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1.  Gallbladder lymphangioma: A case report and review of the literature 
Lymphangiomas are rare, benign tumors of the lymphatic system, usually present in children aged 5 years and younger. Because they are asymptomatic until the mass enlarges to cause symptoms, most lymphangiomas are diagnosed at adulthood incidentally. We experienced a case of a 60-year-old man diagnosed with a cystic lymphangioma of the gallbladder, which was successfully resected without any complication. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography were very helpful for the diagnosis of the cystic lesion around the gallbladder as were ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. These showed a multi-lobulated cystic mass with intact cystic duct and bile duct in the gallbladder fossa. The patient underwent an open cholecystectomy and the histological findings were consistent with a cystic lymphangioma of the gallbladder. We here report the case of cystic lymphangioma of the gallbladder with a review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC4065967  PMID: 17226918
Lymphangioma; Gallbladder; Cholecystectomy
2.  Real time shear wave elastography in chronic liver diseases: Accuracy for predicting liver fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(38):13920-13929.
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) and liver fibrosis stage and the accuracy of LSM for predicting significant and advanced fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers.
METHODS: We consecutively analyzed 70 patients with various chronic liver diseases. Liver fibrosis was staged from F0 to F4 according to the Batts and Ludwig scoring system. Significant and advanced fibrosis was defined as stage F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3, respectively. The accuracy of prediction for fibrosis was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves.
RESULTS: Seventy patients, 15 were belonged to F0-F1 stage, 20 F2, 13 F3 and 22 F4. LSM was increased with progression of fibrosis stage (F0-F1: 6.77 ± 1.72, F2: 9.98 ± 3.99, F3: 15.80 ± 7.73, and F4: 22.09 ± 10.09, P < 0.001). Diagnostic accuracies of LSM for prediction of F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 were 0.915 (95%CI: 0.824-0.968, P < 0.001) and 0.913 (95%CI: 0.821-0.967, P < 0.001), respectively. The cut-off values of LSM for prediction of F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 were 8.6 kPa with 78.2% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity and 10.46 kPa with 88.6% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between LSM and serum hyaluronic acid and type IV collagen in diagnostic accuracy.
CONCLUSION: SWE showed a significant correlation with the severity of liver fibrosis and was useful and accurate to predict significant and advanced fibrosis, comparable with serum markers.
PMCID: PMC4194574  PMID: 25320528
Elastography; Liver fibrosis; Liver stiffness; Liver biopsy; Serum markers
3.  Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Spontaneous Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Gut and Liver  2009;3(1):64-66.
Acute pancreatitis may complicate viral hepatitis B, as well as the other causes of viral hepatitis. There have been reports of acute pancreatitis complicating acute exacerbations of chronic hepatitis B virus infection, most of which were related to immunosuppressive treatment or organ transplantation. However, acute pancreatitis complicating spontaneous acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection is rare. We report a case of acute pancreatitis that developed while a spontaneous acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection was underway in a healthy carrier.
PMCID: PMC2871560  PMID: 20479905
Pancreatitis; Hepatitis B, Chronic
4.  Prevalence of clonorchiasis in patients with gastrointestinal disease: A Korean nationwide multicenter survey 
AIM: To investigate prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and the relation of the infection to hepatobiliary diseases in 26 hospitals in Korea.
METHODS: Consecutive patients who had been admitted to the Division of Gastroenterology with gastrointestinal symptoms were enrolled from March to April 2005. Of those who had been diagnosed with clonorchiasis, epidemiology and correlation between infection and hepatobiliary diseases were surveyed by questionnaire.
RESULTS: Of 3080 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, 396 (12.9%) had clonorchiasis and 1140 patients (37.2%) had a history of eating raw freshwater fish. Of those with a history of raw freshwater fish ingestion, 238 (20.9%) patients had clonorchiasis. Cholangiocarcinoma was more prevalent in C. sinensis-infected patients than non-infected patients [34/396 (8.6%) vs 145/2684 (5.4%), P = 0.015]. Cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis showed statistically significant positive cross-relation (P = 0.008). Choledocholithiasis, cholecystolithiasis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and biliary pancreatitis did not correlate with clonorchiasis.
CONCLUSION: Infection rate of clonorchiasis was still high in patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Korea, and has not decreased very much during the last two decades. Cholangiocarcinoma was related to clonorchiasis, which suggested an etiological role for the parasite.
PMCID: PMC2653299  PMID: 19115472
Clonorchis sinensis; Epidemiology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Korea; Multicenter study; Clonorchiasis
5.  Toothpick impaction with sigmoid colon pseudodiverticulum formation successfully treated with colonoscopy 
Foreign bodies in the colon are encountered with increasing frequency, but only sporadic reports concerning their management have appeared in the literature. While most ingested foreign bodies usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully, sharp foreign bodies such as toothpicks infrequently cause intestinal perforation and may even result in death. We report our experience with a patient with a sigmoid colon pseudodiverticulum formation, a complication of accidental ingestion of a toothpick that was diagnosed and successfully managed colonoscopically.
PMCID: PMC2687067  PMID: 18240357
Toothpick; Colon; Colonoscopy; Pseudo-diverticulum
6.  Changes in the seroprevalence of IgG anti-hepatitis A virus between 2001 and 2013: experience at a single center in Korea 
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology  2014;20(2):162-167.
The incidence of symptomatic hepatitis A reportedly increased among 20- to 40-year-old Korean during the late 2000s. Vaccination against hepatitis A was commenced in the late 1990s and was extended to children aged <10 years. In the present study we analyzed the changes in the seroprevalence of IgG anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) over the past 13 years.
Overall, 4903 subjects who visited our hospital between January 2001 and December 2013 were studied. The seroprevalence of IgG anti-HAV was analyzed according to age and sex. In addition, the seroprevalence of IgG anti-HAV was compared among 12 age groups and among the following time periods: early 2000s (2001-2003), mid-to-late 2000s (2006-2008), and early 2010s (2011-2013). The chi-square test for trend was used for statistical analysis.
The seroprevalence of IgG anti-HAV did not differ significantly between the sexes. Furthermore, compared to the seroprevalence of IgG anti-HAV in the early 2000s and mid-to-late 2000s, that in the early 2010s was markedly increased among individuals aged 1-14 years and decreased among those aged 25-44 years (P<0.01). We also found that the seroprevalence of IgG anti-HAV in individuals aged 25-44 years in the early 2010s was lower than that in the early 2000s and mid-to-late 2000s.
The number of symptomatic HAV infection cases in Korea is decreasing, but the seroprevalence of IgG anti-HAV is low in the active population.
PMCID: PMC4099331  PMID: 25032182
Hepatitis A virus; IgG Anti-HAV; Seroprevalence
7.  A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Covered Metal Stent and Plastic Stent in Unresectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction 
Clinical Endoscopy  2012;45(1):78-83.
The placement of self expandable metal stent (SEMS) is one of the palliative therapeutic options for patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a covered SEMS versus the conventional plastic stent.
We retrospectively evaluated 44 patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction who were treated with a covered SEMS (21 patients) or a plastic stent (10 Fr, 23 patients). We analyzed the technical success rate, functional success rate, early complications, late complications, stent patency and survival rate.
There was one case in the covered SEMS group that had failed technically, but was corrected successfully using lasso. Functional success rates were 90.5% in the covered SEMS group and 91.3% in the plastic stent group. There was no difference in early complications between the two groups. Median patency of the stent was significantly prolonged in patients who had a covered SEMS (233.6 days) compared with those who had a plastic stent (94.6 days) (p=0.006). During the follow-up period, stent occlusion occurred in 11 patients of the covered SEMS group. Mean survival showed no significant difference between the two groups (covered SEMS group, 236.9 days; plastic stent group, 222.3 days; p=0.182).
The patency of the covered SEMS was longer than that of the plastic stent and the lasso of the covered SEMS was available for repositioning of the stent.
PMCID: PMC3363115  PMID: 22741136
Malignant biliary obstruction; Self-expandable metal stent; Plastic stent
8.  Management of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related perforations 
The purpose of this study is to analyze the treatment strategies of patients with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related perforations. This is a retrospective study.
We experienced 13 perforations associated with ERCP. We reviewed the medical recordsand classified ERCP-related perforations according to mechanism of injury in terms of perforating device. Injury by endoscopic tip or insertion tube was classified as type I, injury by cannulation catheter or sphincterotomy knife as type II, and injury by guidewire as type III.
Of four type I injuries, one case was managed by conservative management after primary closure with a hemoclip during ERCP. The other three patients underwent surgical treatments such as primary closure orpancreatico-duodenectomy. Of five type II injuries, two patients underwent conservative management and the other three cases were managed by surgical treatment such as duodenojejunostomy, duodenal diverticulization and pancreatico-duodenectomy. Of four type III injuries, three patients were managed conservatively and the remaining patient was managed by T-tube choledochostomy.
Type I injuries require immediate surgical management after EPCP or immediate endoscopic closure during ERCP whenever possible. Type II injuries require surgical or conservative treatment according to intra- and retro-peritoneal dirty fluid collection findings following radiologic evaluation. Type III injuries almost always improve after conservative treatment with endoscopic nasobilliary drainage.
PMCID: PMC3204541  PMID: 22066121
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Perforation; Surgery
9.  Simple Tests to Predict Hepatic Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Chronic Liver Diseases 
Gut and Liver  2007;1(2):145-150.
Several simple tests for hepatic fibrosis employ indirect markers. However, the efficacy of using direct and indirect serum markers to predict significant fibrosis in clinical practice is inconclusive. We analyzed the efficacy of a previously reported indirect marker of hepatic fibrosis - the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) - in patients with nonalcoholic chronic liver diseases (CLDs).
A total of 134 patients who underwent a percutaneous liver biopsy with a final diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B (n=93), chronic hepatitis C (n=18), or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (n=23) were enrolled. A single-blinded pathologist staged fibrosis from F0 to F4 according to the METAVIR system, with significant hepatic fibrosis defined as a METAVIR fibrosis score of ≥2.
The mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis in nonalcoholic CLDs was 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-0.91]. APRI yielded the highest mean AUROC in the patients with chronic hepatitis B (0.85; 95% CI, 0.771-0.926). The positive predictive value of APRI ≥1.5 for predicting significant fibrosis was 89%. The negative predictive value of APRI <0.5 for excluding significant fibrosis was 80%.
APRI might be a simple and noninvasive index for predicting significant fibrosis in nonalcoholic CLDs.
PMCID: PMC2871633  PMID: 20485631
Aspartate aminotransferase; Fibrosis; Hepatitis B
10.  Eosinophilic Enteritis Presenting as Intussusception in Adult 
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is defined as a disorder that selectively affects the gastrointestinal tract with eosinophil-rich inflammation in the absence of any known causes for eosinophilia. The clinical manifestations vary according to the site of the eosinophilic infiltrated layer of the bowel wall. Eosinophilic enteritis presenting as intussusception in adult has not been previously reported in the literature. Especially, making the diagnosis of intussusception in adults is often difficult due to the variable clinical findings. In our case, the correct diagnosis of intussusception due to eosinophilic enteritis was arrived at rather easily based on the ultrasonography and endoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with oral prednisolone at 30 mg/day for 7 days, and then the drug was tapered off for 2 months; we didn't perform surgery. He has been asymptomatic for about 1 year after discharge without disease recurrence.
PMCID: PMC2687602  PMID: 17427639
Eosinophils; Enteritis; Intussusception; Steroids

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