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1.  Disruption of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling by a Novel Ligand-dependent Mechanism 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2002;195(10):1247-1255.
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is the prototype in a family of secreted proteins that act in autocrine and paracrine pathways to regulate cell development and function. Normal cells typically coexpress TGF-β receptors and one or more isoforms of TGF-β, thus the synthesis and secretion of TGF-β as an inactive latent complex is considered an essential step in regula-ting the activity of this pathway. To determine whether intracellular activation of TGF-β results in TGF-β ligand–receptor interactions within the cell, we studied pristane-induced plasma cell tumors (PCTs). We now demonstrate that active TGF-β1 in the PCT binds to intracellular TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII). Disruption of the expression of TGF-β1 by antisense TGF-β1 mRNA restores localization of TβRII at the PCT cell surface, indicating a ligand-induced impediment in receptor trafficking. We also show that retroviral expression of a truncated, dominant-negative TβRII (dnTβRII) effectively competes for intracellular binding of active ligand in the PCT and restores cell surface expression of the endogenous TβRII. Analysis of TGF-β receptor–activated Smad2 suggests the intracellular ligand–receptor complex is not capable of signaling. These data are the first to demonstrate the formation of an intracellular TGF-β–receptor complex, and define a novel mechanism for modulating the TGF-β signaling pathway.
PMCID: PMC2193757  PMID: 12021305
receptor; trafficking; intracellular; signal-transduction; plasmacytoma
2.  Restricted Immunoglobulin Variable Region (Ig V) Gene Expression Accompanies Secondary Rearrangements of Light Chain Ig V Genes in Mouse Plasmacytomas 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1999;190(10):1405-1416.
The many binding studies of monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) produced by plasmacytomas have found no universally common binding properties, but instead, groups of plasmacytomas with specific antigen-binding activities to haptens such as phosphorylcholine, dextrans, fructofuranans, or dinitrophenyl. Subsequently, it was found that plasmacytomas with similar binding chain specificities not only expressed the same idiotype, but rearranged the same light (VL) and heavy (VH) variable region genes to express a characteristic monoclonal antibody. In this study, we have examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay five antibodies secreted by silicone-induced mouse plasmacytomas using a broader panel of antigens including actin, myosin, tubulin, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded DNA. We have determined the Ig heavy and light chain V gene usage in these same plasmacytomas at the DNA and RNA level. Our studies reveal: (a) antibodies secreted by plasmacytomas bind to different antigens in a manner similar to that observed for natural autoantibodies; (b) the expressed Ig heavy genes are restricted in V gene usage to the VH-J558 family; and (c) secondary rearrangements occur at the light chain level with at least three plasmacytomas expressing both κ and λ light chain genes. These results suggest that plasmacytomas use a restricted population of B cells that may still be undergoing rearrangement, thereby bypassing the allelic exclusion normally associated with expression of antibody genes.
PMCID: PMC2195694  PMID: 10562316
V(D)J rearrangement; plasmacytoma; allelic exclusion; polyreactivity; V gene usage

Results 1-2 (2)