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1.  Modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment pain scale: a new tool for measuring upper abdominal pain in osteoarthritis patients taking NSAIDs 
This study evaluated the electronically administered modified Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (mSODA) pain scale, a six-item measure of upper abdominal pain intensity, for daily use in osteoarthritis patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Once the mSODA pain scale was isolated, cognitive debriefing interviews (n = 30) were used to examine its appropriateness in the target population. Following administration of the instrument in two Phase III pivotal trials, the data were analyzed to examine reliability, validity, responsiveness, and the minimal important difference.
Using a subset of trial data (n = 90 patients), the mSODA pain scale proved to be a unidimensional, highly internally consistent instrument (α = 0.93) with good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.77). Construct validity was established via moderate correlations with other similar patient-reported outcomes. Additionally, known-groups validity demonstrated that the mSODA pain scale could distinguish between subjects who did and did not report gastrointestinal symptoms and antacid use (both P values ≤ 0.05). The mSODA pain scale was also responsive to change in heartburn at weeks 6 and 12 (Guyatt’s statistic = 1.7 and 2.6, respectively), and the minimal important difference obtained via ½ SD was 5.7 (range 2–47).
This research suggests that the mSODA pain scale is both feasible and valid for assessing dyspepsia in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for relief of symptoms of osteoarthritis.
PMCID: PMC3417929  PMID: 22915974
mSODA pain scale; questionnaire; antacid; patients; heartburn
2.  Effects of esomeprazole treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease on quality of life in 12- to 17-year-old adolescents: an international health outcomes study 
BMC Gastroenterology  2009;9:84.
Although gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is common in adolescents, the burden of GERD on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents has not been previously evaluated. Therefore, the objective of the study was to examine the effect of GERD on HRQOL in adolescents.
This international, 31-site, 8-week safety study randomized adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years inclusive, with GERD to receive esomeprazole 20 or 40 mg once daily. The Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia questionnaire (QOLRAD), previously validated in adults, consists of 25 questions grouped into 5 domains: emotional distress, sleep disturbance, food/drink problems, physical/social functioning, and vitality. The QOLRAD was administered at the baseline and week-8 (final) visits.
Of the 149 patients randomized, 134 completed the QOLRAD at baseline and final visits and were eligible for analysis of their HRQOL data. Baseline QOLRAD scores indicated GERD had a negative effect on the HRQOL of these adolescents, especially in the domains of vitality and emotional distress, and problems with food/drink. At the final visit, mean scores for all 5 QOLRAD domains improved significantly (P < .0001); change of scores (ie, delta) for all domains met or exceeded the adult QOLRAD minimal clinically significant difference standard of 0.5 units.
GERD had a negative effect on QOL in adolescents. After esomeprazole treatment, statistically and clinically significant improvements occurred in all domains of the QOLRAD for these adolescents.
Trial Registration
D9614C00098; Identifier NCT00241501
PMCID: PMC2784471  PMID: 19922626
3.  Simultaneous development of the Pediatric GERD Caregiver Impact Questionnaire (PGCIQ) in American English and American Spanish 
The objective of this study was to develop simultaneously a new questionnaire, the Pediatric GERD Caregiver Impact Questionnaire (PGCIQ), in American English and American Spanish in order to elucidate the impact of caring for a child with GERD.
Two focus group discussions were conducted in American English and American Spanish to develop a relevant conceptual model. Focus group participants were the primary caregivers of children with GERD (newborn through 12 years of age). Participant responses were qualitatively analyzed to identify potential differences in caregiver perspectives by the caregiver's language, socio-economic status and demographic profile as well as the child's age and disease severity level. Items in the PGCIQ were generated simultaneously in English and Spanish by reviewing results of qualitative analysis from focus groups in each language. The PGCIQ was finalized in both languages after testing content validity and conducting an in-depth translatability assessment.
Analysis of focus group comments resulted in the development of a first draft questionnaire consisting of 58 items in 10 domains. Content validity testing and an in-depth translatability assessment resulted in wording modification of 37 items, deletion of 14 items and the addition of a domain with five items. Feedback from the content validity testing interviews indicated that the instrument is conceptually relevant in both American English and American Spanish, clear, comprehensive and easy to complete within 10 minutes. The final version of the PGCIQ contains 49 items assessing ten domains. An optional module with nine items is available for investigative research purposes and for use only at baseline.
The PGCIQ was developed using simultaneous item generation, a process that allows for consideration of concept relevance in all stages of development and in all languages being developed. The PGCIQ is the first questionnaire to document the multidimensional impact of caring for an infant or young child with GERD. Linguistic adaptation of the PGCIQ in multiple languages is ongoing. A validation study of the PGCIQ is needed to examine its psychometric properties, further refine the items and develop an appropriate scoring model.
PMCID: PMC548517  PMID: 15651991
4.  Health-related quality of life improves with treatment-related GERD symptom resolution after adjusting for baseline severity 
Severity and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) related symptoms are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study evaluated the association between baseline heartburn severity and endpoint HRQL of patients treated for heartburn and the relationship between complete resolution of heartburn symptoms and HRQL outcomes after controlling for baseline severity. We completed a secondary analysis of clinical symptom and HRQL data from three clinical trials in adult patients receiving either omeprazole or ranitidine treatment for GERD. HRQL was assessed using the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB) in each of the three clinical trials, and two of the trials also included the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep disturbance scale. Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using either the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale or a modified version of the scale. Baseline heartburn severity (none/minor, mild, moderate or severe) was defined based on patient-reported symptoms. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models were used to compare mean HRQL scores by baseline level of heartburn symptom severity and whether or not patients experienced complete heartburn resolution. At baseline, PGWB scores were significantly worse (p < 0.05) for patients with more severe heartburn symptoms. There were no statistically significant baseline severity by symptom resolution interactions in any of the ANCOVA models. For all three trials and across all follow-up assessments, mean PGWB scores were statistically significantly higher for patients with completely resolved heartburn symptoms versus those whose symptoms were unresolved (all p-values < 0.05). Few significant effects were observed for sleep disturbance scores. While the severity of heartburn symptoms at the start of medical treatment for GERD is not associated with improvements in HRQL in subsequent weeks of treatment, complete resolution of symptoms is associated with improvements in psychological well-being.
PMCID: PMC317366  PMID: 14641914
Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Psychological well-being; Medication treatment; Clinical trials; Health-related quality of life; Sleep disturbance
5.  Identification of frequent cytogenetic aberrations in hepatocellular carcinoma using gene-expression microarray data 
Genome Biology  2002;3(12):research0075.1-research0075.8.
Using comparative genomic microarray analysis (CGMA), 104 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene-expression microarray profiles were analyzed. CGMA identified 13 regions of frequent cytogenetic change in the HCC samples (+lq, -4q, +6p, -8p, +8q, -13q, -16q, -17p, +17q, +20q) three three of which have not been previously identified
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Frequent cytogenetic abnormalities that occur in HCC suggest that tumor-modifying genes (oncogenes or tumor suppressors) may be driving selection for amplification or deletion of these particular genetic regions. In many cases, however, the gene(s) that drive the selection are unknown. Although techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have traditionally been used to identify cytogenetic aberrations, it might also be possible to identify them indirectly from gene-expression studies. A technique we have called comparative genomic microarray analysis (CGMA) predicts regions of cytogenetic change by searching for regional gene-expression biases. CGMA was applied to HCC gene-expression profiles to identify regions of frequent cytogenetic change and to identify genes whose expression is misregulated within these regions.
Using CGMA, 104 HCC gene-expression microarray profiles were analyzed. CGMA identified 13 regions of frequent cytogenetic change in the HCC samples. Ten of these regions have been detected in previous CGH studies (+lq, -4q, +6p, -8p, +8q, -13q, -16q, -17p, +17q, +20q). CGMA identified three additional regions that have not been previously identified by CGH (+5q, +12q, +19p). Genes located in regions of frequent cytogenetic change were examined for changed expression in the HCC samples.
Our results suggest that CGMA predictions using gene-expression microarray datasets are a practical alternative to CGH profiling. In addition, CGMA might be useful for identifying candidate genes within cytogenetically abnormal regions.
PMCID: PMC151177  PMID: 12537564

Results 1-5 (5)