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Journal of Biomedical Research (1)
Molecular and Cellular Biology (1)
The Journal of Experimental Medicine (1)
Coleman, Allen (1)
Coleman, Allen E. (1)
Coleman, Allen Edward (1)
Dey, Anup (1)
Diaw, Lena (1)
Dighiero, Guillaume (1)
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Jones, Gary M. (1)
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Kovalchuck, Alexander Leonidovich (1)
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Year of Publication
Cellular exposure to muscle relaxants and propofol could lead to genomic instability in vitro
Kovalchuck, Alexander Leonidovich
Journal of Biomedical Research
Anesthesia is widely used in several medical settings and accepted as safe. However, there is some evidence that anesthetic agents can induce genomic changes leading to neural degeneration or apoptosis. Although chromosomal changes have not been observed in vivo, this is most likely due to DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Potential chromosomal alterations after exposure to common anesthetic agents may be relevant in patients with genomic instability syndromes or with aggressive treatment of malignancies. In this study, the P388 murine B cells were cultured in vitro, and spectral karyotyping (SKY) was utilized to uncover genome-wide changes. Clinically relevant doses of cisatracurium and propofol increased structural and numerical chromosomal instability. These results may be relevant in patients with underlying chromosomal instability syndromes or concurrently being exposed to chemotherapeutic agents. Future studies may include utilization of stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes to further confirm the significance of these results.
spectral karyotyping (SKY); genomic instability; epigenetic; P388; propofol; cisatracurium; vecuronium; pancuronium; aneuploidy
A Bromodomain Protein, MCAP, Associates with Mitotic Chromosomes and Affects G2-to-M Transition
Molecular and Cellular Biology
We describe a novel nuclear factor called mitotic chromosome-associated protein (MCAP), which belongs to the poorly understood BET subgroup of the bromodomain superfamily. Expression of the 200-kDa MCAP was linked to cell division, as it was induced by growth stimulation and repressed by growth inhibition. The most notable feature of MCAP was its association with chromosomes during mitosis, observed at a time when the majority of nuclear regulatory factors were released into the cytoplasm, coinciding with global cessation of transcription. Indicative of its predominant interaction with euchromatin, MCAP localized on mitotic chromosomes with exquisite specificity: (i) MCAP-chromosome association became evident subsequent to the initiation of histone H3 phosphorylation and early chromosomal condensation; and (ii) MCAP was absent from centromeres, the sites of heterochromatin. Supporting a role for MCAP in G2/M transition, microinjection of anti-MCAP antibody into HeLa cell nuclei completely inhibited the entry into mitosis, without abrogating the ongoing DNA replication. These results suggest that MCAP plays a role in a process governing chromosomal dynamics during mitosis.
Restricted Immunoglobulin Variable Region (Ig V) Gene Expression Accompanies Secondary Rearrangements of Light Chain Ig V Genes in Mouse Plasmacytomas
Jones, Gary M.
The Journal of Experimental Medicine
The many binding studies of monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) produced by plasmacytomas have found no universally common binding properties, but instead, groups of plasmacytomas with specific antigen-binding activities to haptens such as phosphorylcholine, dextrans, fructofuranans, or dinitrophenyl. Subsequently, it was found that plasmacytomas with similar binding chain specificities not only expressed the same idiotype, but rearranged the same light (VL) and heavy (VH) variable region genes to express a characteristic monoclonal antibody. In this study, we have examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay five antibodies secreted by silicone-induced mouse plasmacytomas using a broader panel of antigens including actin, myosin, tubulin, single-stranded DNA, and double-stranded DNA. We have determined the Ig heavy and light chain V gene usage in these same plasmacytomas at the DNA and RNA level. Our studies reveal: (a) antibodies secreted by plasmacytomas bind to different antigens in a manner similar to that observed for natural autoantibodies; (b) the expressed Ig heavy genes are restricted in V gene usage to the VH-J558 family; and (c) secondary rearrangements occur at the light chain level with at least three plasmacytomas expressing both κ and λ light chain genes. These results suggest that plasmacytomas use a restricted population of B cells that may still be undergoing rearrangement, thereby bypassing the allelic exclusion normally associated with expression of antibody genes.
V(D)J rearrangement; plasmacytoma; allelic exclusion; polyreactivity; V gene usage
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