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author:("Jain, saurat")
1.  Estimating Dense Cardiac 3D Motion Using Sparse 2D Tagged MRI Cross-sections* 
In this work, we describe a new method, an extension of the Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping to estimate three-dimensional deformation of tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data. Our approach relies on performing non-rigid registration of tag planes that were constructed from set of initial reference short axis tag grids to a set of deformed tag curves. We validated our algorithm using in-vivo tagged images of normal mice. The mapping allows us to compute root mean square distance error between simulated tag curves in a set of long axis image planes and the acquired tag curves in the same plane. Average RMS error was 0.31±0.36(SD) mm, which is approximately 2.5 voxels, indicating good matching accuracy.
doi:10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944772
PMCID: PMC4474039  PMID: 25571140
2.  Outcome of limb reconstruction system in open tibial diaphyseal fractures 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2015;49(4):429-435.
Background:
Management of open tibial diaphyseal fractures with bone loss is a matter of debate. The treatment options range from external fixators, nailing, ring fixators or grafting with or without plastic reconstruction. All the procedures have their own set of complications, like acute docking problems, shortening, difficulty in soft tissue management, chronic infection, increased morbidity, multiple surgeries, longer hospital stay, mal union, nonunion and higher patient dissatisfaction. We evaluated the outcome of the limb reconstruction system (LRS) in the treatment of open fractures of tibial diaphysis with bone loss as a definative mode of treatment to achieve union, as well as limb lengthening, simultaneously.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty open fractures of tibial diaphysis with bone loss of at least 4 cm or more with a mean age 32.5 years were treated by using the LRS after debridement. Distraction osteogenesis at rate of 1 mm/day was done away from the fracture site to maintain the limb length. On the approximation of fracture ends, the dynamized LRS was left for further 15-20 weeks and patient was mobilized with weight bearing to achieve union. Functional assessment was done by Association for the Study and Application of the Methods of Illizarov (ASAMI) criteria.
Results:
Mean followup period was 15 months. The mean bone loss was 5.5 cm (range 4-9 cm). The mean duration of bone transport was 13 weeks (range 8-30 weeks) with a mean time for LRS in place was 44 weeks (range 24-51 weeks). The mean implant index was 56.4 days/cm. Mean union time was 52 weeks (range 31-60 weeks) with mean union index of 74.5 days/cm. Bony results as per the ASAMI scoring were excellent in 76% (19/25), good in 12% (3/25) and fair in 4% (1/25) with union in all except 2 patients, which showed poor results (8%) with only 2 patients having leg length discrepancy more than 2.5 cm. Functional results were excellent in 84% (21/25), good in 8% (2/25), fair in 8% (2/25). Pin tract infection was seen in 5 cases, out of which 4 being superficial, which healed to dressings and antibiotics. One patient had a deep infection which required frame removal.
Conclusion:
Limb reconstruction system proved to be an effective modality of treatment in cases of open fractures of the tibia with bone loss as definite modality of treatment for damage control as well as for achieving union and lengthening, simultaneously, with the advantage of early union with attainment of limb length, simple surgical technique, minimal invasive, high patient compliance, easy wound management, lesser hospitalization and the lower rate of complications like infection, deformity or shortening.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.159638
PMCID: PMC4510797
Bone loss; fracture tibia; limb reconstruction system; Tibial fracture; fractures; compound; reconstructive surgical procedure
3.  The Evaluation of Efficacy of Post-Operative Antibiotics in the Open Reduction of the Zygomatic and Mandibular Fracture: A Prospective Trial 
Introduction
The administration of pre and post-operative antibiotics for open reduction and internal fixation of facial fracture is the usual norm followed. Although the benefit of antibiotic has been established in the literature, the value of post-operative administration has been questioned and yet not extensively studied or investigated. There are rising concerns over the duration and undesired effects of antibiotics. The purpose of the study was to evaluate necessity and/or efficacy of post-operative antibiotics in the open reduction of zygomatic and mandibular fracture.
Methods
Sixty patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation were divided into two groups for the trial. Ab group (30 patients) received pre, intra and post-operative antibiotics. Non-Ab group (30 patients) did not receive post-operative antibiotics though pre and intra-operative antibiotics were administered. Patients were evaluated for post-op infection at the end of 1st and 3rd week after operation.
Results
Among 60 patients, 2 patients (1 from Ab group and 1 from non-Ab group) were infected; so statistically no significant difference in result was obtained (Fisher’s exact test, P value = 1).
Conclusion
In this trial, the use of post-operative antibiotics in the open reduction and internal fixation of facial fracture was shown to confer no benefit/efficacy in reducing the chances of infection.
doi:10.1007/s12663-013-0492-9
PMCID: PMC4016392  PMID: 24822009
Post-operative antibiotic; Trauma; Zygoma; Mandible; Infection
4.  Automatic segmentation and volumetry of multiple sclerosis brain lesions from MR images 
NeuroImage : Clinical  2015;8:367-375.
The location and extent of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important criteria for diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Clinical trials have shown that quantitative values, such as lesion volumes, are meaningful in MS prognosis. Manual lesion delineation for the segmentation of lesions is, however, time-consuming and suffers from observer variability. In this paper, we propose MSmetrix, an accurate and reliable automatic method for lesion segmentation based on MRI, independent of scanner or acquisition protocol and without requiring any training data. In MSmetrix, 3D T1-weighted and FLAIR MR images are used in a probabilistic model to detect white matter (WM) lesions as an outlier to normal brain while segmenting the brain tissue into grey matter, WM and cerebrospinal fluid. The actual lesion segmentation is performed based on prior knowledge about the location (within WM) and the appearance (hyperintense on FLAIR) of lesions. The accuracy of MSmetrix is evaluated by comparing its output with expert reference segmentations of 20 MRI datasets of MS patients. Spatial overlap (Dice) between the MSmetrix and the expert lesion segmentation is 0.67 ± 0.11. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) equals 0.8 indicating a good volumetric agreement between the MSmetrix and expert labelling. The reproducibility of MSmetrix' lesion volumes is evaluated based on 10 MS patients, scanned twice with a short interval on three different scanners. The agreement between the first and the second scan on each scanner is evaluated through the spatial overlap and absolute lesion volume difference between them. The spatial overlap was 0.69 ± 0.14 and absolute total lesion volume difference between the two scans was 0.54 ± 0.58 ml. Finally, the accuracy and reproducibility of MSmetrix compare favourably with other publicly available MS lesion segmentation algorithms, applied on the same data using default parameter settings.
Highlights
•MSmetrix is a new automatic method for white matter lesion segmentation based on MRI.•MSmetrix performs unsupervised segmentation using 3D T1-weighted and FLAIR MR images.•MSmetrix is validated on two MS datasets and shows good accuracy and reproducibility.•MSmetrix compares favourably with other publicly available MS lesion segmentation algorithms.
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.05.003
PMCID: PMC4474324  PMID: 26106562
Multiple sclerosis; Magnetic resonance imaging; White matter lesions; Brain segmentation
5.  Magnetic Resonance evaluation of tubercular lesion in spine 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(2):261-269.
Purpose
Information on Magnetic Resonance (MR) features of active and healed lesions in tuberculosis (TB) spine are lacking. We evaluated MRI findings in active and healed proven TB spine to establish the diagnostic features.
Materials and method
Forty-nine consecutive spinal TB patients (20 male; 29 female) diagnosed clinicoradiologically and/or on histopathology, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), bacteriology, or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were enrolled. Pretreatment MR scans were reviewed for diagnostic features, and eight-month follow-up MR scans were reviewed for healing changes.
Results
Cervical spine (n = 6), dorsal spine (n = 14), and lumbar spine (n = 29) were affected. Fourteen had paraplegia. Mean vertebrae involved were 2.61 on X-ray with a total of 128 vertebrae (VB) and 3.2 on MRI (range, 2–15) with 161 VB. The lesions were more extensive on MRI (34.7%) than appreciated on X-ray. The disc was preserved partially or fully in 88.2% of instances. End plate erosions (159/161 VB), lost VB height (94/161), exudative lesion (158/161), granular lesion (3/161), pre and paravertebral collections (49/49 cases), marrow oedema (161/161), discitis (98%), epidural involvement (107/161), epidural spread (100/161), and subligamentous spread (156/161) were observed. Canal encroachment (10–90%) was seen in 37 cases. Mean motor and sensory scores with greater than 50% canal encroachment were 87/100 and 156/168, respectively. Cord oedema was observed in 11 cases (eight with neural deficit and three cases without). Cord atrophy was seen in one case each before and after treatment. A total of 83% of patients had a combination of paravertebral collections, marrow oedema, subligamentous and epidural extension, endplate erosions and discitis. On healing (n = 20), complete resolution of marrow oedema and collections, fatty replacement of bone marrow and resolution of cord signal intensity were observed.
Conclusion
The marrow oedema, preservation of disc space, subligamentous extension of abscess, septate paravertebral abscess, epidural extension, endplate erosions and discitis were consistently observed in 83% cases of TB spine on MRI.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1380-x
PMCID: PMC3282842  PMID: 22038440
6.  Instrumented stabilization in spinal tuberculosis 
International Orthopaedics  2011;36(2):285-292.
Spinal tuberculosis (TB) produces neurological complications and grotesque spinal deformity, which in children increases even with treatment and after achieving healing. Long-standing, severe deformity leads to painful costo-pelvic impingement, respiratory distress, risk of developing late-onset paraplegia and consequent reduction in quality and longevity of life. The treatment objective is to avoid the sequelae of neural complications and achieve the healed status with a near-normal spine. In TB, the spine may become unstable if all three columns are diseased. Pathological fracture/dislocation of a diseased vertebral body may occur secondary to mechanical insult. Surgical decompression adds further instability, as part of the diseased vertebral body is excised. The insertion of a metallic implant is to provide mechanical stability and the use of an implant in tubercular infection is safe. Indications for instrumented stabilisation can be categorised as: (a) pan vertebral disease, in which all three columns are diseased; (b) long-segment disease, in which after surgical decompression a bone graft >5 cm is inserted with instrumentation to prevent graft-related complications and consequent progression of kyphosis and neural complications and (c) when surgical correction of a kyphosis is performed when both anterior decompression and posterior column shortening is required. The implant choice should be individualised according to the case. Pedicle screw fixation in kyphus correction in healed disease is a most suitable implant. Hartshill sublaminar wiring stabilisation in active disease is a suitable implant to stabilise the spine, taking purchase against healthy posterior complex of the vertebral body to save a segment.
doi:10.1007/s00264-011-1296-5
PMCID: PMC3282857  PMID: 21720864
7.  Unicentric Castleman's Disease Masquerading Pancreatic Neoplasm 
Castleman's disease is a rare nonclonal proliferative disorder of the lymph nodes with an unknown etiology. Common locations of Castleman's disease are mediastinum, neck, axilla, and abdomen. Castleman's disease of a peripancreatic location masquerading as pancreatic neoplasm is an even rarer entity. On search of published data, we came across about 17 cases published on peripancreatic Castleman's disease until now. Here we are reporting a case of retropancreatic Castleman's disease masquerading as retroperitoneal neoplasm in a 46-year-old male patient.
doi:10.1155/2012/793403
PMCID: PMC3512256  PMID: 23227386
8.  Spinaplasty following lumbar laminectomy for multilevel lumbar spinal stenosis to prevent iatrogenic instability 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2011;45(5):396-403.
Background:
Iatrogenic instability following laminectomy occurs in patients with degenerative lumbar canal stenosis. Long segment fusions to obviate postoperative instability result in loss of motion of lumbar spine and predisposes to adjacent level degeneration. The best alternative would be an adequate decompressive laminectomy with a nonfusion technique of preserving the posterior ligament complex integrity. We report a retrospective analysis of multilevel lumbar canal stenosis that were operated for posterior decompression and underwent spinaplasty to preserve posterior ligament complex integrity for outcome of decompression and iatrogenic instability.
Materials and Methods:
610 patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis (n=520) and development spinal canal stenosis (n=90), with a mean age 58 years (33–85 years), underwent multilevel laminectomies and spinaplasty procedure. At followup, changes in the posture while walking, increase in the walking distance, improvement in the dysesthesia in lower limb, the motor power, capability to negotiate stairs and sphincter function were assessed. Forward excursion of vertebrae more than 4 mm in flexion–extension lateral X-ray of the spine as compared to the preoperative movements was considered as the iatrogenic instability. Clinical assessment was done in standing posture regarding active flexion–extension movement, lateral bending and rotations
Results:
All patients were followed up from 3 to 10 years. None of the patients had neurological deterioration or pain or catch while movement. Walking distance improved by 5–10 times, with marked relief (70–90%) in neurogenic claudication and preoperative stooping posture, with improvement in sensation and motor power. There was no significant difference in the sagittal alignment as well as anterior translation. Two patients with concomitant scoliosis and one with cauda equine syndrome had incomplete recovery. Two patients who developed disc protrusion, underwent a second operation for a symptomatic disc prolapse.
Conclusion:
Spinaplasty following posterior decompression for multilevel lumbar canal stenosis is a simple operation, without any serious complications, retaining median structures, maintaining the tension band and the strength with least disturbance of kinematics, mobility, stability and lordosis of the lumbar spine.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.83140
PMCID: PMC3162674  PMID: 21886919
Decompression; laminectomies; lumbar canal stenosis; multilevel; posterior ligamentous complex; spinaplasty
11.  Simultaneously anterior decompression and posterior instrumentation by extrapleural retroperitoneal approach in thoracolumbar lesions 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(4):409-416.
Background:
Anterior decompression with posterior instrumentation when indicated in thoracolumbar spinal lesions if performed simultaneously in single-stage expedites rehabilitation and recovery. Transthoracic, transdiaphragmatic approach to access the thoracolumbar junction is associated with significant morbidity, as it violates thoracic cavity; requires cutting of diaphragm and a separate approach, for posterior instrumentation. We evaluated the clinical outcome morbidity and feasibility of extrapleural retroperitoneal approach to perform anterior decompression and posterior instrumentation simultaneously by single “T” incision outcome in thoracolumbar spinal trauma and tuberculosis.
Patients and Methods:
Forty-eight cases of tubercular spine (n = 25) and fracture of the spine (n = 23) were included in the study of which 29 were male and 19 female. The mean age of patients was 29.1 years. All patients underwent single-stage anterior decompression, fusion, and posterior instrumentation (except two old traumatic cases) via extrapleural retroperitoneal approach by single “T” incision. Tuberculosis cases were operated in lateral position as they were stabilized with Hartshill instrumentation. For traumatic spine initially posterior pedicle screw fixation was performed in prone position and then turned to right lateral position for anterior decompression by same incision and approach. They were evaluated for blood loss, duration of surgery, superficial and deep infection of incision site, flap necrosis, correction of the kyphotic deformity, and restoration of anterior and posterior vertebral body height.
Results:
In traumatic spine group the mean duration of surgery was 269 minutes (range 215–315 minutes) including the change over time from prone to lateral position. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 918 ml (range 550–1100 ml). The preoperative mean ASIA motor, pin prick and light touch score improved from 63.3 to 74.4, 86 to 94.4 and 86 to 96 at 6 month of follow-up respectively. The mean preoperative loss of the anterior vertebral height improved from 44.7% to 18.4% immediate postoperatively and was 17.5% at final follow-up at 1 year. The means preoperative kyphus angle also improved from 23.3° to 9.3° immediately after surgery, which deteriorated to 11.5° at final follow-up. One patient developed deep wound infection at the operative site as well as flap necrosis, which needed debridement and removal of hardware. Five patients had bed sore in the sacral region, which healed uneventfully. In tubercular spine (n=25) group, mean operating time was approximately 45 minutes less than traumatic group. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 1100 ml (750–2200 ml). The mean preoperative kyphosis was corrected from 55° to 23°. Wound healing occurred uneventful in 23 cases and wound dehiscence occurred in only 2 cases. Nine out of 11 cases with paraplegia showed excellent neural recovery while 2 with panvertebral disease showed partial neural recovery. None of the patients in both groups required intensive unit care.
Conclusions:
Simultaneous exposure of both posterior and anterior column of the spine for posterior instrumentation and anterior decompression and fusion in single stage by extra pleural retroperitoneal approach by “T” incision in thoracolumbar spinal lesions is safe, an easy alternative with reduced morbidity as chest and abdominal cavities are not violated, ICU care is not required and diaphragm is not cut.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.69315
PMCID: PMC2947728  PMID: 20924482
Extra pleural retroperitoneal approach; thoracolumbar spine; spinal trauma; tuberculosis of spine
12.  Oncogenic osteomalacia: Problems in diagnosis and long-term management 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(4):453-457.
Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare association between mesenchymal tumors and hypophosphatemic rickets. It is more of a biochemical entity than a clinical one. The pathophysiology of the tumor is not clear. However, it has been seen that the clinical and biochemical parameters become normal if the lesion responsible for producing the osteomalacia is excised. For a clinical diagnosis a high index of suspicion is necessary. We present three such cases where in one the oncogenic osteomalacia reversed while in rest it did not. We present this case report to sensitize about the entity.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.69320
PMCID: PMC2947736  PMID: 20924490
Oncogenic osteomalacia; mesenchymal tumor; hypophosphatemic osteomalacia
13.  Kyphosis in spinal tuberculosis – Prevention and correction 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2010;44(2):127-136.
Spinal deformity and paraplegia/quadriplegia are the most common complications of tuberculosis (TB) of spine. TB of dorsal spine almost always produces kyphosis while cervical and lumbar spine shows reversal of lordosis to begin with followed by kyphosis. kyphosis continues to increase in adults when patients are treated nonoperatively or by surgical decompression. In children, kyphosis continues to increase even after healing of the tubercular disease. The residual, healed kyphosis on a long follow-up produces painful costopelvic impingement, reduced vital capacity and eventually respiratory complications; spinal canal stenosis proximal to the kyphosis and paraplegia with healed disease, thus affecting the quality and span of life. These complications can be avoided by early diagnosis of tubercular spine lesion to heal with minimal or no kyphosis. When tubercular lesion reports with kyphosis of more than 50° or is likely to progress further, they should be undertaken for kyphus correction. The sequential steps of kyphosis correction include anterior decompression and corpectomy, posterior column shortening, posterior instrumentation, anterior bone grafting and posterior fusion. During the procedure, the spinal cord should be kept under vision so that it should not elongate. Internal kyphectomy (gibbectomy) is a preferred treatment for late onset paraplegia with severe healed kyphosis.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.61893
PMCID: PMC2856387  PMID: 20418999
Kyphotic deformity; late onset paraplegia; TB spine; kyphus correction; extrapleural anterolateral approach
15.  Radiological and functional outcome in extra-articular fractures of lower end radius treated conservatively with respect to its position of immobilization 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(2):201-207.
Background:
Extra-articular fractures of lower end radius are conventionally immobilized in palmar flexion and ulnar deviation. In view of poor functional results, the conventional method of immobilization is giving way to dorsiflexed-immobilized method. The aim of our study is to evaluate and compare the radiological and functional outcome in extra-articular fractures of lower end radius treated conservatively with respect to its position of immobilization.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty-four patients, all above 20 years of age with closed extra-articular fractures of lower end radius who were treated conservatively by close reduction and below elbow cast application constitute the clinical material. Irrespective of fracture geometry the patients were randomly allocated to dorsal or palmar flexed immobilized position of wrist. Patients were followed up for a minimum six-month period. The radial tilt, palmar tilt and ulnar variance are measured at prereduction, postreduction and at 6 month followup. The results were scored by Demerit Scoring System of Saito.
Results:
All fractures united. Individual movement of dorsiflexion, palmar flexion, supination, pronation and radial-ulnar deviation were all significantly better in the dorsiflexed-immobilized group as compared with the palmar flexed immobilized group. Grip strength recovery with subjective assessment was better in the dorsiflexed group (77%) as compared to the palmar flexed group (23%). Radiological parameters were markedly better in the dorsiflexed group. Ninety-one per cent of patients in the dorsiflexed group had excellent to good results as compared to 66% in the palmar flexed group.
Conclusion:
Functional results of extra-articular fractures of lower end radius are superior if the fractures after reduction are immobilized in dorsiflexion of wrist rather than in conventional palmar flexion position.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.40258
PMCID: PMC2759629  PMID: 19826528
Cast immobilization; dorsiflexion; extra-articular fracture of lower end radius; palmar flexion
16.  The effects of absence of stereopsis on performance of a simulated surgical task in two-dimensional and three-dimensional viewing conditions 
Background
Stereopsis is believed to be advantageous for surgical tasks that require precise hand-eye coordination. We investigated the effects of short-term and long-term absence of stereopsis on motor task performance in three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) viewing conditions.
Methods
30 participants with normal stereopsis and 15 participants with absent stereopsis performed a simulated surgical task both in free space under direct vision (3D) and via a monitor (2D), with both eyes open and one eye covered in each condition.
Results
The stereo-normal group scored higher, on average, than the stereo-absent group with both eyes open under direct vision (p<0.001). Both groups performed comparably in monocular and binocular monitor viewing conditions (p=0.579).
Conclusions
High-grade stereopsis confers an advantage when performing a fine motor task under direct vision. However, stereopsis does not appear advantageous to task performance under 2D viewing conditions, such as in video-assisted surgery.
doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304517
PMCID: PMC4316921  PMID: 25185439
Visual perception

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