Inflammatory and angiogenic biomarkers were measured in androgen deprivation therapy–treated and control groups of men with prostate cancer. Significantly higher concentrations of some inflammatory biomarkers were found in the treatment group.
Angiogenesis and inflammation are both important to the pathogenesis of malignancies. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer causes drastic hormonal changes that alter both disease and host factors. We measured inflammatory and angiogenic biomarkers in ADT-treated and control groups of men with prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods.
Baseline and 12-week plasma samples were collected from 37 ADT-naïve men with locally advanced or recurrent prostate cancer. Of those, 23 initiated ADT with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and 14 served as nontreatment controls. Samples were tested for a panel of angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers.
The treatment group had significantly higher concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and stromal cell–derived factor (SDF)-1α. None of the angiogenic biomarkers were significantly different between the groups at baseline. Among patients with a short prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (<6 months), the proangiogenic factor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was lower at baseline. In the treatment group, plasma placental growth factor (PlGF) increased and IL-6 decreased after 12 weeks of ADT. Moreover, the treatment group continued to have significantly higher concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers IL-1β, IL-8, and SDF-1α as well as bFGF than controls.
These men were characterized by elevations in several traditional markers of aggressive disease and also by higher levels of several inflammatory biomarkers. Although ADT decreased IL-6 levels, IL-1β, IL-8, and SDF-1α remained significantly higher than in controls. The role of these biomarkers should be further explored.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer increases fracture risk, decreases bone mineral density, and increases bone turnover markers (BTMs) including serum type 1 C-telopeptide (sCTX), tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase 5b (TRAP-5b), and procollagen-1 N-terminal telopeptide (P1NP). In a pre-specified exploratory analysis of a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of denosumab (60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months for 3 years) vs. placebo (1468 patients, 734 in each group) on BTM values. BTMs were measured at baseline, month 1, and pre-dose at months 6, 12, 24, and 36 in the overall population. BTMs at month 1 are also reported for subgroups based on age (<70 years vs. ≥ 70 years), prior duration of ADT (≤6 months vs. >6 months), and baseline BTM (≤ median vs. >median BTM values). Treatment with denosumab provided a rapid and sustained decrease of BTM values compared with placebo. The median change in sCTX levels at month 1 was −90% in the denosumab group and −3% in the placebo group (p <.0001). The median change in TRAP-5b levels at month 1 was −55% in the denosumab group and −3% in the placebo group (p <.0001). The maximal median change in P1NP was −64% in the denosumab group and −11% in the placebo group, (p <.0001). Significantly greater decreases in BTM for denosumab were also seen in subgroup analyses based on age, prior ADT treatment, and baseline BTM values. Suppression of bone turnover markers was consistent with marked increases in bone mineral density reported previously.
(5) denosumab; androgen deprivation therapy; bone turnover markers; prostate cancer
Purpose of review
The aim of this review is to summarize new concepts and concerns regarding treatment-related osteoporosis, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists increase bone turnover, decrease bone mineral density, and increase fracture risk. Bisphosphonates, selective and estrogen receptor modulators significantly increase bone mineral density during androgen deprivation therapy. Ongoing randomized controlled trials will assess efficacy of denosumab, toremifene, and zoledronic acid to prevent fractures in this setting. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists also increase fat mass, decrease insulin sensitivity, and increase serum lipoproteins. In contrast to the classical metabolic syndrome, however, the phenotype of men during androgen deprivation therapy is characterized by increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and preferential accumulation of subcutaneous fat. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are associated with greater risk of incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease in men with prostate cancer.
Androgen therapy increases risk of fractures, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease in men with prostate cancer. Current and planned studies will evaluate strategies to prevent these treatment-related adverse effects.
cardiovascular disease; diabetes; gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists; obesity; osteoporosis; prostate cancer
The intended therapeutic effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists is hypogonadism, a major cause of acquired osteoporosis in men. Consistent with this observation, GnRH agonists increase bone turnover and decrease bone mineral density, a surrogate for fracture risk. Large claims-based analyses and other retrospective studies provide compelling evidence that GnRH agonists increase risk of clinical fractures. Estrogens play a central role in homeostasis of the normal male skeleton, and estrogen deficiency rather than testosterone deficiency seems to be primarily responsible for the adverse skeletal effects of GnRH agonists. In randomized controlled trials, bisphosphonates (pamidronate and zoledronic acid) and selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene and toremifene) increased bone mineral density in GnRH agonist – treated men. Two ongoing large randomized placebo-controlled studies will prospectively define fracture outcomes in men with prostate cancer and assess the efficacy of novel pharmacologic interventions (AMG162, toremifene) during GnRH agonist treatment.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists decrease bone mineral density (BMD) and increase fracture risk in men with prostate cancer. Annual zoledronic acid increases BMD in postmenopausal women, but its efficacy in hypogonadal men is not known.
Patients and Methods
In a 12-month study, 40 men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer who were receiving a GnRH agonist and had T scores more than −2.5 were randomly assigned to zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenously on day 1 only) or placebo. BMD of the posteroanterior lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Mean (± SE) BMD of the posteroanterior lumbar spine decreased by 3.1% ± 1.0% in men assigned to placebo and increased by 4.0% ± 1.0% in men assigned to zoledronic acid (P < .001). BMD of the total hip decreased by 1.9% ± 0.7% in men assigned to placebo and increased by 0.7% ± 0.5% in men assigned to zoledronic acid (P = .004). Similar between-group differences were observed for the femoral neck and trochanter. Serum N-telopeptide, a marker of osteoclast activity, decreased significantly after zoledronic acid treatment.
In men receiving a GnRH agonist, a single treatment with zoledronic acid significantly increased BMD and durably suppressed serum N-telopeptide levels for 12 months. Annual zoledronic acid may be a convenient and effective strategy to prevent bone loss in hypogonadal men.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are the mainstay of treatment for recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer. GnRH agonists are also an important part of therapy for many men with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer. Although GnRH agonists improve survival in certain settings, they involve adverse effects including vasomotor flushing, obesity, and osteoporosis. This article describes the evidence that GnRH agonists increase risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and reviews the potential mechanisms for treatment-related morbidity.
To evaluate effects of obesity on sex steroid levels during treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in men with prostate cancer.
Forty-nine hormone-naïve men with recurrent or locally advanced prostate cancer were included in the analyses. All subjects were treated with leuprolide 3-month depot for 48 weeks. Serum levels of estradiol, sex hormone – binding globulin, total testosterone, and free testosterone were assessed at baseline, 24 weeks, and 48 weeks. Subjects were categorized by body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat.
Pretreatment serum sex hormone – binding globulin and total testosterone levels were significantly lower in overweight and obese men than in men with normal BMI. In the overall study population, mean serum testosterone concentrations decreased from 372 ±18 ng/dL at baseline to 13 ± 1ng/dL at week 48 (P < 0.001). Free testosterone decreased from 6.75 ± 0.33 ng/dL at baseline to 0.21 ± 0.02 ng/dL at week 48 (P < 0.001). During treatment with leuprolide, obese men had significantly higher total and free testosterone levels than men with normal BMI. Compared with normal men, total and free testosterone levels during treatment were 1.8-fold and 2.3-fold higher in obese men. Similar results were observed when subjects were categorized by body fat.
Despite lower pretreatment serum testosterone levels, obese men have higher total and free testosterone levels during leuprolide treatment than men with normal BMI. These differences may contribute to the association between obesity and increased prostate cancer mortality.
Hormone ablation therapy (HALT) for breast or prostate cancer accelerates the development of osteoporosis in both men and women by causing estrogen deficiency, which increases the risk for fracture by promoting bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits osteoclast formation and function, increases bone mass in patients undergoing hormone ablation therapy. In the HALT study of 1,468 men with prostate cancer on androgen-deprivation therapy, denosumab significantly reduced the risk of new vertebral fractures, increased bone mineral density (BMD), and reduced markers of bone turnover. In a study of 252 women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy, denosumab increased BMD at 12 and 24 months, overall and in all patient subgroups. The overall rates of adverse events were similar to placebo. Clinicians should consider fracture risk assessment and therapies such as denosumab to increase bone mass in patients on hormone ablation therapy who are at high risk for fracture.
denosumab; treatment-induced bone loss; hormone-ablation therapy; breast cancer; prostate cancer
Disrupted skeletal homeostasis is common in patients with prostate cancer. Low bone density is common at diagnosis, and fracture risk is further elevated by the effects of androgen-deprivation therapy. Later in the disease course, bone metastases can result in skeletal morbidity. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels can provide important insights into overall disease progression, convenient, noninvasive tools for monitoring skeletal health are lacking. Biochemical markers released into serum and urine as a result of bone turnover might fulfill this unmet need. The objectives of this article are to assess current evidence examining the potential utility of bone turnover markers for monitoring skeletal health. bone disease progression, and response to antiresorptive therapies in the prostate cancer setting.
Published articles and abstracts from major oncology or urology congresses pertaining to the use of bone turnover markers to monitor skeletal health and disease progression were identified and assessed for relevance and methodologic stringency.
Several randomized trials and correlative studies support the utility of bone marker level changes to assess disease progression in the metastatic setting, bone health during hormonal therapy, and response to bisphosphonate therapy. The available data support potential associations between levels of the collagen type I telopeptides (NTX and CTX) and the severity of metastatic bone disease as well as outcomes during antiresorptive therapy. Evidence linking bone marker level changes with early diagnosis of skeletal metastases is emerging. Although several markers have shown promising results in correlative studies, results from ongoing prospective trials are needed to establish the role of bone markers in this setting.
Bone marker levels reflect ongoing skeletal metabolism and can provide important insights into bone health and response to bisphosphonate therapy in patients with prostate cancer. The data supporting a role for bone markers to monitor skeletal disease progression and response to zoledronic acid therapy are especially strong. Bone marker assessments may complement established diagnostic and monitoring paradigms in prostate cancer.
Bisphosphonate; Bone loss; Bone metastases; Bone mineral density; Bone turnover markers; Prostate cancer
The natural history of castration-resistant nonmetastatic prostate cancer is poorly defined.
We used data from 331 subjects in the placebo group of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the relationships between disease and host characteristics with time to first bone metastases in men with prostate cancer, rising PSA despite androgen deprivation therapy, and no radiographic evidence of metastases. Relationships between baseline covariates and clinical outcomes were assessed by Cox proportional hazard analyses. Covariates in the model were age, body mass index, prior prostatectomy, prior orchiectomy, Gleason score, performance status, PSA, urinary N-telopeptide, bone alkaline phosphatase, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, and hemoglobin.
At 2 years, 46% of subjects had developed bone metastases and 20% had died. Median bone metastasis-free survival was 25 months. In multivariate analyses, baseline PSA ≥ 13.1 ng/mL was associated with shorter overall survival (relative risk 2.34; 95% CI 1.71, 3.21; p<0.0001), time to first bone metastasis (relative risk 1.98; 95% CI 1.43, 2.74; p<0.0001), and bone metastasis-free survival (relative risk 1.98; 95% CI 1.45, 2.70; p<0.0001). PSA velocity was significantly associated with overall and bone metastasis-free survival. Other covariates were not consistently associated with clinical outcomes.
In men with progressive castration-resistant prostate cancer and no detectable metastases, baseline PSA was significantly associated with time to first bone metastasis, bone metastasis-free survival, and overall survival. Other disease and host characteristics, including body mass index and bone turnover markers, were not consistently associated with clinical outcomes.
prostate cancer; androgen deprivation therapy; bone metastases; prostate-specific antigen
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists increase fat mass, decrease insulin sensitivity, and increase serum triglycerides–changes suggestive of the classic metabolic syndrome. These analyses were designed to assess the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment on other markers of the metabolic syndrome including adiponectin, resistin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) levels and to evaluate relationships between changes in adipocytokines, body composition, and insulin sensitivity.
In this prospective 12-week study, 25 nondiabetic men with locally advanced or recurrent prostate cancer and no radiographic evidence of metastases were treated with leuprolide depot and bicalutamide. Outcomes included changes from baseline to week 12 in body composition, insulin sensitivity, and levels of adiponectin, resistin, and PAI-1.
Mean (± SE) percentage fat body mass increased by 4.3 ± 1.3% from baseline to week 12 (P=0.002). Insulin sensitivity index decreased by 12.9 ± 7.6% (P=0.02). Serum adiponectin levels increased by 37.4 ± 7.2% from baseline to week 12 (P<0.001). In contrast, serum resistin levels did not change significantly. Changes in adiponectin were associated with changes lean mass (r=0.448; P=0.02) and fat mass (r=−0.383; P=0.06) but not changes in insulin sensitivity.
Combined androgen blockade with leuprolide and bicalutamide significantly increased serum adiponectin levels but did not alter PAI-1 or resistin levels. This pattern of metabolic changes appears distinct from the classic metabolic syndrome.
prostate cancer; GnRH agonist; obesity; insulin resistance; adiponectin; resistin
In men with prostate cancer, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists increase fat mass, decrease insulin sensitivity, and increase triglycerides, features that are shared with metabolic syndrome. To the authors’ knowledge, however, less is known regarding the effects of GnRH agonists on other attributes of the metabolic syndrome.
In an open-label prospective study, 26 men with recurrent or locally advanced prostate cancer were treated with leuprolide for 12 months. Outcomes included changes in blood pressure, body composition, lipids, adipocytokines, and C-reactive protein.
The mean weight, body mass index, and waist circumference increased significantly from baseline to Month 12 (P < .001 for each comparison). Fat mass increased by 11.2% ± 1.5% (P < .001) and the percentage lean body mass decreased by 3.6% ± 0.5% (P < .001). The total abdominal fat area increased by 16.5% ± 2.6% (P < .001), with the accumulation of subcutaneous fat accounting for 94% of the observed increase. The waist-to-hip ratio and blood pressure did not change significantly. Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations increased significantly (P = .002). Serum adiponectin levels increased by 36.4 ± 5.9% from baseline to Month 3 and remained significantly elevated through Month 12 (P < .001). Resistin and C-reactive protein levels did not change significantly.
The term metabolic syndrome does not appear to adequately describe the effects of GnRH agonists in men with prostate cancer. In contrast to the metabolic syndrome, GnRH agonists increase subcutaneous fat mass, HDL cholesterol, and adiponectin, and do not alter the waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, or C-reactive protein level.
prostate cancer; metabolic syndrome; gonadotropin-releasing hormone; metabolic changes
Bone metastases and skeletal complications are major causes of morbidity in prostate cancer patients. Despite the osteoblastic appearance of bone metastases on imaging studies, patients have elevated serum and urinary markers of bone resorption, indicative of high osteoclast activity. Increased osteoclast activity is independently associated with higher risk of subsequent skeletal complications, disease progression, and death. Osteoclast-targeted therapies are therefore a rational approach to reduction of risk for disease-related skeletal complications, bone metastases, and treatment-related fractures. This review focuses on recent advances in osteoclast-targeted therapy in prostate cancer. Bisphosphonates have been extensively studied in men with prostate cancer. Zoledronic acid significantly decreased the risk of skeletal complications in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases, and is FDA-approved for this indication. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds and inactivates RANKL, a critical mediator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. Recent global phase 3 clinic trials demonstrated an emerging role for denosumab in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases and prevention of fractures associated with androgen deprivation therapy.
bisphosphonate; denosumab; metastasis; osteoclast; prostate cancer; RANKL; toremifene; zoledronic acid
Male osteoporosis is an increasingly recognized problem in aging men. A common cause of male osteoporosis is hypogonadism. Thousands of men with prostate cancer are treated with androgen deprivation therapy, a treatment that dramatically reduces serum testosterone and causes severe hypogonadism. Men treated with androgen deprivation therapy experience a decline in bone mineral density and have an increased rate of fracture. This paper describes prostate cancer survivors as a model of hypogonadal osteoporosis and discusses the use of RANKL-targeted therapies in osteoporosis. Denosumab, the only RANKL-targeted therapy currently available, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture rate in men with prostate cancer. Denosumab is also associated with delayed time to first skeletal-related event and an increase in bone metastasis-free survival in these men. It is reasonable to investigate the use of RANKL-targeted therapy in male osteoporosis in the general population.
Rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present in the blood of patients with metastatic epithelial cancers but have been difficult to measure routinely. We report a quantitative automated imaging system for analysis of prostate CTCs, taking advantage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a unique prostate tumor–associated marker. The specificity of PSA staining enabled optimization of criteria for baseline image intensity, morphometric measurements, and integration of multiple signals in a three-dimensional microfluidic device. In a pilot analysis, we detected CTCs in prostate cancer patients with localized disease, before surgical tumor removal in 8 of 19 (42%) patients (range, 38 to 222 CTCs per milliliter). For 6 of the 8 patients with preoperative CTCs, a precipitous postoperative decline (<24 hours) suggests a short half-life for CTCs in the blood circulation. Other patients had persistent CTCs for up to 3 months after prostate removal, suggesting early but transient disseminated tumor deposits. In patients with metastatic prostate cancer, CTCs were detected in 23 of 36 (64%) cases (range, 14 to 5000 CTCs per milliliter). In previously untreated patients followed longitudinally, the numbers of CTCs declined after the initiation of effective therapy. The prostate cancer–specific TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was detectable in RNA extracted from CTCs from 9 of 20 (45%) patients with metastatic disease, and dual staining of captured CTCs for PSA and the cell division marker Ki67 indicated a broad range for the proportion of proliferating cells among CTCs. This method for analysis of CTCs will facilitate the application of noninvasive tumor sampling to direct targeted therapies in advanced prostate cancer and warrants the initiation of long-term clinical studies to test the importance of CTCs in invasive localized disease.
Osteoporosis causes morbidity and mortality in men. The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends fracture risk assessment with the online WHO/FRAX® tool. Although androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer increases fracture risk, there is limited information about which men require preventative drug therapy. We applied the WHO/FRAX tool to men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
Information was collected from a practice cohort of men treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, and included age, height, weight, history of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry results, prior bone targeted therapy and clinical risk factors for fracture. Subjects were evaluated with the WHO/FRAX algorithm (http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/).
A total of 363 men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (median age 72 years) were evaluated. By the FRAX algorithm with clinical information (no dual energy x-ray absorptiometry data) the 3% hip fracture risk threshold for treatment was exceeded by 51.2% of the men (median risk 3.1%). When subjects were grouped by age the treatment threshold was reached by 3.3% of those younger than 70 years, 76.6% of those 70 to 79 years old and by 98.8% of those 80 years old or older. Using FRAX with bone mineral density data in the 93 patients who underwent bone mineral density testing the median 10-year hip fracture risk was 0.9% and the treatment threshold was exceeded by 15% of these subjects.
In this cohort of men receiving androgen deprivation therapy the prevalence of risk sufficient to necessitate drug therapy was high and was strongly influenced by age. The WHO/FRAX algorithm identifies a greater proportion of men for treatment than the traditional threshold of T score −2.5 or less.
prostatic neoplasms; osteoporosis; fractures, bone; androgens
Bone metastases are a major cause of morbidity for men with prostate cancer. Although typical bone metastases from prostate cancer appear osteoblastic by radiographic imaging, excess number and activity of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts characterize most “osteoblastic” bone metastases. Additionally, pathological osteoclast activation is associated with increased risk of skeletal complications, disease progression, and death. Zoledronic acid, a potent intravenous bisphosphonate, reduces markers of osteoclast activity and significantly decreases the risk of skeletal complications in men with androgen-independent prostate cancer and bone metastases. Additional studies are needed to determine the optimal timing, schedule, and duration of bisphosphonate treatment in men with bone metastases as well as the potential role of bisphosphonates in other settings, including the prevention of bone metastases. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds and neutralizes human receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), a critical mediator of osteoclast activation, differentiation, and survival. Three ongoing pivotal studies involving more than 4,500 subjects will evaluate the role of denosumab for prevention of treatment-related fractures, bone metastases, and disease-related skeletal complications in men with prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer; Bone metastases; Osteoclast; Bisphosphonate; Denosumab
Viable tumour-derived epithelial cells (circulating tumour cells or CTCs) have been identified in peripheral blood from cancer patients and are probably the origin of intractable metastatic disease1–4. Although extremely rare, CTCs represent a potential alternative to invasive biopsies as a source of tumour tissue for the detection, characterization and monitoring of non-haematologic cancers5–8. The ability to identify, isolate, propagate and molecularly characterize CTC subpopulations could further the discovery of cancer stem cell biomarkers and expand the understanding of the biology of metastasis. Current strategies for isolating CTCs are limited to complex analytic approaches that generate very low yield and purity9. Here we describe the development of a unique microfluidic platform (the ‘CTC-chip’) capable of efficient and selective separation of viable CTCs from peripheral whole blood samples, mediated by the interaction of target CTCs with antibody (EpCAM)-coated microposts under precisely controlled laminar flow conditions, and without requisite pre-labelling or processing of samples. The CTC-chip successfully identified CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic lung, prostate, pancreatic, breast and colon cancer in 115 of 116 (99%) samples, with a range of 5–1,281 CTCs per ml and approximately 50% purity. In addition, CTCs were isolated in 7/7 patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Given the high sensitivity and specificity of the CTC-chip, we tested its potential utility in monitoring response to anti-cancer therapy. In a small cohort of patients with metastatic cancer undergoing systemic treatment, temporal changes in CTC numbers correlated reasonably well with the clinical course of disease as measured by standard radiographic methods. Thus, the CTC-chip provides a new and effective tool for accurate identification and measurement of CTCs in patients with cancer. It has broad implications in advancing both cancer biology research and clinical cancer management, including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer10.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is increasingly used for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa), even in clinical settings in which there is no evidence-based proof of prolonged overall survival (OS). ADT, however, may be associated with numerous side effects, including an increased therapy-related cardiovascular mortality.
To discuss different clinical settings in which ADT is currently used and to critically weigh the benefits of ADT against its possible side effects.
A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify original articles and review articles addressing the efficacy and side effects of ADT for the treatment of PCa. Keywords consisted of prostate cancer, hormonal therapy, adverse effects, radical prostatectomy, and radiotherapy. The articles with the highest level of evidence for the various examined end points were identified with the consensus of all authors and were reviewed.
Even short-term use of ADT may lead to numerous side effects, such as osteoporosis, obesity, sarcopenia, lipid alterations, insulin resistance, and increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular morbidity. Despite these side effects, ADT is commonly used in various clinical settings in which a clear effect on improved OS has not been shown.
ADT is associated with an increased risk of multiple side effects that may reduce quality of life and/or OS. Consequently, these issues should be discussed in detail with patients and their families before initiation of ADT. ADT should be used with knowledge of its potential long-term side effects and with possible lifestyle interventions, especially in settings with the highest risk–benefit ratio, to alleviate comorbidities.
Prostate cancer; Hormonal therapy; Adverse effects; Radical prostatectomy; Radiotherapy
Skeletal complications are major causes of morbidity in patients with prostate cancer. Despite the osteoblastic appearance of prostate cancer bone metastases, elevated serum and urinary markers of bone resorption are indicative of high osteoclast activity. Increased osteoclast activity is independently associated with subsequent skeletal complications, disease progression, and death. Osteoclast-targeted therapies aim to reduce the risk for disease-related skeletal complications, bone metastases, and treatment-related fractures. This review focuses on recent advances in osteoclast-targeted therapies in the treatment and prevention of bone complications in prostate cancer. Osteoclast-targeted therapies have been extensively studied in men with prostate cancer. The potent bisphosphonate zoledronic acid significantly decreased the risk of skeletal complications in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases, and is Federal Drug Administration approved for this indication. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand, a critical mediator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. Data from recent phase III clinic trials demonstrate the emerging role for denosumab in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases and prevention of fractures associated with androgen deprivation therapy.
Bisphosphonate; Denosumab; Osteoclast; RANKL; Toremifene; Zoledronic acid
To design a decision-support tool to facilitate evidence-based treatment decisions in clinically localized prostate cancer, as individualized risk assessment and shared decision-making can decrease distress and decisional regret in patients with prostate cancer, but current individual models vary or only predict one outcome of interest.
We searched Medline for previous reports and identified peer-reviewed articles providing pretreatment predictive models that estimated pathological stage and treatment outcomes in men with biopsy-confirmed, clinical T1-3 prostate cancer. Each model was entered into a spreadsheet to provide calculated estimates of extracapsular extension (ECE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), and lymph node involvement (LNI). Estimates of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) outcome after radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT), and clinical outcomes after RT, were also entered. The data are available at http://www.capcalculator.org.
Entering a patient’s 2002 clinical T stage, Gleason score and pretreatment PSA level, and details from core biopsy findings, into the CaP Calculator provides estimates from predictive models of pathological extent of disease, four models for ECE, four for SVI and eight for LNI. The 5-year estimates of PSA relapse-free survival after RT and 10-year estimates after RP were available. A printout can be generated with individualized results for clinicians to review with each patient.
The CaP Calculator is a free, online ‘clearing house’ of several predictive models for prostate cancer, available in an accessible, user-friendly format. With further development and testing with patients, the CaP Calculator might be a useful decision-support tool to help doctors promote evidence-based shared decision-making in prostate cancer.
prostate cancer; decision support; surgery; radiotherapy; shared decision-making
The CHEK2-1100delC mutation is recurrent in the population and is a moderate risk factor for breast cancer. To identify additional CHEK2 mutations potentially contributing to breast cancer susceptibility, we sequenced 248 cases with early-onset disease; functionally characterized new variants and conducted a population-based case–control analysis to evaluate their contribution to breast cancer risk. We identified 1 additional null mutation and 5 missense variants in the germline of cancer patients. In vitro, the CHEK2-H143Y variant resulted in gross protein destabilization, while others had variable suppression of in vitro kinase activity using BRCA1 as a substrate. The germline CHEK2-1100delC mutation was present among 8/1,646 (0.5%) sporadic, 2/400 (0.5%) early-onset and 3/302 (1%) familial breast cancer cases, but undetectable amongst 2,105 multiethnic controls, including 633 from the US. CHEK2-positive breast cancer families also carried a deleterious BRCA1 mutation. 1100delC appears to be the only recurrent CHEK2 mutation associated with a potentially significant contribution to breast cancer risk in the general population. Another recurrent mutation with attenuated in vitro function, CHEK2-P85L, is not associated with increased breast cancer susceptibility, but exhibits a striking difference in frequency across populations with different ancestral histories. These observations illustrate the importance of genotyping ethnically diverse groups when assessing the impact of low-penetrance susceptibility alleles on population risk. Our findings highlight the notion that clinical testing for rare missense mutations within CHEK2 may have limited value in predicting breast cancer risk, but that testing for the 1100delC variant may be valuable in phenotypically- and geographically-selected populations.
CHEK2; susceptibility; breast; cancer; mutation
Bone metastases are prevalent among patients with advanced solid tumors. Metastatic bone disease alters bone homeostasis, resulting in reduced bone integrity and, consequently, increased skeletal complications. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism may meet an unmet need for useful, noninvasive, and sensitive surrogate information for following patients’ skeletal health.
Materials and methods
Data for this review were identified by searches of PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms “bone markers” or individual bone marker nomenclature, “cancer,” and “metastases.” Abstracts and reports from meetings were included only when they related directly to previously published work. Only papers published in English between 1990 and 2007 were included.
Recent retrospective analyses with bisphosphonates, and particularly with zoledronic acid, have shown significant correlations between biochemical markers of bone metabolism levels and clinical outcomes, especially for bone resorption markers. Clinical results for biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption and other emerging markers of bone metabolism including bone sialoprotein, receptor–activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, and other markers are presented. However, biochemical markers of bone metabolism are not yet an established surrogate endpoint for treatment efficacy.
Biochemical markers of bone metabolism may allow physicians to identify which patients with metastatic bone disease are at high risk for skeletal-related events or death and who may be responding to therapy. Prospective randomized clinical trials are underway to further assess the utility of markers of bone metabolism in patients with bone metastases.
Bone alkaline phosphatase; Bone sialoprotein; C-telopeptide of type I collagen; N-telopeptide of type I collagen; Osteoprotegerin
To report outcomes for patients with localized prostate cancer managed using a watchful waiting strategy at an American centre and to explore factors that have triggered intervention.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
From 1991 to 2005, 218 patients diagnosed with untreated localized prostate cancer were followed at Massachusetts General Hospital with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) monitoring and digital rectal examination (DRE). Re-biopsies were performed in 95 of the patients.The median follow-up was 6.3 years. Clinical outcomes and features predicting intervention were examined.
At diagnosis, the median PSA level was 5.4 ng/mL. The Gleason score (GS) distribution was as follows: 95% with GS 6, 4% with GS 7, 1% with GS 8. The clinical T-stage distribution was as follows: 6% with T1a–b, 84% with T1c, 10% with T2. The median age was 71 years.At 10 years, the overall survival was 79%, the cause-specific survival was 100%, the rate of distant metastasis was 5%, the rate of salvage androgen deprivation therapy was 15% and the rate of freedom from intervention (FFI) was 70%.There was a PSA velocity of ≥2 ng/mL per year in 16% of patients, and a PSA doubling time of ≤3 years in 15% of patients.Among the 95 re-biopsied men, the GS increased (grade progression) in 25% and the percentage of positive cores increased (volume progression) in 33%.On multivariate analysis, only PSA doubling time and volume progression were independent predictors of FFI.
In the present series, watchful waiting was associated with low rates of intervention and cancer progression.As PSA doubling time and volume progression were the main triggers for intervention, these will be incorporated into the centre’s current active surveillance protocol.
prostate cancer; watchful waiting; active surveillance; PSA