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1.  The NAD+-Dependent Deacetylase SIRT1 Modulates CLOCK-Mediated Chromatin Remodeling and Circadian Control 
Cell  2008;134(2):329-340.
SUMMARY
Circadian rhythms govern a large array of metabolic and physiological functions. The central clock protein CLOCK has HAT properties. It directs acetylation of histone H3 and of its dimerization partner BMAL1 at Lys537, an event essential for circadian function. We show that the HDAC activity of the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 enzyme is regulated in a circadian manner, correlating with rhythmic acetylation of BMAL1 and H3 Lys9/Lys14 at circadian promoters. SIRT1 associates with CLOCK and is recruited to the CLOCK:BMAL1 chromatin complex at circadian promoters. Genetic ablation of the Sirt1 gene or pharmacological inhibition of SIRT1 activity lead to disturbances in the circadian cycle and in the acetylation of H3 and BMAL1. Finally, using liver-specific SIRT1 mutant mice we show that SIRT1 contributes to circadian control in vivo. We propose that SIRT1 functions as an enzymatic rheostat of circadian function, transducing signals originated by cellular metabolites to the circadian clock.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.002
PMCID: PMC3526943  PMID: 18662547
2.  Sirt1 mediates neuroprotection from mutant huntingtin by activation of TORC1 and CREB transcriptional pathway 
Nature medicine  2011;18(1):159-165.
Sirt1, an NAD-dependent protein deacetylase has emerged as important regulator of mammalian transcription in response to cellular metabolic status and stress1. Here we demonstrate that Sirt1 plays a neuroprotective role in models of Huntington’s disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a glutamine repeat expansion in huntingtin protein2. Brain-specific knockout of Sirt1 results in exacerbation of brain pathology in HD mice, whereas overexpression of Sirt1 improves survival, neuropathology and BDNF expression in HD mice. We show that Sirt1 deacetylase activity directly targets neurons to mediate neuroprotection from mutant huntingtin. The neuroprotective effect of Sirt1 requires the presence of TORC1, a brain-specific modulator of CREB activity3. We show that under normal conditions Sirt1 deacetylates and activates TORC1 by promoting its dephoshorylation and interaction with CREB. We identified BDNF as an important target of Sirt1 and TORC1 transcriptional activity in normal and HD neurons. Mutant huntingtin interferes with the TORC1-CREB interaction to repress BDNF transcription and Sirt1 rescues this defect in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest a key role of Sirt1 in transcriptional networks in normal and HD brain and offer an opportunity for therapeutic development.
doi:10.1038/nm.2559
PMCID: PMC3509213  PMID: 22179316
3.  Mammalian Sir2 Homolog SIRT3 Regulates Global Mitochondrial Lysine Acetylation▿ †  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(24):8807-8814.
Homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein, sirtuins, promote longevity in many organisms. Studies of the sirtuin SIRT3 have so far been limited to cell culture systems. Here, we investigate the localization and function of SIRT3 in vivo. We show that endogenous mouse SIRT3 is a soluble mitochondrial protein. To address the function and relevance of SIRT3 in the regulation of energy metabolism, we generated and phenotypically characterized SIRT3 knockout mice. SIRT3-deficient animals exhibit striking mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation, suggesting that SIRT3 is a major mitochondrial deacetylase. In contrast, no mitochondrial hyperacetylation was detectable in mice lacking the two other mitochondrial sirtuins, SIRT4 and SIRT5. Surprisingly, despite this biochemical phenotype, SIRT3-deficient mice are metabolically unremarkable under basal conditions and show normal adaptive thermogenesis, a process previously suggested to involve SIRT3. Overall, our results extend the recent finding of lysine acetylation of mitochondrial proteins and demonstrate that SIRT3 has evolved to control reversible lysine acetylation in this organelle.
doi:10.1128/MCB.01636-07
PMCID: PMC2169418  PMID: 17923681
4.  The SIRT1 Deacetylase Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis and Colon Cancer Growth 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(4):e2020.
Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR), a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a β-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates β-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of β-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of β−catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in β−catenin-driven malignancies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002020
PMCID: PMC2289879  PMID: 18414679

Results 1-4 (4)