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1.  Regulated assembly of a supramolecular centrosome scaffold in vitro 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2015;348(6236):808-812.
The centrosome organizes microtubule arrays within animal cells and comprises two centrioles surrounded by an amorphous protein mass called the pericentriolar material (PCM). Despite the importance of centrosomes as microtubule-organizing centers, the mechanism and regulation of PCM assembly are not well understood. In C. elegans, PCM assembly requires the coiled-coil protein SPD-5. Here we found that recombinant SPD-5 could polymerize to form micrometer-sized porous networks in vitro. Network assembly was accelerated by two conserved regulators that control PCM assembly in vivo, Polo-like kinase-1 and SPD-2/Cep192. Only the assembled SPD-5 networks, and not unassembled SPD-5 protein, functioned as a scaffold for other PCM proteins. Thus, PCM size and binding capacity emerge from the regulated polymerization of one coiled-coil protein to form a porous network.
One Sentence Summary
Centrosome assembly in C. elegans involves self-assembly of an interconnected, micron-scale network of proteins.
PMCID: PMC5039038  PMID: 25977552
2.  The Caenorhabditis elegans pericentriolar material components SPD-2 and SPD-5 are monomeric in the cytoplasm before incorporation into the PCM matrix 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2014;25(19):2984-2992.
Although cytoplasmic interactions between Caenorhabditis elegans centrosome proteins SPD-5, RSA-1, and RSA-2 can be detected in vivo, the key proteins required for centrosome assembly, SPD-2 and SPD-5, exist mostly as monomers and are separated from the centrosome-related kinases PLK-1 and AIR-1 in the cytoplasm.
Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centers in animal cells. Centrosomes consist of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a matrix of pericentriolar material (PCM) that assembles from cytoplasmic components. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, interactions between the coiled-coil proteins SPD-5 and SPD-2 and the kinase PLK-1 are critical for PCM assembly. However, it is not known whether these interactions promote the formation of cytoplasmic complexes that are added to the PCM or whether the components interact only during incorporation into the PCM matrix. Here we address this problem by using a combination of live-cell fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and hydrodynamic techniques to investigate the native state of PCM components in the cytoplasm. We show that SPD-2 is monomeric, and neither SPD-2 nor SPD-5 exists in complex with PLK-1. SPD-5 exists mostly as a monomer but also forms complexes with the PP2A-regulatory proteins RSA-1 and RSA-2, which are required for microtubule organization at centrosomes. These results suggest that the interactions between SPD-2, SPD-5, and PLK-1 do not result in formation of cytoplasmic complexes, but instead occur in the context of PCM assembly.
PMCID: PMC4230587  PMID: 25103243
3.  S100A11 is required for efficient plasma membrane repair and survival of invasive cancer cells 
Nature communications  2014;5:3795.
Cell migration and invasion require increased plasma membrane dynamics and ability to navigate through dense stroma, thereby exposing plasma membrane to tremendous physical stress. Yet, it is largely unknown how metastatic cancer cells acquire an ability to cope with such stress. Here we show that S100A11, a calcium-binding protein up-regulated in a variety of metastatic cancers, is essential for efficient plasma membrane repair and survival of highly motile cancer cells. Plasma membrane injury-induced entry of calcium into the cell triggers recruitment of S100A11 and Annexin A2 to the site of injury. We show that S100A11 in a complex with Annexin A2 helps reseal the plasma membrane by facilitating polymerization of cortical F-actin and excision of the damaged part of the plasma membrane. These data reveal plasma membrane repair in general and S100A11 and Annexin A2 in particular, as new targets for the therapy of metastatic cancers.
PMCID: PMC4026250  PMID: 24806074
4.  The human cap-binding complex is functionally connected to the nuclear RNA exosome 
Nature structural & molecular biology  2013;20(12):1367-1376.
Nuclear processing and quality control of eukaryotic RNA is mediated by the RNA exosome, which is regulated by accessory factors. However, the mechanism of exosome recruitment to its ribonucleoprotein (RNP) targets remains poorly understood. Here we disclose a physical link between the human exosome and the cap-binding complex (CBC). The CBC associates with the ARS2 protein to form CBC-ARS2 (CBCA), and then further connects together with the ZC3H18 protein to the nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT) complex, forming CBC-NEXT (CBCN). RNA immunoprecipitation using CBCN factors as well as the analysis of combinatorial depletion of CBCN and exosome components underscore the functional relevance of CBC-exosome bridging at the level of target RNA. Specifically, CBCA suppresses read-through products of several RNA families by promoting their transcriptional termination. We suggest that the RNP 5′cap links transcription termination to exosomal RNA degradation via CBCN.
PMCID: PMC3923317  PMID: 24270879
5.  Friend or food 
Autophagy  2012;8(6):995-996.
A hallmark of macroautophagy is the formation of autophagosomes, double-membrane vesicles that enwrap cellular components destined for lysosomal degradation. We examined autophagosomal protein dynamics under various inducing stimuli using a comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach in combination with functional studies in yeast and human cell cultures. Time frame and stimuli type influenced the autophagosome proteome, underlining the dynamic constitution of the organelle. We identified both a core set of proteins always localizing to autophagosomes and stimulus-dependent components that will serve as a resource for further characterization of the autophagosomal machinery and cargo selection. Among the core proteins were newly discovered autophagy regulators found to be conserved from yeast to humans, as well as the proteasome.
PMCID: PMC3427271  PMID: 22572990
autophagosome; proteasome; proteomics; mass spectrometry; macroautophagy
6.  The barley grain thioredoxin system – an update 
Thioredoxin (Trx) reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type Trx facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent Trx reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last 10 years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed Trx system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.
PMCID: PMC3659290  PMID: 23734159
thioredoxin; disulfide bond; redox regulation; NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase; cereal proteomics
7.  SIRT3 Deacetylates Mitochondrial 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Synthase 2 and Regulates Ketone Body Production 
Cell Metabolism  2010;12(6):654-661.
The mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT3 regulates metabolic homeostasis during fasting and calorie restriction. We identified mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) as an acetylated protein and a possible target of SIRT3 in a proteomics survey in hepatic mitochondria from Sirt3−/− (SIRT3KO) mice. HMGCS2 is the rate-limiting step in β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and is hyperacetylated at lysines 310, 447, and 473 in the absence of SIRT3. HMGCS2 is deacetylated by SIRT3 in response to fasting in wild-type mice, but not in SIRT3KO mice. HMGCS2 is deacetylated in vitro when incubated with SIRT3 and in vivo by overexpression of SIRT3. Deacetylation of HMGCS2 lysines 310, 447, and 473 by incubation with wild-type SIRT3 or by mutation to arginine enhances its enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations show that in silico deacetylation of these three lysines causes conformational changes of HMGCS2 near the active site. Mice lacking SIRT3 show decreased β-hydroxybutyrate levels during fasting. Our findings show SIRT3 regulates ketone body production during fasting and provide molecular insight into how protein acetylation can regulate enzymatic activity.
PMCID: PMC3310379  PMID: 21109197
8.  Identification of Autophagosome-associated Proteins and Regulators by Quantitative Proteomic Analysis and Genetic Screens* 
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP  2012;11(3):M111.014035.
Autophagy is one of the major intracellular catabolic pathways, but little is known about the composition of autophagosomes. To study the associated proteins, we isolated autophagosomes from human breast cancer cells using two different biochemical methods and three stimulus types: amino acid deprivation or rapamycin or concanamycin A treatment. The autophagosome-associated proteins were dependent on stimulus, but a core set of proteins was stimulus-independent. Remarkably, proteasomal proteins were abundant among the stimulus-independent common autophagosome-associated proteins, and the activation of autophagy significantly decreased the cellular proteasome level and activity supporting interplay between the two degradation pathways. A screen of yeast strains defective in the orthologs of the human genes encoding for a common set of autophagosome-associated proteins revealed several regulators of autophagy, including subunits of the retromer complex. The combined spatiotemporal proteomic and genetic data sets presented here provide a basis for further characterization of autophagosome biogenesis and cargo selection.
PMCID: PMC3316729  PMID: 22311637
9.  Mammalian Sir2 Homolog SIRT3 Regulates Global Mitochondrial Lysine Acetylation▿ †  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2007;27(24):8807-8814.
Homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein, sirtuins, promote longevity in many organisms. Studies of the sirtuin SIRT3 have so far been limited to cell culture systems. Here, we investigate the localization and function of SIRT3 in vivo. We show that endogenous mouse SIRT3 is a soluble mitochondrial protein. To address the function and relevance of SIRT3 in the regulation of energy metabolism, we generated and phenotypically characterized SIRT3 knockout mice. SIRT3-deficient animals exhibit striking mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation, suggesting that SIRT3 is a major mitochondrial deacetylase. In contrast, no mitochondrial hyperacetylation was detectable in mice lacking the two other mitochondrial sirtuins, SIRT4 and SIRT5. Surprisingly, despite this biochemical phenotype, SIRT3-deficient mice are metabolically unremarkable under basal conditions and show normal adaptive thermogenesis, a process previously suggested to involve SIRT3. Overall, our results extend the recent finding of lysine acetylation of mitochondrial proteins and demonstrate that SIRT3 has evolved to control reversible lysine acetylation in this organelle.
PMCID: PMC2169418  PMID: 17923681

Results 1-9 (9)