paclitaxel and IDN5390) and tumor cell lines sensitive and resistant to paclitaxel (1A9 and 1A9 PTX22). Consistent with the hypothesis that tubulin deacetylase activity might affect cell response to the anti-motility activity of taxanes, we found that overexpression of the tubulin deacetylase SIRT2 increased cell motility and reduced cell response to the anti-motility activity of paclitaxel. Conversely, the SIRT2 inhibitor splitomicin reduced cell motility and potentiated the anti-motility activity of paclitaxel. The inhibitory effect was further potentiated by the addition of the HDAC6 inhibitor trichostatin A. Paclitaxel and splitomicin promoted translocation into the nucleus—and hence activation—of FOXO3a, a negative regulator of cell motility. This study indicates a role for SIRT2 in the regulation of cell motility and suggests that therapies combining sirtuin inhibitors and taxanes could be used to treat cell motility-based pathologic processes such as tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.
Sirtuins (SIRT1 7), the mammalian homologues of the Sir2 gene in yeast, have emerging roles in age-related diseases, such as cardiac hypertrophy, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. However, the role of several sirtuin family members, including SIRT1 and SIRT3, in cancer has been controversial. The aim of this review is to explore and discuss the seemingly dichotomous role of SIRT3 in cancer biology with particular emphasis on its potential role as a tumor promoter and tumor suppressor. This review will also discuss the potential role of SIRT3 as a novel therapeutic target to treat cancer.
Sirtuin-3; SIRT3; Cancer; Tumor promoter; Tumor Suppressor