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1.  Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni Outbreak in a Middle School in Incheon, Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(11):1595-1600.
On July 6, 2009, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among middle school students in Incheon. An investigation to identify the source and describe the extent of the outbreak was conducted. A retrospective cohort study among students, teachers, and food handlers exposed to canteen food in the middle school was performed. Using self-administered questionnaires, information was collected concerning on symptoms, days that canteen food was consumed, and food items consumed. Stool samples were collected from 66 patients and 11 food handlers. The catering kitchen was inspected and food samples were taken. Of the 791 people who ate canteen food, 92 cases became ill, representing an attack rate of 11.6%. Thirty-one (40.3%) of the 77 stool specimens were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Interviews with kitchen staff indicated the likelihood that undercooked chicken was provided. This is the first recognized major C. jejuni outbreak associated with contaminated chicken documented in Korea.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.11.1595
PMCID: PMC2966996  PMID: 21060748
Campylobacter; Epidemiology; Disease Outbreaks
2.  Epidemiology of Foodborne Norovirus Outbreak in Incheon, Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(8):1128-1133.
On June 14, 2008, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among elementary school students in Incheon. We conducted an investigation to identify the source and described the extent of the outbreak. We performed a retrospective cohort study among students, teachers and food handlers exposed to canteen food in the elementary school. Using self-administered questionnaires we collected information on symptoms, days of canteen food eaten, food items consumed. Stool samples were collected from 131 symptomatic people and 11 food handlers. The catering kitchen was inspected and food samples were taken. Of the 1,560 people who ate canteen food, 117 were symptomatic cases, and the attack rate was 7.5%. Consumption of cucumber-crown daisy salad (RR=2.71), fresh cabbage mix (RR=2.23), dried radish salad (RR=3.04) and young radish kimchi (RR=2.52) were associated with illness. Sixty-four (45%) of the 142 stool specimens were positive for Norovirus. Norovirus was detected in 2 food handlers. Interviews with kitchen staff indicated the likelihood of contamination from an infected food handler to the dried radish salad during food processing. The excretion of Norovirus from asymptomatic food handlers may be an infection source of Norovirus outbreaks.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.8.1128
PMCID: PMC2908779  PMID: 20676321
Disease Outbreaks; Norovirus
3.  A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Covered Metal Stent and Plastic Stent in Unresectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(1):78-83.
Background/Aims
The placement of self expandable metal stent (SEMS) is one of the palliative therapeutic options for patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a covered SEMS versus the conventional plastic stent.
Methods
We retrospectively evaluated 44 patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction who were treated with a covered SEMS (21 patients) or a plastic stent (10 Fr, 23 patients). We analyzed the technical success rate, functional success rate, early complications, late complications, stent patency and survival rate.
Results
There was one case in the covered SEMS group that had failed technically, but was corrected successfully using lasso. Functional success rates were 90.5% in the covered SEMS group and 91.3% in the plastic stent group. There was no difference in early complications between the two groups. Median patency of the stent was significantly prolonged in patients who had a covered SEMS (233.6 days) compared with those who had a plastic stent (94.6 days) (p=0.006). During the follow-up period, stent occlusion occurred in 11 patients of the covered SEMS group. Mean survival showed no significant difference between the two groups (covered SEMS group, 236.9 days; plastic stent group, 222.3 days; p=0.182).
Conclusions
The patency of the covered SEMS was longer than that of the plastic stent and the lasso of the covered SEMS was available for repositioning of the stent.
doi:10.5946/ce.2012.45.1.78
PMCID: PMC3363115  PMID: 22741136
Malignant biliary obstruction; Self-expandable metal stent; Plastic stent
4.  Norovirus Infections in Asymptomatic Food Handlers in Elementary Schools without Norovirus Outbreaks in Some Regions of Incheon, Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(6):734-739.
Norovirus (NV) has caused large outbreaks of gastroenteritis in schools. Studies of NV epidemiology in schools related to NV outbreaks have been frequently reported. However, reports of that in schools without outbreaks are not found. Presently, NV molecular epidemiology surveillance was carried out in asymptomatic food handlers working at nonoutbreak elementary schools in Incheon, Korea, in March, April and December, 2009. NV prevalence was examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and the positive products were re-evaluated by conventional RT-PCR for sequencing. Fecal samples (n = 776) were collected from 776 food handlers in 60 schools. NV was detected in 26 of them (3.4%). Of these, 17 (65%) were positive for NV GII and 10 (38%) were positive for NV GI. Of the 26 samples, 19 were positive by conventional RT-PCR. Sequencing of these 19 strains revealed GII/4 (n = 5), GI/6 (n = 3), GI/14 (n = 2), GII/8 (n = 2), GI/2 (n = 2), GI/10 (n = 1), GII/1 (n = 1), GII/3 (n = 1), GII/7 (n = 1), and GII/16 (n = 1). In this survey, the food handler population unrelated to NV outbreaks was found to normally contain asymptomatic carriers of NV. The excretion of NV from asymptomatic food handlers should be an infection source of NV outbreaks.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.6.734
PMCID: PMC3102865  PMID: 21655057
Epidemiology; Norovirus; School

Results 1-4 (4)